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Measuring COVID-19’s impact on vocational education and training

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Measuring COVID-19’s impact on vocational education and training

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Widespread school closures made headlines across the world during the pandemic, with over 1 billion of students experiencing disruptions to their schooling. The vocational education and training (VET) sector has faced particular challenges during the crisis, most notably the fact that the digital learning environments that most education institutions had to rely on during closures don’t work as well for practice-oriented learning – a core component of VET instruction – as they do for academic learning.

The OECD has collected comparative statistics and policy information across a number of education systems to track developments throughout the pandemic, including the impact on the vocational education and training sector. Andreas Schleicher the results of this analysis and where the VET sector finds itself in these difficult times.

Transcript

  1. 1. Vocational education in times of crisis Andreas Schleicher
  2. 2. With the labour market undergoing rapid, fundamental change – decision-making is more important, but also more difficult. 2
  3. 3. Mixed earnings outcomes in normal times Relative earnings of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to earnings of adults with below upper secondary education, (2018) 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 Czech Republic Brazil United States Chile Colombia Costa Rica Israel Austria Germany Hungary Slovak Republic Turkey Portugal Korea Italy Switzerland Canada Mexico Greece OECD average Slovenia Luxembourg EU average Sweden Spain Poland Netherlands Norway United Kingdom Lithuania Belgium New Zealand Denmark Latvia Australia Estonia France Ireland Finland Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary - general Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary - vocational
  4. 4. But good employment outcomes Employment rates of 25-34 year-olds, by educational attainment and programme orientation (2019) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Luxembourg Iceland Sweden Norway Switzerland Austria Canada Germany Netherlands Portugal Slovenia Russian Federation Denmark United Kingdom Hungary New Zealand Belgium Czech Republic Australia EU average OECD average Lithuania Slovak Republic Israel Estonia Latvia Poland Finland Chile France Mexico Spain Costa Rica Italy Turkey Greece Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (vocational orientation) Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (general orientation) Tertiary %
  5. 5. Work experience while studying increases employment prospects Employment rate of 25-34 year-olds who attained vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, by type of work experience while studying (2016) 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Switzerland Austria Norway Latvia Slovenia Hungary Belgium Czech Republic Germany Slovak Republic Netherlands Sweden Poland Estonia Average Denmark United Kingdom Portugal Spain Lithuania Ireland France Italy Greece Finland Turkey Iceland % No work experience Apprenticeship Mandatory traineeship Work outside the curriculum
  6. 6. However, only one in three VET students participate in combined school- and work-based programmes on average Distribution of upper secondary vocational students by type of vocational programme (2018) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Costa Rica Czech Republic Greece Italy Japan Korea Lithuania Mexico Brazil Spain Sweden Belgium Israel Estonia Chile Slovak Republic Finland Portugal Poland Luxembourg France Australia Slovenia OECD average EU average Austria United Kingdom Iceland Norway Turkey Germany Switzerland Netherlands Denmark Hungary Ireland Latvia School-based programmes Combined school- and work-based programmes %
  7. 7. In many countries, employers are providing fewer work-based opportunities Figure 9 • Australia: apprenticeship and traineeship commencements 18.8% lower in the twelve months ending 30 September 2020 than in the year before • Germany: number of apprenticeship contracts concluded dropped by 9.4% in 2020 compared to the previous year • Slovenia: 22% of last year students in upper-secondary VET programmes had no access to work-based learning in the first half of the school year 2020/21. • Some exceptions, e.g. Switzerland (stable) and France (increase) Source: NCVER (2021)  Countries changed the requirements for and organisation of work-based learning  School-based alternatives were organised or expanded  Financial incentives for employers to provide work-based learning were put in place
  8. 8. Closures
  9. 9. One third of countries had shorter closures in upper secondary VET than in general education Figure 1 Number of instruction days (excluding school holidays, public holidays and weekends) where upper-secondary education institutions were fully closed in 2020, VET vs. general programmes Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  10. 10. Full or partial closures of upper secondary VET institutions remained the norm in early 2021 Figure 5 Status of education institution closure as of 1 February 2021, VET vs general education (% of countries) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  11. 11. Remote learning
  12. 12. VET made ample use of distance learning solutions Figure 2 Distance-learning solutions offered in participating countries during 2020 and/or 2021, VET (% of countries) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  13. 13. • Many online and distance learning and other innovative approaches such as AR, VR and AI were created, adapted and expanded. New learning experiences Image sources: Electude Classroom and Labster Labs’ virtual labs; Oxford University’s LIFE project, a smartphone- based virtual learning platform
  14. 14. Learning analytics • Learning analytics helps educators personalise learning • in real time • as a reflective tool • Data come from sensors, learning management systems and digital activities of learners • When should you shift to a new activity? • Are you losing the attention of learners? • How do you struture instruction time (lecture, small group, discussion, assessment, practice, etc.)? • Which students do you talk to and support the most?
  15. 15. Distance learning is perceived as being less suitable for VET in few countries Figure 3 Perceived validity of distance learning in upper secondary education (VET vs general), % of countries Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  16. 16. Learning loss in hybrid teaching & learning mode (2020) 16 Source: http://www.nber.org/papers/w27431
  17. 17. Older VET teachers feel less confident using digital technologies in their teaching Figure 10 Proportion of upper-secondary VET teachers who are (very) confident using digital technologies, by age (average from respondents in OECD countries) Source: SELFIE database (extraction October 2018-December 2020); Hippe, R., Pokropek, A. and P. Costa (2021[2]), Cross-country validation of the SELFIE tool for digital capacity building of Vocational Education and Training schools, in preparation.
  18. 18. VET teachers received additional support for professional learning to use ICT tools and remote/hybrid teaching more effectively Figure 11 Different types of skills development support provided at the national level, VET (% of countries) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  19. 19. Mitigating health risks
  20. 20. Strategies for a safe return to upper secondary VET institutions Figure 6 Strategies for the re-opening of upper-secondary education institutions after the first period of closures in 2020, VET vs general education (% of countries) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  21. 21. Only relatively few countries introduced remedial activities for upper secondary VET students Table 1 Countries introducing remedial measures with a special focus on students in programmes with a vocational orientation Yes No Number of countries List of countries Number of countries List of countries 15 Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Israel, Japan1, Korea, Lithuania, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Spain 13 Canada, Chile, Colombia, England (United Kingdom), Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, Russian Federation, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Turkey Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  22. 22. Steps taken to assess learning losses as a result of COVID related school closures Table 2 Number of countries List of countries Students were assessed in a standardised way (at the sub-national or national level) 9 Austria, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Ireland, Latvia, Mexico, Netherlands and Poland Students were not yet assessed but there is a plan to assess them in a standardised way 3 Belgium (Flemish), Colombia and Turkey Students were assessed at the classroom level (formative assessment by teachers) 20 Austria, Belgium (Flemish), Belgium (French), Chile, Costa Rica, Czech republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Ireland, Japan1, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands , Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland There is no plan to assess students in a standardised way 11 Chile, England (UK), Finland, Hungary, Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, New Zeeland, Slovak Republic, Spain, and Sweden Upper secondary vocational education Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  23. 23. Examinations and assessments
  24. 24. National examinations in VET were adjusted Figure 7 Changes to 2019-20 national examinations in upper-secondary education due to the pandemic (% of countries, VET versus general education) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  25. 25. A few countries had higher VET graduation rates than in previous years Figure 8 Graduation ratios for students in the last year of upper-secondary VET (2019 and 2020) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
  26. 26. It is the work-based component that increases alignment between education and work, but that the pandemic has put at stake
  27. 27. Incentives to encourage work-based learning Figure 9 Financial incentives for employers to provide work-based learning (% of countries) Source: OECD “Youth and COVID” policy questionnaire (May 2021)
  28. 28. It’s easier to recover learning losses than emotional needs​
  29. 29. Provide more flexible and resilient education Increase use of technology in education Focus more on future-proof sectors and occupations Enhance broader range of cognitive, social and emotional skills Looking forward
  30. 30. • Vocational education and training, including apprenticeships • Allow training breaks, extensions and modularisation. • Provide part-time, weekend or online courses and in-company training. • Support employers that offer apprenticeships • Fast-track licensing and recognition of prior learning • Direct access to qualification exams • Modular training to top-up partially missing skills • Rapid retraining • Essential jobs • Targeting workers who already had some relevant skills helped to keep training times short. • Short medical training to laid-off workers in the airline industry • Retrain hospitality workers to care for the elderly • Training while on reduced working hours • Training while on short term work scheme to improve the viability of their current job or improve the prospect of finding a new job Strenthening resilience
  31. 31. Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/education – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher

Editor's Notes

  • And indeed, technology offers amazing solutions
  • As important as it was to reopen VET programmes rapidly, it was clear that this would need to be done safely.
  • Obviously, also exams become more difficult
  • Chart
  • Thank you
  • Description

    Widespread school closures made headlines across the world during the pandemic, with over 1 billion of students experiencing disruptions to their schooling. The vocational education and training (VET) sector has faced particular challenges during the crisis, most notably the fact that the digital learning environments that most education institutions had to rely on during closures don’t work as well for practice-oriented learning – a core component of VET instruction – as they do for academic learning.

    The OECD has collected comparative statistics and policy information across a number of education systems to track developments throughout the pandemic, including the impact on the vocational education and training sector. Andreas Schleicher the results of this analysis and where the VET sector finds itself in these difficult times.

    Transcript

    1. 1. Vocational education in times of crisis Andreas Schleicher
    2. 2. With the labour market undergoing rapid, fundamental change – decision-making is more important, but also more difficult. 2
    3. 3. Mixed earnings outcomes in normal times Relative earnings of adults with an upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education compared to earnings of adults with below upper secondary education, (2018) 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 Czech Republic Brazil United States Chile Colombia Costa Rica Israel Austria Germany Hungary Slovak Republic Turkey Portugal Korea Italy Switzerland Canada Mexico Greece OECD average Slovenia Luxembourg EU average Sweden Spain Poland Netherlands Norway United Kingdom Lithuania Belgium New Zealand Denmark Latvia Australia Estonia France Ireland Finland Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary - general Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary - vocational
    4. 4. But good employment outcomes Employment rates of 25-34 year-olds, by educational attainment and programme orientation (2019) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Luxembourg Iceland Sweden Norway Switzerland Austria Canada Germany Netherlands Portugal Slovenia Russian Federation Denmark United Kingdom Hungary New Zealand Belgium Czech Republic Australia EU average OECD average Lithuania Slovak Republic Israel Estonia Latvia Poland Finland Chile France Mexico Spain Costa Rica Italy Turkey Greece Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (vocational orientation) Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (general orientation) Tertiary %
    5. 5. Work experience while studying increases employment prospects Employment rate of 25-34 year-olds who attained vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education, by type of work experience while studying (2016) 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Switzerland Austria Norway Latvia Slovenia Hungary Belgium Czech Republic Germany Slovak Republic Netherlands Sweden Poland Estonia Average Denmark United Kingdom Portugal Spain Lithuania Ireland France Italy Greece Finland Turkey Iceland % No work experience Apprenticeship Mandatory traineeship Work outside the curriculum
    6. 6. However, only one in three VET students participate in combined school- and work-based programmes on average Distribution of upper secondary vocational students by type of vocational programme (2018) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Costa Rica Czech Republic Greece Italy Japan Korea Lithuania Mexico Brazil Spain Sweden Belgium Israel Estonia Chile Slovak Republic Finland Portugal Poland Luxembourg France Australia Slovenia OECD average EU average Austria United Kingdom Iceland Norway Turkey Germany Switzerland Netherlands Denmark Hungary Ireland Latvia School-based programmes Combined school- and work-based programmes %
    7. 7. In many countries, employers are providing fewer work-based opportunities Figure 9 • Australia: apprenticeship and traineeship commencements 18.8% lower in the twelve months ending 30 September 2020 than in the year before • Germany: number of apprenticeship contracts concluded dropped by 9.4% in 2020 compared to the previous year • Slovenia: 22% of last year students in upper-secondary VET programmes had no access to work-based learning in the first half of the school year 2020/21. • Some exceptions, e.g. Switzerland (stable) and France (increase) Source: NCVER (2021)  Countries changed the requirements for and organisation of work-based learning  School-based alternatives were organised or expanded  Financial incentives for employers to provide work-based learning were put in place
    8. 8. Closures
    9. 9. One third of countries had shorter closures in upper secondary VET than in general education Figure 1 Number of instruction days (excluding school holidays, public holidays and weekends) where upper-secondary education institutions were fully closed in 2020, VET vs. general programmes Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    10. 10. Full or partial closures of upper secondary VET institutions remained the norm in early 2021 Figure 5 Status of education institution closure as of 1 February 2021, VET vs general education (% of countries) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    11. 11. Remote learning
    12. 12. VET made ample use of distance learning solutions Figure 2 Distance-learning solutions offered in participating countries during 2020 and/or 2021, VET (% of countries) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    13. 13. • Many online and distance learning and other innovative approaches such as AR, VR and AI were created, adapted and expanded. New learning experiences Image sources: Electude Classroom and Labster Labs’ virtual labs; Oxford University’s LIFE project, a smartphone- based virtual learning platform
    14. 14. Learning analytics • Learning analytics helps educators personalise learning • in real time • as a reflective tool • Data come from sensors, learning management systems and digital activities of learners • When should you shift to a new activity? • Are you losing the attention of learners? • How do you struture instruction time (lecture, small group, discussion, assessment, practice, etc.)? • Which students do you talk to and support the most?
    15. 15. Distance learning is perceived as being less suitable for VET in few countries Figure 3 Perceived validity of distance learning in upper secondary education (VET vs general), % of countries Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    16. 16. Learning loss in hybrid teaching & learning mode (2020) 16 Source: http://www.nber.org/papers/w27431
    17. 17. Older VET teachers feel less confident using digital technologies in their teaching Figure 10 Proportion of upper-secondary VET teachers who are (very) confident using digital technologies, by age (average from respondents in OECD countries) Source: SELFIE database (extraction October 2018-December 2020); Hippe, R., Pokropek, A. and P. Costa (2021[2]), Cross-country validation of the SELFIE tool for digital capacity building of Vocational Education and Training schools, in preparation.
    18. 18. VET teachers received additional support for professional learning to use ICT tools and remote/hybrid teaching more effectively Figure 11 Different types of skills development support provided at the national level, VET (% of countries) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    19. 19. Mitigating health risks
    20. 20. Strategies for a safe return to upper secondary VET institutions Figure 6 Strategies for the re-opening of upper-secondary education institutions after the first period of closures in 2020, VET vs general education (% of countries) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    21. 21. Only relatively few countries introduced remedial activities for upper secondary VET students Table 1 Countries introducing remedial measures with a special focus on students in programmes with a vocational orientation Yes No Number of countries List of countries Number of countries List of countries 15 Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Israel, Japan1, Korea, Lithuania, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Poland, Portugal, Spain 13 Canada, Chile, Colombia, England (United Kingdom), Germany, Ireland, Latvia, Luxembourg, Norway, Russian Federation, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Turkey Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    22. 22. Steps taken to assess learning losses as a result of COVID related school closures Table 2 Number of countries List of countries Students were assessed in a standardised way (at the sub-national or national level) 9 Austria, Czech Republic, France, Italy, Ireland, Latvia, Mexico, Netherlands and Poland Students were not yet assessed but there is a plan to assess them in a standardised way 3 Belgium (Flemish), Colombia and Turkey Students were assessed at the classroom level (formative assessment by teachers) 20 Austria, Belgium (Flemish), Belgium (French), Chile, Costa Rica, Czech republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Ireland, Japan1, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands , Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland There is no plan to assess students in a standardised way 11 Chile, England (UK), Finland, Hungary, Korea, Lithuania, Luxembourg, New Zeeland, Slovak Republic, Spain, and Sweden Upper secondary vocational education Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    23. 23. Examinations and assessments
    24. 24. National examinations in VET were adjusted Figure 7 Changes to 2019-20 national examinations in upper-secondary education due to the pandemic (% of countries, VET versus general education) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    25. 25. A few countries had higher VET graduation rates than in previous years Figure 8 Graduation ratios for students in the last year of upper-secondary VET (2019 and 2020) Source: OECD/UIS/UNESCO/UNICEF/WB Special Survey on COVID. March 2021.
    26. 26. It is the work-based component that increases alignment between education and work, but that the pandemic has put at stake
    27. 27. Incentives to encourage work-based learning Figure 9 Financial incentives for employers to provide work-based learning (% of countries) Source: OECD “Youth and COVID” policy questionnaire (May 2021)
    28. 28. It’s easier to recover learning losses than emotional needs​
    29. 29. Provide more flexible and resilient education Increase use of technology in education Focus more on future-proof sectors and occupations Enhance broader range of cognitive, social and emotional skills Looking forward
    30. 30. • Vocational education and training, including apprenticeships • Allow training breaks, extensions and modularisation. • Provide part-time, weekend or online courses and in-company training. • Support employers that offer apprenticeships • Fast-track licensing and recognition of prior learning • Direct access to qualification exams • Modular training to top-up partially missing skills • Rapid retraining • Essential jobs • Targeting workers who already had some relevant skills helped to keep training times short. • Short medical training to laid-off workers in the airline industry • Retrain hospitality workers to care for the elderly • Training while on reduced working hours • Training while on short term work scheme to improve the viability of their current job or improve the prospect of finding a new job Strenthening resilience
    31. 31. Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/education – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher

    Editor's Notes

  • And indeed, technology offers amazing solutions
  • As important as it was to reopen VET programmes rapidly, it was clear that this would need to be done safely.
  • Obviously, also exams become more difficult
  • Chart
  • Thank you
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