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Estrategia de competencias de la OCDE Reporte de diagnostico para el Peru

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Tener las competencias adecuadas es una inversión en el futuro de Perú que puede ayudar a:
que la población este bien equipada para transformar su entorno económico y social;
que los empleadores puedan encontrar las competencias necesarias para producir, crecer e innovar;
que la sociedad viva en armonía y solidariamente;
que la economía sea mas resistente a los cambios externos y adaptable a nuevas tecnologías.

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Estrategia de competencias de la OCDE Reporte de diagnostico para el Peru

  1. 1. Estrategia de competencias de la OCDE: Reporte de diagnóstico para el Perú Mejores competencias, mejores trabajos, mejores condiciones de vida Evento de lanzamiento Joanne Caddy & José-Luis Álvarez-Galván 25 Noviembre 2016, Lima, Perú.
  2. 2. CONTENIDO 1. Resumen del proyecto • Definiciones • Método • El camino con Peru 2. Desafíos en materia de competencias para Perú • Desarrollo de competencias • Activación de competencias • Uso de competencias • El sistema de competencias 3. Del diagnóstico a la acción
  3. 3. 35 países miembros de la OCDE This map is without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over any territory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, city or area. 1961 1974 1994 2000 2010 2013 2015 *The Council decided on 12 March 2014 “to postpone activities related to the OECD accession process for the Russian Federation for the time being”. [see C/M(2014)3/REV1].
  4. 4. 4 Tener las competencias adecuadas es una inversión en el futuro de Perú que puede ayudar a: • que la población este bien equipada para transformar su entorno económico y social; • que los empleadores puedan encontrar las competencias necesarias para producir, crecer e innovar; • que la sociedad viva en armonía y solidariamente; • que la economía sea mas resistente a los cambios externos y adaptable a nuevas tecnologías. Definiciones: Las competencias son centrales para un futuro próspero en Perú
  5. 5. La estrategia de competencias de la OCDE: ayuda a los países a maximizar su potencial de competencias 2013 2014 2015 2016
  6. 6. 6 Competencias cognitivas generales Competencias técnicas, profesionales, o específicas de un sector Competencias socio- emocionales Definiciones
  7. 7. 7 Método: ¿Qué es la Estrategia de Competencias de la OCDE?
  8. 8. Método: Desarrollando las competencias relevantes 8 • ¿Cuáles son las competencias relevantes? • ¿Cómo pueden ser desarrolladas las competencias de manera efectiva? • ¿Quién es responsable por ello?
  9. 9. Método: Activando la oferta de competencias 9 ¿Cómo incentivar a los individuos para que: • ofrezcan sus competencias en el mercado laboral? • entren en la economía formal? • permanezcan en el mercado de trabajo?
  10. 10. Método: Utilizar las competencias de manera eficaz 10 • ¿Cómo pueden los trabajadores hacer un uso mejor de sus competencias? • ¿Cómo pueden las empresas hacer un mejor uso de las competencias? • ¿Cómo pueden los países desarrollar economías con mayor nivel de competencias?
  11. 11. Método: Fortaleciendo los sistemas de competencias 11 • ¿Cómo podemos conseguir coherencia en las políticas en todas las carteras y niveles de gobierno? • ¿Cómo podemos conseguir el compromiso de todos los agentes implicados? • ¿Cómo podemos asegurar las políticas se implementan de manera efectiva?
  12. 12. Método: triangulando la evidencia para identificar los desafíos mas importantes Datos y evidencia Talleres Discusión y consultas 9 desafíos de competencias para el Perú
  13. 13. Método: Considerando la evidencia internacional
  14. 14. skills.oecd Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives Método: Reuniendo a los ministerios y agentes implicados
  15. 15. skills.oecd Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives El camino con Perú: una visión integral desde el gobierno Directorate for Education and Skills Development Centre Centre for Tax Policy and Administration Directorate for Science, Technology and Innovation Directorate for Public Governance and Territorial Development OECD GOBIERNO DE PERU
  16. 16. El camino con Perú 65 temas ~20 temas 9 temas Inicio Octubre 2015 Taller de diagnóstico Noviembre 2015 Taller de desafíos Mayo 2016 Informe Final de Diagnóstico Reuniones técnicas y bilaterales
  17. 17. skills.oecd Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives Visión de éxito a futuro: encabezados de la prensa
  18. 18. skills.oecd Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives Visión de éxito a futuro: encabezados de la prensa 19 27th November 2020 27th November 2035 Newspaper headlines in 5 years  The supply of technical workers covers labour market demand.  Peru improves in the WEF Human Capital Index.  Peru improves its competitiveness by 15 points and leads the region.  9 out of 10 young students access tertiary education.  Peru closes gaps in quality of educations and improves equity of the system.  Peru achieves the first results of its National Skills Strategy.  Improvement in PISA results.  Peru reduces its levels of subemployment to 20%.  90% of students study in degrees of accredited institutions.  Significant improvement in the quality of basic education.  Peru has the highest rate of skills growth in Latin America.  Peru increases its productivity by 70% by improving its human capital. Newspaper headlines in 20 years  The technological institutes of Peru are recognised worldwide.  Peru has an articulated and interinstitutional national skills system.  Peru leads the Quality of Life Index in the region.  Peru reduces the share of informal employment to 20%.  Peruvian children among the best third in the world in PISA.  Peru ranks in the top thirds of the World Ranking of Competitiveness and skills development  5 Peruvian universities among the TOP 100 in the world.  Peru, among the 3 most competitive countries in Latin America.  Virtual services delivered by Peruvian are requested worldwide.  Peru has the highest position in the Human Development Index in LATAM.  Peru, as member of the OECD, leads the ranking of skills systems in the region. Newspaper headline in 2020 • The supply of technical workers covers demand • Peru has the highest rate of skills growth in Latin America • 9 out of 10 young students access tertiary education • 90% of students study in degrees of accredited courses • Peru increases its productivity by 70% by raising skills Newspaper headline in 2033 • Peruvian children among the best third in the world in PISA • Peru reduces the share of informal employment to 20% • Peru among the 3 most competitive countries in Latin America • Peru as a member of the OECD leads the ranking of skills systems in the region
  19. 19. skills.oecd Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives 20 3. ¿Cuáles son los retos en materia de competencias en Perú?
  20. 20. skills.oecd Better Skills, Better Jobs, Better Lives Skills challenges facing Peru Activating skills supply 3. Improving the labour market institutional setting to boost formal employment. 4. Extending the reach of active labour market policies to improve workers’ employability. Using skills effectively 5. Improving the alignment between skills supply and demand while fostering a better use of skills in the workplace. 6. Putting skills to better use to foster a more diversified and productive economy. Developing relevant skills 1. Improving school completion and foundation skills in compulsory education. 2. Improving access to quality higher education and transitions to work. . Strengthening Peru’s skills system 7. Improving learning and labour market information to support better education and career choices and evidence-based policy making. 8. Improving co-ordination across different actors and levels of government to achieve better skills outcomes. 9. Building partnerships to ensure that policies are responsive to changing skills needs.
  21. 21. DEVELOPING RELEVANT SKILLS 22
  22. 22. 23 Challenge 1: Improving school completion and foundation skills in compulsory education.
  23. 23. 24 Educational attainment of the population aged 25 years and older 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 No schooling Incomplete primary Primary (ISCED 1) Lower secondary (ISCED 2) Upper secondary (ISCED 3) Tertiary (ISCED 5 and above) % LAC average Peru (2014) OECD average Peru (2005) Note: Unweighted averages. Source: UNESCO/UIS (2016), UNESCO Institute for Statistics, UNESCO, Paris, http://data.uis.unesco.org/Index.a spx?DataSetCode=EDULIT_DS, (accessed February 2016).
  24. 24. 25 Proficiency in mathematics according to PISA 2012 results 220 270 320 370 420 470 520 570 620 670 720 Korea Japan Switzerland Netherlands Canada Germany Austria Australia Slovenia Denmark OECD average Norway Portugal Italy Spain United States Turkey Chile Mexico LA average Costa Rica Brazil Colombia Peru PISA Score 25th percentile Mean 75th percentile 95th percentile 5th percentile Note: LA includes Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. Source: OECD (2014), PISA 2012 Results: What Students Know and Can Do (Volume I, Revised edition, February 2014): Student Performance in Mathematics, Reading and Science, PISA, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264208780-en.
  25. 25. 26 Challenge 2: Improving access to quality higher education and transition to work.
  26. 26. 27 Share of youth not in education, employment, or training (% of youth population), 15-24 years old, 2014 or latest available data 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 % Note: 2012 data for Australia, United States, Mexico, LAC average. 2011 data for Korea. 2010 data for Chile. Source: World Bank (2016), Share of youth not in education employment or training, World Bank Database, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.UEM.NEET.ZS?cid=DEC_SS_WBGDataEmail_EXT, World Bank, Washington DC, (accessed October 2016).
  27. 27. 28 Main university subjects studied in Peru, 2010 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Thousandstudents Source: ANR (2012), Asamblea Nacional de Rectores, Datos Estadísticos Universitarios, http://censos.inei.gob.pe/cenaun/redatam_inei/doc/ESTADISTICA_UNIVERSITARIAS.pdf.
  28. 28. ACTIVATING SKILLS SUPPLY 29
  29. 29. 30 Challenge 3: Improving the labour market institutional setting to boost formal employment.
  30. 30. 31 Informal employment in Peru (2007-2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Peru Colombia Ecuador Mexico Panama Brazil South Africa Costa Rica Turkey % Source: OECD (2015), Multi-dimensional Review of Peru: Volume 1. Initial Assessment, Graph 2.28, OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264243279-en.
  31. 31. 32 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 0 20 40 60 80 100 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 % Deciles Informality rate (Left-hand axis) Formalisation cost (% of earned monthly income)(right-hand axis) Informality and costs of formalisation for different income groups in Peru, 2014 Source: OECD (2016), Multi-dimensional Review of Peru: Volume 2. In-depth Analysis and Recommendations, OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264264670-en.
  32. 32. 33 Challenge 4: Extending the reach of active labour market policies to improve workers’ employability.
  33. 33. 34 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6%oftheGDP Expenditure in active labour market policies in Peru and selected countries (as a % of GDP) Notes: Data for the OECD average are from 2012 and not directly comparable due to the different source used to data from LAC countries. Data shown for Chile and Mexico, though members of the OECD, come from Cerutti et al. (2014) to make it directly comparable with the other LAC countries.
  34. 34. 35 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % informal formal Job search through formal and informal channels in selected LAC countries, 2009 Source: Mazza, J. (2011), “Dinamizando el Empleo: Avances y Próximos Pasos para los Servicios de Intermediación Laboral en América Latina y el Caribe”, Notas Técnicas IDB-TN-344, Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.
  35. 35. USING SKILLS EFFECTIVELY
  36. 36. 37 Challenge 5: Improving the alignment between skills supply and demand and fostering a better use of skills in the workplace.
  37. 37. 38 Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United States United Kingdom 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6(log)Labourproductivity Use of reading skills at workless more Labour productivity and the use of reading skills at work Adjusted for literacy and numeracy proficiency Notes: Lines are best linear predictions. Labour productivity is equal to the GDP per hour worked in USD current prices. Adjusted estimates are based on OLS regression including controls for literacy and numeracy proficiency scores. Standard errors in parentheses. Source: OECD (2012), Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC), (database), Table A4.4, www.oecd.org/site/piaac/surveyofadultskills.ht m.
  38. 38. 39 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% Percentage of firms reporting having difficulties filling jobs, 2015 Note: LA Average based on eight countries: Peru, Brazil, Mexico, Columbia, Costa Rica, Panama, Guatemala and Argentina. Source: Manpower (2015), Talent Shortage Survey, www.manpowergroup.com/wps/wcm/connect/manpow ergroup-en/home/thought-leadership/research-insights/talent-shortage-2015/talent+shortage+results.
  39. 39. 40 Challenge 6: Putting skills to better use to foster a more diversified and productive economy.
  40. 40. 41 0 50 100 150 200 Patent applications per million people, comparing Peru and select benchmark countries and averages Number of Patent Co-operation Treaty, 2010-2011 average Note: Data based upon 2010-2011 averages. No values available for Ecuador from given source thus excluded from LAC and benchmark countries. Source: OECD (2016b), OECD Indicators on Patent (database), http://www.oecd.org/sti/inno/oecdpatentdatabases.htm, (accessed October 2016).
  41. 41. 42 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5%ofGDP 2013 2002 Business expenditure on research and development, 2002 and 2013 (or latest available year) Note: Date on most Latin American economies (excluding Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico) is from 2012; for Argentina and Chile from 2013; for Australia and Mexico from 2011; and for Brazil from 2010. Sources: OECD (2016c), Main Science and Technology Indicators Database, www.oecd.org/sti/msti, (accessed October 2016). OECD calculations based on Red de Indicadores de Ciencia y Tecnología - Iberoamericana e Interamericana (RICYT). Accessed on 1 August 2015, http://www.ricyt.org/.
  42. 42. STRENGTHENING THE SKILLS SYSTEM
  43. 43. 44 Challenge 7: Improving learning and labour market information to support better education and career choices, and evidence-based policy making.
  44. 44. 45
  45. 45. 46 Challenge 8: Improving co-ordination across different actors and levels of government to achieve better skills outcomes.
  46. 46. 47 AMPE REMURPE
  47. 47. 48 Challenge 9: Building partnerships to ensure that policies are responsive to changing skills needs.
  48. 48. MOVING FROM DIAGNOSIS TO ACTION 50
  49. 49. Moving from diagnosis to action Setting priorities for action by working together across ministries1 Building on good practices in Peru and abroad 2 Ensuring that stakeholders play an active role 3
  50. 50. Gracias por su atención Para mayor información favor de visitar: oecd.org/skills 52

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