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Equity in Education: Breaking
down Barriers to Social Mobility
Andreas Schleicher
Context
• Higher income inequality and lower social mobility
tend to go together
– Greater income inequality limits education opportunities for talented yet
underprivileged individuals
– In societies with higher income inequality, disadvantaged youth tend to perceive
smaller-than-actual returns to investing in further education
– The actual increase in earnings associated with a university degree tends to be
smaller for disadvantaged youth
• Education can promote social mobility –
but this varies across countries
– High educational performance among disadvantaged youths is a strong predictor
for their success in further education and work
– In countries where educational success remains strongly linked to social
background rather than student talent and attitudes, education may not promote
greater social mobility but reproduce existing inequalities
Concepts
Equality Equity Justice
The assumption is that
everyone benefits from
the same supports.
This is equal treatment.
Everyone gets the supports
they need
All 3 can see the game
without supports of
accommodations because
the cause(s) of the inequity
was addressed.
Mean performance in science, by international deciles of the
PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS)
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
VietNam76
Macao(China)22
B-S-J-G(China)52
Japan8
Singapore11
HongKong(China)26
ChineseTaipei12
Estonia5
Finland2
Korea6
Portugal28
Germany7
Canada2
Poland16
Spain31
UnitedKingdom5
Latvia25
Slovenia5
Switzerland8
Australia4
NewZealand5
Ireland5
CzechRepublic9
Denmark3
Hungary16
OECDaverage12
Netherlands4
France9
Italy15
Belgium7
Norway1
Sweden3
Austria5
Russia5
UnitedStates11
Croatia10
Lithuania12
CABA(Argentina)18
SlovakRepublic8
Chile27
Luxembourg14
Iceland1
Malta13
Uruguay39
Greece13
Romania20
Israel6
Turkey59
Indonesia74
Moldova28
Mexico53
Thailand55
Bulgaria13
Colombia43
CostaRica38
TrinidadandTobago14
Peru50
Jordan21
Montenegro11
UnitedArabEmirates3
Brazil43
Georgia19
Tunisia39
Lebanon27
FYROM13
Algeria52
Qatar3
Kosovo10
DominicanRepublic40
Scorepoints
Bottom decile Second decile Middle decile Ninth decile Top decile
Figure I.6.7
% of students
in the bottom
international
deciles of
ESCS
OECD median student
Equity in education outcomes Figure 2.1
Cognitive
achievement
Socio-emotional
well-being
Educational
attainment
Student
socio-economic
background
Completion of upper secondary and
tertiary education
Years of schooling
Career expectations
Science self-efficacy
Sense of belonging at school
Performance in PISA
Performance in childhood, adolescence
and adulthood
Equity in education outcomes Figure 2.1
Cognitive
achievement
Socio-emotional
well-being
Educational
attainment
Student
socio-economic
background
Completion of upper secondary and
tertiary education
Years of schooling
Career expectations
Science self-efficacy
Sense of belonging at school
Performance in PISA
Performance in childhood, adolescence
and adulthood
Overall educational attainment is rising
But inequity in completion of tertiary education
persists over time within countries
Wealthier countries have benefited more from the expansion of
access to education over the past century
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1901-1905
1906-1910
1911-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940
1941-1945
1946-1950
1951-1955
1956-1960
1961-1965
1966-1970
1971-1975
1976-1980
1981-1985
Years of schooling
Year of birth
High-income-economies
Upper-middle-income economies
Lower-middle-income economies
Low-income economies
Figure 2.10
Expansion in education does not automatically result in greater equity
Expansion opens opportunities for education to more students, who those students are determines whether expansion improves equity
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
1901-1905
1906-1910
1911-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940
1941-1945
1946-1950
1951-1955
1956-1960
1961-1965
1966-1970
1971-1975
1976-1980
1981-1985
Years of schooling
Year of birth
High-income-economies
Upper-middle-income economies
Lower-middle-income economies
Low-income economies
Equity has improved Equity has declined
Upward educational mobility varies across countries Figure 2.12
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Cyprus
RussianFederation
Singapore
Korea
Finland
Greece
Belgium
France
Ireland
Poland
Lithuania
Canada
Netherlands
Estonia
Sweden
Japan
PIAACaverage
Australia
Israel
NewZealand
Spain
NorthernIreland
England
Slovenia
Chile
Denmark
Norway
Italy
SlovakRepublic
UnitedStates
Austria
Turkey
Germany
CzechRepublic
% Downward mobility No mobility Upward mobility
Adults reported higher educational
attainment than their parents
Upward educational mobility has changed over time
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Turkey
Italy
CzechRepublic
Spain
Austria
Germany
Chile
Ireland
Korea
NorthernIreland
Netherlands
Slovenia
Greece
England
UnitedStates
France
Norway
SlovakRepublic
PIAACaverage
Australia
Denmark
NewZealand
Singapore
Japan
Belgium
Sweden
Israel
Canada
Cyprus
Poland
Estonia
Finland
RussianFederation
Lithuania
Cohort 1 (age 56-65) Cohort 2 (age 46-55) Cohort 3 (age 36-45) Cohort 4 (age 26-35)%
Figure 2.14
Equity in education outcomes Figure 2.1
Cognitive
achievement
Socio-emotional
well-being
Educational
attainment
Student
socio-economic
background
Completion of upper secondary and
tertiary education
Years of schooling
Career expectations
Science self-efficacy
Sense of belonging at school
Performance in PISA
Performance in childhood, adolescence
and adulthood
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
DominicanRepublic
Peru
Lebanon
FYROM
Kosovo
Tunisia
Brazil
Algeria
Jordan
Georgia
Indonesia
Qatar
Colombia
Mexico
Montenegro
CostaRica
Moldova
TrinidadandTobago
Bulgaria
Uruguay
Cyprus
Turkey
UnitedArabEmirates
Romania
Chile
Thailand
CABA(Argentina)
Malta
SlovakRepublic
Greece
Israel
Hungary
Luxembourg
Lithuania
France
Italy
Croatia
CzechRepublic
Austria
Iceland
Belgium
Sweden
OECDaverage
Spain
Switzerland
UnitedStates
Russia
Portugal
B-S-J-G(China)
Latvia
Poland
Norway
NewZealand
Netherlands
Ireland
Germany
Denmark
Australia
Slovenia
UnitedKingdom
Korea
ChineseTaipei
Canada
Finland
Singapore
Japan
VietNam
Estonia
HongKong(China)
Macao(China)
National top performers (students in top quarter of science performance in country)
Disadvantaged students (bottom quarter of socio-economic status in country)
Mean score
The average difference in science scores between disadvantaged and
top-performing students is more than 100 points
Figure 3.2
Proficiency
Level 5
in science
Proficiency
Level 3
in science
Equity can improve, and in relatively short time (Reading)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Peru
Belgium
Indonesia
Finland
Ireland
Singapore
Romania
SlovakRepublic
Greece
Korea
Moldova
Malta
Italy
Austria
Sweden
Macao(China)
Thailand
France
Georgia
Japan
Tunisia
Qatar
Latvia
Spain
CostaRica
Jordan
TrinidadandTobago
Croatia
Estonia
ChineseTaipei
Luxembourg
Iceland
NewZealand
Lithuania
Poland
Colombia
Portugal
Russia
OECDaverage
Norway
Netherlands
Canada
Montenegro
HongKong(China)
CzechRepublic
Bulgaria
Hungary
Australia
Uruguay
Slovenia
UnitedKingdom
Brazil
Denmark
Switzerland
Israel
FYROM
UnitedArabEmirates
Turkey
Chile
Mexico
Germany
UnitedStates
2000 2009 2015%
Figure 2.4
Greaterequity
Socio-economic disparities in mathematics are evident among young
children and keep growing during adolescence and early adulthood
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
Canada
Greece
Australia
Netherlands
Ireland
Average
(12countries)
Austria
Norway
Czech
Republic
UnitedStates
England
Korea
NewZealand
10-year-olds (TIMSS 1995) 15-year-olds (PISA 2000) 25-29 year-olds (PIAAC)
Standardised gap
Figure 2.6
Less
More
Socio-economicdisparity
Equity in education outcomes Figure 2.1
Cognitive
achievement
Socio-emotional
well-being
Educational
attainment
Student
socio-economic
background
Completion of upper secondary and
tertiary education
Years of schooling
Career expectations
Science self-efficacy
Sense of belonging at school
Performance in PISA
Performance in childhood, adolescence
and adulthood
Greaterequity
Disparities in science self-efficacy are large
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
Estonia-0.28-0.13
Croatia-0.21-0.17
Russia-0.30-0.38
Korea-0.33-0.58
Belgium-0.45-0.36
ChineseTaipei-0.21-0.24
Israel-0.11-0.20
CzechRepublic-0.17-0.10
SlovakRepublic-0.41-0.20
Austria-0.59-0.57
France-0.48-0.43
Japan-0.73-0.86
Macao(China)-0.29-0.40
Italy-0.09-0.44
Portugal-0.04-0.13
Luxembourg-0.37-0.48
Finland-0.33-0.29
Netherlands-0.33-0.19
Canada0.00-0.16
Denmark-0.30-0.42
Latvia-0.21-0.31
Sweden-0.25-0.43
Norway-0.12-0.25
OECDaverage-0.25-0.34
NewZealand-0.37-0.40
Slovenia-0.22-0.48
Iceland-0.13-0.37
Spain-0.46-0.41
Brazil-0.05-0.35
Uruguay-0.17-0.22
Australia-0.27-0.30
Ireland-0.32-0.39
Jordan0.37-0.03
Greece-0.30-0.44
HongKong(China)-0.29-0.29
UnitedStates-0.05-0.13
Lithuania0.02-0.42
Tunisia-0.20-0.29
Poland-0.11-0.18
Switzerland-0.43-0.53
Qatar0.21-0.34
Hungary-0.24-0.40
Indonesia-0.67-1.03
Chile-0.34-0.30
UnitedKingdom-0.01-0.26
Germany-0.27-0.37
Mexico0.17-0.15
Romania-0.31-0.61
Thailand0.10-0.20
Bulgaria0.12-0.58
Turkey0.26-0.32
Colombia-0.08-0.17
Montenegro0.17-0.51
2006 2015Index difference
20062015
Figure 2.8
Meanscience
self-efficacyindex
ofdisadvantaged
studentsin:
Who succeeds despite disadvantage?
Academic resilience
among disadvantaged students
Types of academic resilience in PISA Figure 3.1
Types of
academic
resilience
What are these students
able to achieve?
How do we measure it?
International
Academic excellence
by international standards
Socio-economically
disadvantaged
students
in their
own countries
who score…
...in the top quarter of
performance in science
among all students
participating in PISA,
after adjusting for
socio-economic
background
National
Academic excellence
by national standards
...in the top quarter of
performance in science
among students in
their own country
Core-skills
Core knowledge and skills
in key cognitive domains
...at or above Level 3
in PISA
in science, reading and
mathematics
The share of academically resilient students varies widely,
both in relative and absolute terms
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
DominicanRepublic
Kosovo
Peru
FYROM
Tunisia
Qatar
Lebanon
Algeria
Georgia
Jordan
UnitedArabEmirates
Montenegro
Brazil
CostaRica
Cyprus
Indonesia
Romania
Colombia
TrinidadandTobago
Mexico
Moldova
Bulgaria
Uruguay
Chile
CABA(Argentina)
Israel
Iceland
SlovakRepublic
Greece
Thailand
Hungary
Luxembourg
Malta
Turkey
Lithuania
Croatia
Sweden
CzechRepublic
Russia
Austria
Norway
Italy
France
Belgium
Denmark
Switzerland
OECDaverage
Ireland
NewZealand
Netherlands
UnitedStates
Australia
Germany
Slovenia
Poland
Latvia
UnitedKingdom
Portugal
Canada
Spain
Korea
Finland
B-S-J-G(China)
ChineseTaipei
Estonia
Japan
Singapore
HongKong(China)
Macao(China)
VietNam
Internationally resilient Nationally resilient Core-skills resilient
%
Figure 3.3
Some countries with fewer
internationally and core-skills
resilient students have many
nationally resilient students
Algeria
Macao (China)
Hong Kong (China)
Kosovo
Montenegro
Iceland
FYROM
Russia
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
France
Belgium
Czech Republic
B-S-J-G (China)
Hungary
Luxembourg
Peru
CABA (Argentina)
R² = 0.75
0
5
10
15
20
25
051015202530
Nationallyresilientstudents(%)
Variation in science performance explained by students' socio-economic status (%)
National resilience is strongly linked to equity in student achievement Figure 3.5
Greater equity
OECD average
OECDaverage
Some predictors of academic resilience (national resilience)
Difference in the share of resilient students by characteristic
Figure 3.7
0 5 10 15 20 25
Percentage-point dif.
OECD
Pre-primary education:
Started at typical age (vs did not attend)
Gender:
Boys (vs girls)
School location:
City (vs rural area)
Immigrant background:
No (vs immigrant background)
Disciplinary climate in school:
Top quarter (vs bottom quarter)
Skipped a school day in last two weeks:
No (vs yes)
Programme orientation:
General (vs vocational programme)
Motivation to achieve:
Top quarter (vs bottom quarter)
Repeated a grade:
No (vs repeated one or more grades)
School socio-economic profile:
Advantaged (vs disadvantaged school)
Who succeeds despite disadvantage?
Social-emotional resilience
among disadvantaged students
Index of social and emotional resilience in PISA Figure 3.9
...feel
socially
integrated at
school
... don't
suffer
from
test anxiety
Socially and emotionally resilient students
Disadvantaged students who...
...feel
satisfied
with
their life
Students'
overall
well-being
Students'
social
well-being
Students'
psychological
well-being
and and
Some 26% of disadvantaged students are
socially and emotionally resilient
0
20
40
60
80
100
Colombia
DominicanRepublic
Brazil
CostaRica
Peru
Turkey
Uruguay
HongKong(China)
UnitedKingdom
Italy
B-S-J-G(China)
ChineseTaipei
Portugal
Tunisia
Bulgaria
UnitedStates
Macao(China)
Qatar
Montenegro
Japan
Spain
Greece
UnitedArabEmirates
Mexico
Cyprus
Slovenia
Chile
Thailand
Lithuania
Hungary
Ireland
Korea
SlovakRepublic
Luxembourg
OECDaverage
Belgium
Russia
Poland
Austria
Estonia
CzechRepublic
Iceland
France
Latvia
Germany
Croatia
Finland
Switzerland
Netherlands
Feel socially integrated at school Do not suffer from test anxiety Feel satisfied with life
Disad.students(%) Figure 3.10
0
10
20
30
40
50
Index of social and emotional resilience
Index(%)
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
HongKong(China)
Netherlands
Colombia
ChineseTaipei
Latvia
Qatar
Finland
UnitedKingdom
CostaRica
Uruguay
Japan
Hungary
Portugal
Korea
Montenegro
Poland
Estonia
Ireland
Macao(China)
France
Thailand
Russia
Luxembourg
SlovakRepublic
Croatia
UnitedArabEmirates
Lithuania
OECDaverage
Peru
UnitedStates
Italy
Brazil
Slovenia
Germany
Greece
Tunisia
Turkey
Mexico
CzechRepublic
Cyprus³
DominicanRepublic
Austria
Spain
Chile
B-S-J-G(China)
Switzerland
Bulgaria
Belgium
Iceland
Nationally resilient students Core-skills resilient students
Odds ratio
Nationally and core-skills resilient students are more likely to be
socially and emotionally resilient
Figure 3.11
How are disadvantaged students affected by
the socio-economic profile of their school?
The double disadvantage
Some 48% of disadvantaged students attend disadvantaged
schools, on average across OECD countries
Figure 4.1
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
Finland
Kosovo
Sweden
Albania
Norway
Algeria
FYROM
Croatia
Ireland
Switzerland
TrinidadandTobago
Iceland
Montenegro
NewZealand
HongKong(China)
Canada
UnitedKingdom
Korea
Denmark
Germany
Poland
Singapore
Netherlands
Latvia
Jordan
Malta
Luxembourg
Uruguay
Greece
Estonia
OECDaverage
ChineseTaipei
Austria
UnitedArabEmirates
Slovenia
Portugal
Cyprus¹
Macao(China)
Turkey
Japan
Thailand
Italy
Romania
DominicanRepublic
France
Lithuania
Belgium
SlovakRepublic
Russia
Tunisia
Spain
CzechRepublic
Georgia
UnitedStates
Israel
Australia
Moldova
Brazil
CostaRica
Bulgaria
VietNam
Colombia
Qatar
Chile
Indonesia
Hungary
Lebanon
B-S-J-G(China)
Mexico
CABA(Argentina)
Peru
%
Percentage of disadvantaged students in disadvantaged schools
Across OECD countries, disadvantaged students attending advantaged
schools score 78 points higher than those in disadvantaged schools
420
440
460
480
500
520
540
560
580
Disadvantaged schools Schools that are neither advantaged nor
disadvantaged
Advantaged schools
Disadvantaged students
Students who are neither advantaged nor disadvantaged
Advantaged students
Mean score
Figure 4.3
But in Finland, Iceland, Macao, Norway
and Poland disadvantaged students
perform equally well in advantaged
and disadvantaged schools
In some countries, attending a more advantaged school
is associated with significantly better performance
-40
0
40
80
120
160
Iceland
Finland
Norway
Poland
Moldova
Sweden
Algeria
Mexico
Spain
Peru
CostaRica
Colombia
UnitedStates
Thailand
Denmark
Estonia
Brazil
Macao(China)
Indonesia
Georgia
CABA(Argentina)
Tunisia
Jordan
DominicanRepublic
Lebanon
VietNam
Latvia
Chile
Ireland
Portugal
Uruguay
Russia
Canada
Lithuania
Romania
Australia
Kosovo
FYROM
UnitedArabEmirates
UnitedKingdom
Cyprus
OECDaverage
Luxembourg
Turkey
Switzerland
Israel
SlovakRepublic
Qatar
HongKong(China)
Greece
NewZealand
Bulgaria
Croatia
Montenegro
Italy
Belgium
Singapore
Korea
Austria
B-S-J-G(China)
Hungary
Germany
TrinidadandTobago
ChineseTaipei
CzechRepublic
Malta
Slovenia
Netherlands
France
Japan
Score-point dif. Disadvantaged students
Figure 4.4
On average across OECD countries, a one-unit
increase in school-level socio-economic status is
associated with a 60 score-point improvement in
performance among disadvantaged students
CABA (Argentina)
Costa Rica
Sweden
Bulgaria Romania
Viet
Nam
Uruguay
United States
Norway
Chile
Hungary
B-S-J-G
(China)
Turkey
Mexico
Portugal
Iceland
Korea
Albania
Japan
Trinidad and
Tobago
UAE Algeria Ireland
Indonesia
New
Zealand
Colombia
Peru
Macao (China) Spain
Switzerland
Lebanon
Netherlands
Germany
Slovak
Republic
UK
Slovenia
Brazil
Kosovo
Finland
Thailand
Latvia
R² = 0.20
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Socio-economicinclusionacrossschools
Academic inclusion across schools (%)
OECD average
OECD
average
Academic and social inclusion across schools
Figure II.5.12
Educational mobility and school-to-work
transitions among disadvantaged students
In Denmark, PISA performance explains most of the differences in literacy
and numeracy proficiency observed at age 26
Figure 5.8
Percentage
explained by
PISA reading
performance
56%
Percentage
explained by
years of
schooling
5%
Percentage
unexplained
39%
Percentage
explained by
PISA
mathematics
performance
69%
Percentage
explained by
years of
schooling
14%
Percentage
unexplained
17%
Percentage of the difference in PIAAC
literacy proficiency explained
Percentage of the difference in PIAAC
numeracy proficiency explained
Educational mobility and school-to-work
transitions among disadvantaged students
Performance at age 15 and progression into
higher education and careers
There are strong correlations between performance in PISA and
university completion by age 25
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Switzerland Denmark United States Canada Australia
Bottom quarter of performance Second quarter of performance
Third quarter of performance Top quarter of performance
Students who
completed
university
(%)
Figure 5.3
Difference in university completion rates between 25-year-old adults
with and without tertiary-educated parents
Figure 5.4
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
29.3
Australia
24.3
Canada
14.3
Denmark
11.1
Switzerland
21.9
United States
% dif.
Difference before accounting for reading performance
Difference after accounting for reading performance
% of
disadvantaged
students who
completed
university by age
25
Even when comparing students with similar levels of performance, those
with tertiary-educated parents are between 10 and 22 percentage points
more likely to complete university than those with less-educated parents.
Students with tertiary-educated parents are between 7 and 20
percentage points more likely to have a skilled job at age 25
Figure 5.6
0
5
10
15
20
25
22.2
Australia
26.6
Canada
30.5
Denmark
16.7
Switzerland
35.5
United States
% dif.
Difference before accounting for reading performance
Difference after accounting for reading performance
% of
disadvantaged
students who
have a skilled job
at age 25
Even when comparing students with similar levels of performance, those with tertiary-educated parents are
between 10 and 13 percentage points more likely to have a skilled job than those with less-educated parents.
Educational mobility and school-to-work
transitions among disadvantaged students
Career expectations and progression into
higher education and careers
Higher career expectations at age 15 are associated with a greater
likelihood of skilled employment at age 25
Figure 5.9
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
20.1
Australia
25.4
Canada
26.5
Denmark
19.5
Switzerland
% dif.
Difference before accounting for reading performance
Difference after accounting for reading performance
% in skilled
employment
at age 25 who
did not expect it
at age 15
In Australia, Canada and Denmark, even when comparing
students with similar levels of performance, those with high
career expectations at age 15 are between 7 and 33
percentage points more likely to have a skilled job than those
with lower expectations.
Fifteen-year-old students surrounded by peers with high career
expectations are more likely to earn a university degree by age 25
Figure 5.15
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
25.9
Australia
27.8
Canada
24.0
Denmark
8.6
Switzerland
% dif.
Difference before accounting for PISA reading performance
Difference after accounting for PISA reading performance
% in schools with
low peer
expectations at
15 who
completed
university by 25
In Australia, Canada and Switzerland, when comparing students with similar levels of performance,
those surrounded by peers with high career expectations at age 15 are between 7 and 20 percentage
points more likely to complete university than those in schools with lower peer expectations.
Students who invest greater effort and perseverance at age 15 are
more likely to complete university by 25
Figure 5.10
0
5
10
15
20
25
18.7
Denmark
10.5
Switzerland
25.6
United States
Difference between 15-year-old students with high and those with low perseverance
Difference between 15-year-old students with high and those with low perseverance, after accounting for
parents' education and PISA reading performance% dif.
% of students
with low
effort and
perseverance
who completed
university
Some conclusions
• Support disadvantaged children, adolescents and young adults in their
education
• Provide quality early-education programmes to disadvantaged children
• Set ambitious goals and monitor the progress of disadvantaged students
• Develop teachers’ capacity to detect student needs and manage diverse
classrooms
• Target additional resources towards disadvantaged students and schools
• Reduce the concentration of disadvantaged students in particular schools
• Create a climate that favours learning and well-being
• Encourage parent-teacher communication and parental engagement
Responsive School Systems: Connecting Facilities, Sectors and
Programmes for Student Success
• Responsive School Systems: Connecting Facilities,
Sectors and Programmes for Student Success
provides analyses and policy options to assist
governments in promoting educational quality,
equity and efficiency through the organisation of
school facilities and education services in a context
of changing demand for school places and evolving
student needs.
Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa
– All publications
– The complete micro-level database
Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org
Twitter: SchleicherOECD
Wechat: AndreasSchleicher
Thank you

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Equity in education - Breaking down barriers to social mobility

  • 1. Equity in Education: Breaking down Barriers to Social Mobility Andreas Schleicher
  • 2. Context • Higher income inequality and lower social mobility tend to go together – Greater income inequality limits education opportunities for talented yet underprivileged individuals – In societies with higher income inequality, disadvantaged youth tend to perceive smaller-than-actual returns to investing in further education – The actual increase in earnings associated with a university degree tends to be smaller for disadvantaged youth • Education can promote social mobility – but this varies across countries – High educational performance among disadvantaged youths is a strong predictor for their success in further education and work – In countries where educational success remains strongly linked to social background rather than student talent and attitudes, education may not promote greater social mobility but reproduce existing inequalities
  • 3. Concepts Equality Equity Justice The assumption is that everyone benefits from the same supports. This is equal treatment. Everyone gets the supports they need All 3 can see the game without supports of accommodations because the cause(s) of the inequity was addressed.
  • 4. Mean performance in science, by international deciles of the PISA index of economic, social and cultural status (ESCS) 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 VietNam76 Macao(China)22 B-S-J-G(China)52 Japan8 Singapore11 HongKong(China)26 ChineseTaipei12 Estonia5 Finland2 Korea6 Portugal28 Germany7 Canada2 Poland16 Spain31 UnitedKingdom5 Latvia25 Slovenia5 Switzerland8 Australia4 NewZealand5 Ireland5 CzechRepublic9 Denmark3 Hungary16 OECDaverage12 Netherlands4 France9 Italy15 Belgium7 Norway1 Sweden3 Austria5 Russia5 UnitedStates11 Croatia10 Lithuania12 CABA(Argentina)18 SlovakRepublic8 Chile27 Luxembourg14 Iceland1 Malta13 Uruguay39 Greece13 Romania20 Israel6 Turkey59 Indonesia74 Moldova28 Mexico53 Thailand55 Bulgaria13 Colombia43 CostaRica38 TrinidadandTobago14 Peru50 Jordan21 Montenegro11 UnitedArabEmirates3 Brazil43 Georgia19 Tunisia39 Lebanon27 FYROM13 Algeria52 Qatar3 Kosovo10 DominicanRepublic40 Scorepoints Bottom decile Second decile Middle decile Ninth decile Top decile Figure I.6.7 % of students in the bottom international deciles of ESCS OECD median student
  • 5. Equity in education outcomes Figure 2.1 Cognitive achievement Socio-emotional well-being Educational attainment Student socio-economic background Completion of upper secondary and tertiary education Years of schooling Career expectations Science self-efficacy Sense of belonging at school Performance in PISA Performance in childhood, adolescence and adulthood
  • 6. Equity in education outcomes Figure 2.1 Cognitive achievement Socio-emotional well-being Educational attainment Student socio-economic background Completion of upper secondary and tertiary education Years of schooling Career expectations Science self-efficacy Sense of belonging at school Performance in PISA Performance in childhood, adolescence and adulthood
  • 7. Overall educational attainment is rising But inequity in completion of tertiary education persists over time within countries
  • 8. Wealthier countries have benefited more from the expansion of access to education over the past century 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1901-1905 1906-1910 1911-1915 1916-1920 1921-1925 1926-1930 1931-1935 1936-1940 1941-1945 1946-1950 1951-1955 1956-1960 1961-1965 1966-1970 1971-1975 1976-1980 1981-1985 Years of schooling Year of birth High-income-economies Upper-middle-income economies Lower-middle-income economies Low-income economies Figure 2.10
  • 9. Expansion in education does not automatically result in greater equity Expansion opens opportunities for education to more students, who those students are determines whether expansion improves equity 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1901-1905 1906-1910 1911-1915 1916-1920 1921-1925 1926-1930 1931-1935 1936-1940 1941-1945 1946-1950 1951-1955 1956-1960 1961-1965 1966-1970 1971-1975 1976-1980 1981-1985 Years of schooling Year of birth High-income-economies Upper-middle-income economies Lower-middle-income economies Low-income economies Equity has improved Equity has declined
  • 10. Upward educational mobility varies across countries Figure 2.12 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cyprus RussianFederation Singapore Korea Finland Greece Belgium France Ireland Poland Lithuania Canada Netherlands Estonia Sweden Japan PIAACaverage Australia Israel NewZealand Spain NorthernIreland England Slovenia Chile Denmark Norway Italy SlovakRepublic UnitedStates Austria Turkey Germany CzechRepublic % Downward mobility No mobility Upward mobility Adults reported higher educational attainment than their parents
  • 11. Upward educational mobility has changed over time 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Turkey Italy CzechRepublic Spain Austria Germany Chile Ireland Korea NorthernIreland Netherlands Slovenia Greece England UnitedStates France Norway SlovakRepublic PIAACaverage Australia Denmark NewZealand Singapore Japan Belgium Sweden Israel Canada Cyprus Poland Estonia Finland RussianFederation Lithuania Cohort 1 (age 56-65) Cohort 2 (age 46-55) Cohort 3 (age 36-45) Cohort 4 (age 26-35)% Figure 2.14
  • 12. Equity in education outcomes Figure 2.1 Cognitive achievement Socio-emotional well-being Educational attainment Student socio-economic background Completion of upper secondary and tertiary education Years of schooling Career expectations Science self-efficacy Sense of belonging at school Performance in PISA Performance in childhood, adolescence and adulthood
  • 13. 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 DominicanRepublic Peru Lebanon FYROM Kosovo Tunisia Brazil Algeria Jordan Georgia Indonesia Qatar Colombia Mexico Montenegro CostaRica Moldova TrinidadandTobago Bulgaria Uruguay Cyprus Turkey UnitedArabEmirates Romania Chile Thailand CABA(Argentina) Malta SlovakRepublic Greece Israel Hungary Luxembourg Lithuania France Italy Croatia CzechRepublic Austria Iceland Belgium Sweden OECDaverage Spain Switzerland UnitedStates Russia Portugal B-S-J-G(China) Latvia Poland Norway NewZealand Netherlands Ireland Germany Denmark Australia Slovenia UnitedKingdom Korea ChineseTaipei Canada Finland Singapore Japan VietNam Estonia HongKong(China) Macao(China) National top performers (students in top quarter of science performance in country) Disadvantaged students (bottom quarter of socio-economic status in country) Mean score The average difference in science scores between disadvantaged and top-performing students is more than 100 points Figure 3.2 Proficiency Level 5 in science Proficiency Level 3 in science
  • 14. Equity can improve, and in relatively short time (Reading) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Peru Belgium Indonesia Finland Ireland Singapore Romania SlovakRepublic Greece Korea Moldova Malta Italy Austria Sweden Macao(China) Thailand France Georgia Japan Tunisia Qatar Latvia Spain CostaRica Jordan TrinidadandTobago Croatia Estonia ChineseTaipei Luxembourg Iceland NewZealand Lithuania Poland Colombia Portugal Russia OECDaverage Norway Netherlands Canada Montenegro HongKong(China) CzechRepublic Bulgaria Hungary Australia Uruguay Slovenia UnitedKingdom Brazil Denmark Switzerland Israel FYROM UnitedArabEmirates Turkey Chile Mexico Germany UnitedStates 2000 2009 2015% Figure 2.4 Greaterequity
  • 15. Socio-economic disparities in mathematics are evident among young children and keep growing during adolescence and early adulthood 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Canada Greece Australia Netherlands Ireland Average (12countries) Austria Norway Czech Republic UnitedStates England Korea NewZealand 10-year-olds (TIMSS 1995) 15-year-olds (PISA 2000) 25-29 year-olds (PIAAC) Standardised gap Figure 2.6 Less More Socio-economicdisparity
  • 16. Equity in education outcomes Figure 2.1 Cognitive achievement Socio-emotional well-being Educational attainment Student socio-economic background Completion of upper secondary and tertiary education Years of schooling Career expectations Science self-efficacy Sense of belonging at school Performance in PISA Performance in childhood, adolescence and adulthood
  • 17. Greaterequity Disparities in science self-efficacy are large 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 Estonia-0.28-0.13 Croatia-0.21-0.17 Russia-0.30-0.38 Korea-0.33-0.58 Belgium-0.45-0.36 ChineseTaipei-0.21-0.24 Israel-0.11-0.20 CzechRepublic-0.17-0.10 SlovakRepublic-0.41-0.20 Austria-0.59-0.57 France-0.48-0.43 Japan-0.73-0.86 Macao(China)-0.29-0.40 Italy-0.09-0.44 Portugal-0.04-0.13 Luxembourg-0.37-0.48 Finland-0.33-0.29 Netherlands-0.33-0.19 Canada0.00-0.16 Denmark-0.30-0.42 Latvia-0.21-0.31 Sweden-0.25-0.43 Norway-0.12-0.25 OECDaverage-0.25-0.34 NewZealand-0.37-0.40 Slovenia-0.22-0.48 Iceland-0.13-0.37 Spain-0.46-0.41 Brazil-0.05-0.35 Uruguay-0.17-0.22 Australia-0.27-0.30 Ireland-0.32-0.39 Jordan0.37-0.03 Greece-0.30-0.44 HongKong(China)-0.29-0.29 UnitedStates-0.05-0.13 Lithuania0.02-0.42 Tunisia-0.20-0.29 Poland-0.11-0.18 Switzerland-0.43-0.53 Qatar0.21-0.34 Hungary-0.24-0.40 Indonesia-0.67-1.03 Chile-0.34-0.30 UnitedKingdom-0.01-0.26 Germany-0.27-0.37 Mexico0.17-0.15 Romania-0.31-0.61 Thailand0.10-0.20 Bulgaria0.12-0.58 Turkey0.26-0.32 Colombia-0.08-0.17 Montenegro0.17-0.51 2006 2015Index difference 20062015 Figure 2.8 Meanscience self-efficacyindex ofdisadvantaged studentsin:
  • 18. Who succeeds despite disadvantage? Academic resilience among disadvantaged students
  • 19. Types of academic resilience in PISA Figure 3.1 Types of academic resilience What are these students able to achieve? How do we measure it? International Academic excellence by international standards Socio-economically disadvantaged students in their own countries who score… ...in the top quarter of performance in science among all students participating in PISA, after adjusting for socio-economic background National Academic excellence by national standards ...in the top quarter of performance in science among students in their own country Core-skills Core knowledge and skills in key cognitive domains ...at or above Level 3 in PISA in science, reading and mathematics
  • 20. The share of academically resilient students varies widely, both in relative and absolute terms 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 DominicanRepublic Kosovo Peru FYROM Tunisia Qatar Lebanon Algeria Georgia Jordan UnitedArabEmirates Montenegro Brazil CostaRica Cyprus Indonesia Romania Colombia TrinidadandTobago Mexico Moldova Bulgaria Uruguay Chile CABA(Argentina) Israel Iceland SlovakRepublic Greece Thailand Hungary Luxembourg Malta Turkey Lithuania Croatia Sweden CzechRepublic Russia Austria Norway Italy France Belgium Denmark Switzerland OECDaverage Ireland NewZealand Netherlands UnitedStates Australia Germany Slovenia Poland Latvia UnitedKingdom Portugal Canada Spain Korea Finland B-S-J-G(China) ChineseTaipei Estonia Japan Singapore HongKong(China) Macao(China) VietNam Internationally resilient Nationally resilient Core-skills resilient % Figure 3.3 Some countries with fewer internationally and core-skills resilient students have many nationally resilient students
  • 21. Algeria Macao (China) Hong Kong (China) Kosovo Montenegro Iceland FYROM Russia Qatar United Arab Emirates France Belgium Czech Republic B-S-J-G (China) Hungary Luxembourg Peru CABA (Argentina) R² = 0.75 0 5 10 15 20 25 051015202530 Nationallyresilientstudents(%) Variation in science performance explained by students' socio-economic status (%) National resilience is strongly linked to equity in student achievement Figure 3.5 Greater equity OECD average OECDaverage
  • 22. Some predictors of academic resilience (national resilience) Difference in the share of resilient students by characteristic Figure 3.7 0 5 10 15 20 25 Percentage-point dif. OECD Pre-primary education: Started at typical age (vs did not attend) Gender: Boys (vs girls) School location: City (vs rural area) Immigrant background: No (vs immigrant background) Disciplinary climate in school: Top quarter (vs bottom quarter) Skipped a school day in last two weeks: No (vs yes) Programme orientation: General (vs vocational programme) Motivation to achieve: Top quarter (vs bottom quarter) Repeated a grade: No (vs repeated one or more grades) School socio-economic profile: Advantaged (vs disadvantaged school)
  • 23. Who succeeds despite disadvantage? Social-emotional resilience among disadvantaged students
  • 24. Index of social and emotional resilience in PISA Figure 3.9 ...feel socially integrated at school ... don't suffer from test anxiety Socially and emotionally resilient students Disadvantaged students who... ...feel satisfied with their life Students' overall well-being Students' social well-being Students' psychological well-being and and
  • 25. Some 26% of disadvantaged students are socially and emotionally resilient 0 20 40 60 80 100 Colombia DominicanRepublic Brazil CostaRica Peru Turkey Uruguay HongKong(China) UnitedKingdom Italy B-S-J-G(China) ChineseTaipei Portugal Tunisia Bulgaria UnitedStates Macao(China) Qatar Montenegro Japan Spain Greece UnitedArabEmirates Mexico Cyprus Slovenia Chile Thailand Lithuania Hungary Ireland Korea SlovakRepublic Luxembourg OECDaverage Belgium Russia Poland Austria Estonia CzechRepublic Iceland France Latvia Germany Croatia Finland Switzerland Netherlands Feel socially integrated at school Do not suffer from test anxiety Feel satisfied with life Disad.students(%) Figure 3.10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Index of social and emotional resilience Index(%)
  • 27. How are disadvantaged students affected by the socio-economic profile of their school? The double disadvantage
  • 28. Some 48% of disadvantaged students attend disadvantaged schools, on average across OECD countries Figure 4.1 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Finland Kosovo Sweden Albania Norway Algeria FYROM Croatia Ireland Switzerland TrinidadandTobago Iceland Montenegro NewZealand HongKong(China) Canada UnitedKingdom Korea Denmark Germany Poland Singapore Netherlands Latvia Jordan Malta Luxembourg Uruguay Greece Estonia OECDaverage ChineseTaipei Austria UnitedArabEmirates Slovenia Portugal Cyprus¹ Macao(China) Turkey Japan Thailand Italy Romania DominicanRepublic France Lithuania Belgium SlovakRepublic Russia Tunisia Spain CzechRepublic Georgia UnitedStates Israel Australia Moldova Brazil CostaRica Bulgaria VietNam Colombia Qatar Chile Indonesia Hungary Lebanon B-S-J-G(China) Mexico CABA(Argentina) Peru % Percentage of disadvantaged students in disadvantaged schools
  • 29. Across OECD countries, disadvantaged students attending advantaged schools score 78 points higher than those in disadvantaged schools 420 440 460 480 500 520 540 560 580 Disadvantaged schools Schools that are neither advantaged nor disadvantaged Advantaged schools Disadvantaged students Students who are neither advantaged nor disadvantaged Advantaged students Mean score Figure 4.3 But in Finland, Iceland, Macao, Norway and Poland disadvantaged students perform equally well in advantaged and disadvantaged schools
  • 30. In some countries, attending a more advantaged school is associated with significantly better performance -40 0 40 80 120 160 Iceland Finland Norway Poland Moldova Sweden Algeria Mexico Spain Peru CostaRica Colombia UnitedStates Thailand Denmark Estonia Brazil Macao(China) Indonesia Georgia CABA(Argentina) Tunisia Jordan DominicanRepublic Lebanon VietNam Latvia Chile Ireland Portugal Uruguay Russia Canada Lithuania Romania Australia Kosovo FYROM UnitedArabEmirates UnitedKingdom Cyprus OECDaverage Luxembourg Turkey Switzerland Israel SlovakRepublic Qatar HongKong(China) Greece NewZealand Bulgaria Croatia Montenegro Italy Belgium Singapore Korea Austria B-S-J-G(China) Hungary Germany TrinidadandTobago ChineseTaipei CzechRepublic Malta Slovenia Netherlands France Japan Score-point dif. Disadvantaged students Figure 4.4 On average across OECD countries, a one-unit increase in school-level socio-economic status is associated with a 60 score-point improvement in performance among disadvantaged students
  • 31. CABA (Argentina) Costa Rica Sweden Bulgaria Romania Viet Nam Uruguay United States Norway Chile Hungary B-S-J-G (China) Turkey Mexico Portugal Iceland Korea Albania Japan Trinidad and Tobago UAE Algeria Ireland Indonesia New Zealand Colombia Peru Macao (China) Spain Switzerland Lebanon Netherlands Germany Slovak Republic UK Slovenia Brazil Kosovo Finland Thailand Latvia R² = 0.20 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Socio-economicinclusionacrossschools Academic inclusion across schools (%) OECD average OECD average Academic and social inclusion across schools Figure II.5.12
  • 32. Educational mobility and school-to-work transitions among disadvantaged students
  • 33. In Denmark, PISA performance explains most of the differences in literacy and numeracy proficiency observed at age 26 Figure 5.8 Percentage explained by PISA reading performance 56% Percentage explained by years of schooling 5% Percentage unexplained 39% Percentage explained by PISA mathematics performance 69% Percentage explained by years of schooling 14% Percentage unexplained 17% Percentage of the difference in PIAAC literacy proficiency explained Percentage of the difference in PIAAC numeracy proficiency explained
  • 34. Educational mobility and school-to-work transitions among disadvantaged students Performance at age 15 and progression into higher education and careers
  • 35. There are strong correlations between performance in PISA and university completion by age 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Switzerland Denmark United States Canada Australia Bottom quarter of performance Second quarter of performance Third quarter of performance Top quarter of performance Students who completed university (%) Figure 5.3
  • 36. Difference in university completion rates between 25-year-old adults with and without tertiary-educated parents Figure 5.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 29.3 Australia 24.3 Canada 14.3 Denmark 11.1 Switzerland 21.9 United States % dif. Difference before accounting for reading performance Difference after accounting for reading performance % of disadvantaged students who completed university by age 25 Even when comparing students with similar levels of performance, those with tertiary-educated parents are between 10 and 22 percentage points more likely to complete university than those with less-educated parents.
  • 37. Students with tertiary-educated parents are between 7 and 20 percentage points more likely to have a skilled job at age 25 Figure 5.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 22.2 Australia 26.6 Canada 30.5 Denmark 16.7 Switzerland 35.5 United States % dif. Difference before accounting for reading performance Difference after accounting for reading performance % of disadvantaged students who have a skilled job at age 25 Even when comparing students with similar levels of performance, those with tertiary-educated parents are between 10 and 13 percentage points more likely to have a skilled job than those with less-educated parents.
  • 38. Educational mobility and school-to-work transitions among disadvantaged students Career expectations and progression into higher education and careers
  • 39. Higher career expectations at age 15 are associated with a greater likelihood of skilled employment at age 25 Figure 5.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 20.1 Australia 25.4 Canada 26.5 Denmark 19.5 Switzerland % dif. Difference before accounting for reading performance Difference after accounting for reading performance % in skilled employment at age 25 who did not expect it at age 15 In Australia, Canada and Denmark, even when comparing students with similar levels of performance, those with high career expectations at age 15 are between 7 and 33 percentage points more likely to have a skilled job than those with lower expectations.
  • 40. Fifteen-year-old students surrounded by peers with high career expectations are more likely to earn a university degree by age 25 Figure 5.15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 25.9 Australia 27.8 Canada 24.0 Denmark 8.6 Switzerland % dif. Difference before accounting for PISA reading performance Difference after accounting for PISA reading performance % in schools with low peer expectations at 15 who completed university by 25 In Australia, Canada and Switzerland, when comparing students with similar levels of performance, those surrounded by peers with high career expectations at age 15 are between 7 and 20 percentage points more likely to complete university than those in schools with lower peer expectations.
  • 41. Students who invest greater effort and perseverance at age 15 are more likely to complete university by 25 Figure 5.10 0 5 10 15 20 25 18.7 Denmark 10.5 Switzerland 25.6 United States Difference between 15-year-old students with high and those with low perseverance Difference between 15-year-old students with high and those with low perseverance, after accounting for parents' education and PISA reading performance% dif. % of students with low effort and perseverance who completed university
  • 42. Some conclusions • Support disadvantaged children, adolescents and young adults in their education • Provide quality early-education programmes to disadvantaged children • Set ambitious goals and monitor the progress of disadvantaged students • Develop teachers’ capacity to detect student needs and manage diverse classrooms • Target additional resources towards disadvantaged students and schools • Reduce the concentration of disadvantaged students in particular schools • Create a climate that favours learning and well-being • Encourage parent-teacher communication and parental engagement
  • 43. Responsive School Systems: Connecting Facilities, Sectors and Programmes for Student Success • Responsive School Systems: Connecting Facilities, Sectors and Programmes for Student Success provides analyses and policy options to assist governments in promoting educational quality, equity and efficiency through the organisation of school facilities and education services in a context of changing demand for school places and evolving student needs.
  • 44. Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org/pisa – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherOECD Wechat: AndreasSchleicher Thank you

Editor's Notes

  1. Sources: Based on Barro-Lee educational attainment dataset (February 2016); and World Bank Country and Lending Groups (reviewed on October 2017). See Table 2.12 for national data.
  2. Sources: Based on Barro-Lee educational attainment dataset (February 2016); and World Bank Country and Lending Groups (reviewed on October 2017). See Table 2.12 for national data.
  3. Notes: The graph refers to the increased likelihood (odds ratio) of completing tertiary education among adults (26 years or older) whose parents had attained a high or middle level of education, relative to adults with low-educated parents. Note: All odds ratios are statistically significant. Source: OECD, PIAAC dataset.
  4. Notes: The graph refers to the percentage of adults (26 years or older) who reported lower, the same or higher educational attainment than/as their parents. Source: OECD, PIAAC dataset. Upward mobility suggests that younger generations are achieving higher levels of education than their parents, while downward mobility implies that children are achieving lower levels of education than their parents
  5. Note: The graph refers to the percentage of 26-65 year-olds who attained a higher level of education than their parents did, by cohort. Source: OECD, PIAAC dataset.
  6. This slide can be replicated in order to observe the trends for a specific country (figure 2.17). Notes: The graphs refers to the predicted probability of completing tertiary education among adults 26 years or older, PIAAC average (33 countries). Source: OECD, PIAAC dataset.
  7. Notes: The graph refers to the percentage of variation in science performance explained by students' socio-economic status Statistically significant differences between 2006 and 2015 are shown in dark blue.
  8. Notes: The graph refers to the percentage of variation in reading performance explained by students' socio-economic status. Statistically significant differences between 2000 and 2009 are shown in dark orange. Statistically significant differences between 2000 and 2015 are shown in dark blue. For countries/economies that did not participate in 2000, statistically significant differences between 2009 and 2015 are shown in dark blue.
  9. Notes: The graph refers to the percentage of variation in mathematics performance explained by students' socio-economic status. Statistically significant differences between 2003 and 2012 are shown in dark green. Statistically significant differences between 2003 and 2015 are shown in dark blue. For countries that did not participate in 2003, statistically significant differences between 2012 and 2015 are shown in dark blue.
  10. Notes: The standardised gap refers to the difference in the mean scores of individuals with more than 100 books in the home and individuals with fewer than 100 books, divided by the pooled standard deviation. Statistically significant differences between 15-year-olds (PISA) and 10-year-olds (TIMSS) are shown by the dark orange triangles. Statistically significant differences between 25-29 year-olds (PIAAC) and 10-year-olds (TIMSS) are shown by the dark blue diamonds. There are no statistically significant differences between 25-29 year-olds (PIAAC) and 15-year-olds (PISA).
  11. Notes: The graph refers to the difference between the percentage of socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students who feel they belong at school. Statistically significant differences between 2003 and 2015 (or 2012 and 2015 for countries not included in 2003) are shown in red. Statistically significant differences between 2003 and 2012 are shown in dark blue.
  12. Notes: The graph refers to the difference between socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students in the index of science self-efficacy. Statistically significant differences between 2006 and 2015 are shown in dark orange.
  13. Notes: The graph refers to the difference between socio-economically advantaged and disadvantaged students in the International Socio-Economic Index of occupational status (ISEI). Statistically significant differences between 2006 and 2015 are shown in dark green.
  14. Only the 15 highest-performing countries/economies are shown.
  15. On the top-right, only countries with lower variation (“greater equity“) are shown; on the bottom left, only countries with higher variation (“lower equity“) are shown.
  16. Figure 3.10 in one slide
  17. Note: Statistically significant odds ratio are shown in a darker tone.
  18. Note: The graph refers to the score-point difference in science among disadvantaged students associated with a one-unit increase in school socio-economic profile, after accounting for student socio-economic status.
  19. Notes: The graph refers to the percentage of 25-year-old respondents who completed university. The difference between the top and the bottom quarters of reading performance are statistically significant in all countries.