Note: High income countries: are the most developed and the richest counties. They are defined as countries with gross national income (GNI) above $12,000. ( ex.: Germany, France, Chile, Argentina). Middle income countries: are a diverse group by size, population and income level, and are home to 5 of the world’s 7 billion people and 73% of the world’s poor people (ex.: Brazil, China, India, South Africa). Low income countries: are sometimes also referred to as developing countries with GNI per capita below $ 1,000. ( ex.: Afghanistan, Uganda, Haiti).
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1m $ / employee
120 k$ / employee
Scale without mass
More people on the move
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
High income OECD members
Low income Middle income
Source : OECD (2013), Trends Shaping Education.
Primary source: World Bank (2012), World Databank: Net Migration.
Net migration (in millions of people) into regions, with countries grouped by income level and OECD members, 1960-2010.
Sources: World Bank (2015), World Development Indicators: Foreign Direct
Increasingly global and volatile investment patterns
Foreign direct investment in reporting country, in millions of USD, 1970-2012
1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010
Low-income countries Middle-income countries OECD members World
Sources: OECD (2015) In It Together – Why Less Inequality Benefits All.
Lower and lowest incomes increasingly left behind
Trends in real household incomes at the bottom, the middle and the top, OECD average, 1985-2011
1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007 2011
Bottom 10% Bottom 40% middle 50-90% Top 10%
Source: Centre for Systemic Peace (2014), Polity IV.
From autocracy to democracy
Categorization of type of political system, 1960 to 2014, as a % of total
Water and food
Routine cognitive skills Complex ways of thinking, complex ways of
doing, collective capacity
Some students learn at high levels (sorting) All students need to learn at high levels
Curriculum, instruction and assessment
Standardisation and compliance High-level professional knowledge workers
‘Tayloristic’, hierarchical Flat, collegial
Primarily to authorities Primarily to peers and stakeholders
The old bureaucratic system The modern enabling system
The realm of human knowledge The Good
The realm of ethics and judgement
The Just and Well-Ordered
The realm of political and civic life,
binding social capital The Beautiful
The realm of creativity,
esthetics and designThe Sustainable
The realm of natural
and physical health The Prosperous
The realm of economic life
The big world of learning – Global citizenship
How well are students prepared for life, citizenship and employment in diverse societies?
To what degree are students able to examine contemporary issues?
Are students able to understand and appreciate multiple cultural perspectives
(including their own) and manage differences and conflicts?
To what degree are students prepared to interact with others with respect for the
inviolable rights and dignity of every individual?
To what degree do students care about the world and take action to make a difference?
Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report doing the following activities at least once per month
Professional collaboration among teachers
Exchange and co-ordination
Teachers Self-Efficacy and Professional Collaboration
Teach jointly as a
team in the same
teachers’ classes and
Engage in joint
Take part in
Recognising both students and adults as resources
for the co-creation of communities, for the design
of learning and for the success of students
The past was divided
Teachers and content divided by subjects and student destinations
Schools designed to keep students inside, and the rest of the world outside
The future is integrated
Integrated: Emphasising integration of subjects, integration of
students and integration of learning contexts
Connected: with real-world contexts, and permeable to the rich
resources in the community
Less subject-based, more project-based
The great unbundling
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