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Dirk Van Damme
Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation
Innovation and Measuring Progress Division
Direc...
• Some results from TALIS:
– High need for professional development
What do we know already about teachers’
professionalis...
Teachers’ need for professional development
3
0 10 20 30 40
Knowledge of the curriculum
Knowledge of the subject field(s)
...
• Some results from TALIS:
– High need for professional development
– Teacher education is not enough: becoming
profession...
Percentage of class time spent on effective
teaching and learning
5
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
Australia
Austria
Belgiu…
Brazil
...
Percentage of class time spent on keeping
order in the classroom
6
0
5
10
15
20
25
Australia
Austria
Belgium(Fl.)
Brazil
B...
• Some results from TALIS:
– High need for professional development
– Teacher education is not enough: becoming
profession...
Teachers' self-efficacy and experience
8
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0
12.5
13.0
13.5
5orless
6-10
11-15
16-20
21-25
26-30
31ormore
...
• Some results from TALIS:
– High need for professional development
– Teacher education is not enough: becoming
profession...
Teachers feel not rewarded by innovation
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Belgium(Fl.)
Norway
Ireland
Australia
Denmark
Spain
Korea
...
Knowledge
Autonomy
Peer
networks
How can we define teacher professionalism?
11
Knowledge
Autonomy
Peer
networks
How can we define teacher professionalism?
12
Pre-service education
Formal teacher educat...
Knowledge
Autonomy
Peer
networks
How can we define teacher professionalism?
13
Decision-making over curriculum
Decision-ma...
Knowledge
Autonomy
Peer
networks
How can we define teacher professionalism?
14
Participation in induction
Participation in...
TALIS Teacher professionalism index by country
15
Knowledge
Autonomy
Peer
networks
Let’s focus now on knowledge…
16
The specialised
knowledge of
teachers for creating
effec...
Our focus for today...
17
1) Context, policy challenges,
questions
2) The teaching profession and
its knowledge base
3) Me...
Context,
policy challenges,
questions
18
Teachers as knowledge professionals
Context
19
New & complex expectations
Adapting to technological change
Teaching more h...
Policy Challenges
20
• Attracting motivated and high-
achieving candidates to the
profession
• Retaining quality teachers
...
What is the nature of the pedagogical knowledge base of the
teaching profession?
• Conceptualisation; dimensions and how c...
The teaching profession
and its
knowledge base
22
The Teaching Profession and its Knowledge Base
23
Teaching
practice
Educational &
Learning
sciences
Student learning
Build...
Processes Open questions
Structural
dynamics
Functional
dynamics
Social
dynamics
Knowledge dynamics in the profession
24
25
Processes Open questions
Structural
dynamics
Functional
dynamics
Social
dynamics
Codification: the interplay between
th...
Processes Open questions
Structural
dynamics
Codification
Functional
dynamics
Social
dynamics
26
• How could codification ...
27
Processes Open questions
Structural
dynamics
Functional
dynamics
Social
dynamics
Knowledge-to-action: the interplay
bet...
Processes Open questions
Structural
dynamics
Functional
dynamics
Knowledge-to-action
Social
dynamics
28
• How can the link...
29
Processes Open questions
Structural
dynamics
Functional
dynamics
Social
dynamics
Social processes: the interplay betwee...
Processes Open questions
Structural
dynamics
Functional
dynamics
Social
dynamics
Social processes
30
• How can we enhance ...
Teaching as a profession needs a robust, systematic knowledge
base, constructed and shaped by the community of
professiona...
Measuring teacher knowledge and
professional competence:
Opportunities and challenges
32
Shulman (1986, 1987)
• General pedagogical knowledge
• Content knowledge
• Pedagogical content knowledge
• Curriculum know...
International large scale comparative studies:
• “Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century (MT21)” study (Schmidt, Blömeke...
Higher level of teachers’ content
knowledge
Higher level of teachers’ pedagogical
content knowledge
Higher level of genera...
• beliefs about the nature of teaching
and learning
• job motivation
• orientations and goals
• meta-cognitive facets like...
Teacher motivation
Findings on teacher motivation
37
pedagogical knowledge
decision-making strategies enabling the
use of ...
Professional vision
From knowledge to practice
38
Noticing Reasoning
Describing
Explaining
Predicting
Methodology:
Video r...
General pedagogical knowledge is relevant for high quality
instruction, but teachers’ affective-motivational characteristi...
21st century demands on teachers’
knowledge
40
Cognitive
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal
21st century skills
41
cognitive processes and
strategies; knowledge;
creativity
int...
Learning and developing 21st century skills
42
Deep learning allows students to…
• develop expertise in a discipline and
u...
Insights into student
behavioural tendencies
and learning outcomes
Learning Sciences
43
Brain plasticity
Emotion regulatio...
Findings from the Learning Sciences have the potential to broaden teachers’
knowledge about student learning.
21st century...
A conceptual framework
45
Next steps: can we assess teachers’
pedagogical knowledge: the ITEL
Teacher Knowledge Survey
46
• Understanding and valuing teachers’
pedagogical knowledge provides the basis
for trusting teachers as professionals
– Yo...
Flemish Department of Education and Training for co-
organising and hosting the symposium – Michelin Scheys and
Katrijn Ba...
Thank you !
dirk.vandamme@oecd.org
www.oecd.org/edu/ceri
twitter @VanDammeEDU
49
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Knowing what teachers know about teaching

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Highly qualified and competent teachers are fundamental for equitable and effective education systems. Teachers today are facing higher and more complex expectations to help students reach their full potential and become valuable members of 21st century society. The nature and variety of these demands imply that teachers, more than ever before, must be professionals who make decisions based on a robust and updated knowledge base.

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Knowing what teachers know about teaching

  1. 1. Dirk Van Damme Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation Innovation and Measuring Progress Division Directorate for Education and Skills KNOWING WHAT TEACHERS KNOW ABOUT TEACHING
  2. 2. • Some results from TALIS: – High need for professional development What do we know already about teachers’ professionalism? 2
  3. 3. Teachers’ need for professional development 3 0 10 20 30 40 Knowledge of the curriculum Knowledge of the subject field(s) School management and administration Pedagogical competencies Developing competencies for future work Teaching cross-curricular skills Student evaluation and assessment practice Student career guidance and counselling Approaches to individualised learning Teaching in a multicultural or multilingual setting Student behaviour and classroom management New technologies in the workplace ICT skills for teaching Teaching students with special needs Sweden Average Percentage of lower secondary teachers indicating they have a high level of need for professional development in the following areas
  4. 4. • Some results from TALIS: – High need for professional development – Teacher education is not enough: becoming professional takes time and experiential learning What do we know already about teachers’ professionalism? 4
  5. 5. Percentage of class time spent on effective teaching and learning 5 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Australia Austria Belgiu… Brazil Bulgaria Denm… Estonia Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Korea Lithua… Malay… Malta Mexico Norway Poland Portugal Slova… Slovenia Spain Turkey % Experienced teachers New teachers
  6. 6. Percentage of class time spent on keeping order in the classroom 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 Australia Austria Belgium(Fl.) Brazil Bulgaria Denmark Estonia Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Korea Lithuania Malaysia Malta Mexico Norway Poland Portugal SlovakRepublic Slovenia Spain Turkey % Experienced teachers New teachers
  7. 7. • Some results from TALIS: – High need for professional development – Teacher education is not enough: becoming professional takes time and experiencial learning – Teachers’ self-reported self-efficacy grows with time and experience What do we know already about teachers’ professionalism? 7
  8. 8. Teachers' self-efficacy and experience 8 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5 5orless 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31ormore Teacherself-efficacy(level) Years of experience as a teacher in total Average Singapore
  9. 9. • Some results from TALIS: – High need for professional development – Teacher education is not enough: becoming professional takes time and experiential learning – Teachers’ self-reported self-efficacy grows with time and experience – Becoming professional is mainly through adaptation, not through innovation What do we know already about teachers’ professionalism? 9
  10. 10. Teachers feel not rewarded by innovation 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Belgium(Fl.) Norway Ireland Australia Denmark Spain Korea Austria Malta Iceland Portugal Brazil Estonia TALIS… Lithuania Turkey Slovenia Mexico Hungary Slovak… Italy Poland Bulgaria Malaysia % Teachers who would receive increased monetary or non-monetary rewards if they are more innovative in their teaching %
  11. 11. Knowledge Autonomy Peer networks How can we define teacher professionalism? 11
  12. 12. Knowledge Autonomy Peer networks How can we define teacher professionalism? 12 Pre-service education Formal teacher education Breath of content covered in formal teacher education In-service learning Support provided for CPD Long-term PD Support for practitioner research Participation in practitioner or action-research
  13. 13. Knowledge Autonomy Peer networks How can we define teacher professionalism? 13 Decision-making over curriculum Decision-making over resources Decision-making over content Decision-making over assessment Decision-making over discipline
  14. 14. Knowledge Autonomy Peer networks How can we define teacher professionalism? 14 Participation in induction Participation in mentoring Receiving peer feedback Developing CPD plan Participation in CPD networks
  15. 15. TALIS Teacher professionalism index by country 15
  16. 16. Knowledge Autonomy Peer networks Let’s focus now on knowledge… 16 The specialised knowledge of teachers for creating effective teaching and learning environments for all students.
  17. 17. Our focus for today... 17 1) Context, policy challenges, questions 2) The teaching profession and its knowledge base 3) Measuring teacher knowledge and professional competence: Opportunities and challenges 4) 21st century demands on teacher knowledge and future directions
  18. 18. Context, policy challenges, questions 18
  19. 19. Teachers as knowledge professionals Context 19 New & complex expectations Adapting to technological change Teaching more heterogeneous groups Developing 21st century skills Helping students to become lifelong learners
  20. 20. Policy Challenges 20 • Attracting motivated and high- achieving candidates to the profession • Retaining quality teachers • Improving initial teacher education and professional development
  21. 21. What is the nature of the pedagogical knowledge base of the teaching profession? • Conceptualisation; dimensions and how can these be measured? • Impact on student learning outcomes? • Relation of teachers’ motivations and beliefs to their knowledge? • Relation between pedagogical knowledge and overall professional competence? Questions 21 ? Is the pedagogical knowledge of the teaching profession up-to-date? • Can scientific research inform teachers about teaching- learning? • Meet the expectations for teaching and learning “21st century skills”?
  22. 22. The teaching profession and its knowledge base 22
  23. 23. The Teaching Profession and its Knowledge Base 23 Teaching practice Educational & Learning sciences Student learning Building and grounding practice in a coherent and integrated knowledge base is a fundamental characteristic of professions
  24. 24. Processes Open questions Structural dynamics Functional dynamics Social dynamics Knowledge dynamics in the profession 24
  25. 25. 25 Processes Open questions Structural dynamics Functional dynamics Social dynamics Codification: the interplay between the tacit and explicit dimensions of knowledge
  26. 26. Processes Open questions Structural dynamics Codification Functional dynamics Social dynamics 26 • How could codification improve the professional practice of teachers? • How could codification facilitate extended access to knowledge for teachers? • In what ways can codification processes be facilitated towards building a more integrated knowledge base for teachers?
  27. 27. 27 Processes Open questions Structural dynamics Functional dynamics Social dynamics Knowledge-to-action: the interplay between knowledge production, mediation and use
  28. 28. Processes Open questions Structural dynamics Functional dynamics Knowledge-to-action Social dynamics 28 • How can the linkages between knowledge production, mediation and use be strengthened? • How can we build the capacity of the actors to improve KTA processes? • How can we utilise existing knowledge and evidence on knowledge production, mediation and use to improve these processes?
  29. 29. 29 Processes Open questions Structural dynamics Functional dynamics Social dynamics Social processes: the interplay between different stakeholders – policy-makers, researchers, teachers, students, parents etc. – and between the elements of the social environment
  30. 30. Processes Open questions Structural dynamics Functional dynamics Social dynamics Social processes 30 • How can we enhance and utilise existing mechanisms, structures and resources (such as networks and collaboration) to improve professional learning? • How can stakeholder interactions and collaboration be exploited to facilitate the dynamics of teacher knowledge?
  31. 31. Teaching as a profession needs a robust, systematic knowledge base, constructed and shaped by the community of professionals (including researchers & practitioners). Knowledge dynamics may be viewed as a complex system, in which multiple actors interact to shape teachers’ knowledge. This includes the importance of empowering teacher educators and teachers themselves to take charge of teachers’ knowledge base. Key messages 1 31
  32. 32. Measuring teacher knowledge and professional competence: Opportunities and challenges 32
  33. 33. Shulman (1986, 1987) • General pedagogical knowledge • Content knowledge • Pedagogical content knowledge • Curriculum knowledge • Knowledge of learners and their characteristics; • Knowledge of educational contexts • Knowledge of educational ends, purposes, values and their philosophical and historical grounds. Teacher Knowledge: Conceptualisation 33 principles and strategies of classroom management and organisation that are cross-curricular knowledge of content and pedagogy for teaching the particular subject knowledge of subject matter and its organising structures
  34. 34. International large scale comparative studies: • “Mathematics Teaching in the 21st Century (MT21)” study (Schmidt, Blömeke and Tatto, 2011) • “Teacher Education and Development Study – Learning to Teach Mathematics” (TEDS-M) by IEA National large scale studies: • “Cognitive Activation in the Classroom (COACTIV)” study (Baumert et al., 2010), • national TEDS studies (following TEDS-M) (Blömeke et al., 2013, 2014) • “Modelling and measuring competencies in higher education (KoKoHs)” in Germany (Blömeke and Troitschanskaia, 2013). • “Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT)” studies originated in the US, since applied in many other countries (Delaney et al. 2008; Hill, Ball and Schilling, 2008) Empirical Evidence 34
  35. 35. Higher level of teachers’ content knowledge Higher level of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge Higher level of general pedagogical knowledge Findings 35 Higher student achievement Higher quality of instruction
  36. 36. • beliefs about the nature of teaching and learning • job motivation • orientations and goals • meta-cognitive facets like self- regulation • professional responsibility Teachers’ competence: A multidimensional construct 36 Content & Pedagogical Knowledge Affective- motivational competencies
  37. 37. Teacher motivation Findings on teacher motivation 37 pedagogical knowledge decision-making strategies enabling the use of high-quality instructional practices willingness to engage in professional development motivation, performance and well-being of students teachers’ professional and psychological well-being and job satisfaction.
  38. 38. Professional vision From knowledge to practice 38 Noticing Reasoning Describing Explaining Predicting Methodology: Video recording + Qualitative analysis Video recording + Standardised rating Findings: Formal teacher education (courses) Informal learning (teaching experience) Higher professional vision skills Knowledge & affective- motivational competencies Teaching practice
  39. 39. General pedagogical knowledge is relevant for high quality instruction, but teachers’ affective-motivational characteristics also matter. A comprehensive model of teachers’ competence includes the transformation of knowledge into practice. Prior research provides a good basis for future studies: theoretical frameworks, and reliable and valid instruments can be used. Methodological challenges, such as establishing clear cause and effect relationships, still exist. Key messages 2 39
  40. 40. 21st century demands on teachers’ knowledge 40
  41. 41. Cognitive Intrapersonal Interpersonal 21st century skills 41 cognitive processes and strategies; knowledge; creativity intellectual openness; work ethic and conscientiousness; self-regulation teamwork and collaboration; leadership critical thinking, reasoning and argumentation, innovation flexibility, initiative, appreciation for diversity and metacognition co-operation and communication, conflict resolution and negotiation Domain Clusters Skills
  42. 42. Learning and developing 21st century skills 42 Deep learning allows students to… • develop expertise in a discipline and understand when, how and why to apply it • recognise when problems or situations are related to what has been learned • know how they can apply knowledge and skills to solve them collaboration critical thinking problem solving communication
  43. 43. Insights into student behavioural tendencies and learning outcomes Learning Sciences 43 Brain plasticity Emotion regulationCognitive psychology, Neurosciences Teacher knowledge Working memory
  44. 44. Findings from the Learning Sciences have the potential to broaden teachers’ knowledge about student learning. 21st century skills matter for outcomes in education, work and other areas of life, but more research is needed to understand these relationships. Research have important implications for how to organise teaching and learning to facilitate deeper learning and development of transferable 21st century competencies. Key messages 3 44
  45. 45. A conceptual framework 45
  46. 46. Next steps: can we assess teachers’ pedagogical knowledge: the ITEL Teacher Knowledge Survey 46
  47. 47. • Understanding and valuing teachers’ pedagogical knowledge provides the basis for trusting teachers as professionals – You would never put your health in the hands of a medical doctor of whom you are not convinced that s/he has not the level of medical knowledge you expect – Why would you be less demanding of the teacher you entrust your child to? Finally… 47
  48. 48. Flemish Department of Education and Training for co- organising and hosting the symposium – Michelin Scheys and Katrijn Ballet Editor – Sonia Guerriero Authors – Sonia Guerriero, Karolina Deligiannidi, Nóra Révai, Diana Toledo-Figueroa, Sigrid Blömeke, Kathleen Stürmer, Tina Seidel, Johannes König, Fani Lauermann, Daniel Ansari, Marilyn Leask, Tracey Tokuhama-Espinosa and James W. Pellegrino OECD editor & production team – Matthew Gill, Francesca Gottschalk, Emily Heppner, Rachel Linden, Nóra Révai and the Communications and Productions colleagues Acknowledgements 48
  49. 49. Thank you ! dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceri twitter @VanDammeEDU 49

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