Education at a glance 2013: OECD Indicators - Key findings

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  • I can understand why this slide does not include African countries since the author is concerned with OECD countries. It will be quite interesting to see how Africa fares in relation to the survey data collected. Good work.
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Education at a glance 2013: OECD Indicators - Key findings

  1. 1. EDUCATION AT AGLANCE 2013: OECDINDICATORSKey findings
  2. 2. One in three young adults today is expected tocomplete a university degree before they are 30Tertiary-type A graduation rates, including and excluding international students, by age (2011)010203040506070IcelandPolandUnitedKingdomNewZealandDenmarkAustraliaFinlandSlovakRepublicJapanNorwayIrelandNetherlandsSwedenEU21averageCzechRepublicOECDaverageIsraelPortugalUnitedStatesSloveniaCanadaAustriaSwitzerlandItalySpainGermanyHungaryChileTurkeyMexicoSaudiArabiaTotal of which <30 years old Total of which ≧ 30 years old Total%%Chart A3.3
  3. 3. University-level education is more common amongyounger than older adultsPercentage of 25-34 year-olds and 55-64 year-olds who have attained tertiary-type A education (2011)010203040506070KoreaJapanCanadaRussianFederationIrelandUnitedKingdomNorwayLuxembourgNewZealandIsraelAustraliaUnitedStatesFranceSwedenBelgiumChileSwitzerlandNetherlandsFinlandIcelandPolandSpainEstoniaOECDaverageDenmarkEU21averageSloveniaGreeceHungaryGermanyPortugalSlovakRepublicCzechRepublicMexicoAustriaItalyTurkeyBrazil25-64 year-olds 25-34 year-olds%Chart A1.1
  4. 4. Upper secondary education--general or vocational--isbecoming the normPercentage of 25-64 year-olds whose highest level of attainment is upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011)01020304050607080CzechRepublicSlovakRepublicPolandAustriaHungarySloveniaGermanyJapanEstoniaSwedenEU21averageUnitedStatesOECDaverageLuxembourgFinlandDenmarkSwitzerlandNorwayChileFranceItalyNewZealandGreeceKoreaRussian…NetherlandsIcelandCanadaUnitedKingdomIrelandBelgiumIsraelAustraliaBrazilSpainMexicoTurkeyPortugalUpper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with no distinction by orientationUpper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with general orientationUpper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary (ISCED 3/4) with vocational orientation%Chart A1.2
  5. 5. More people are participating in education than everbeforeProportion of population with tertiary education, and difference in attainment between 25-34 and 55-64 year-olds (2011)AUSAUSBELCABCHLCZEDNKESTFINFRAGERGRCHUNISLIRLISRITAJPNKORLUXMEXNLD NZLNORPOLPRTSVKSVNESPSWECHETURUKMUSABRARUS- 1001020304050600 10 20 30 40 50 60Proportion of 25-64 year-olds with tertiary educationOECDOECD averagePercentage pointsDifference between the 25-34 and 55-64 year-old populations with tertiary education.High attainment;decreasingadvantageLower attainment;catching upHigh attainment;IncreasingadvantageLow attainment;Getting furtherbehindChart A1.3
  6. 6. More young women than young men have at least anupper secondary educationPercentage of 25-64 year-olds who have attained at least upper secondary education, by gender (2011)30405060708090100KoreaSloveniaPolandRussianFederationSlovakRepublicCzechRepublicCanadaFinlandSwedenIsraelUnitedStatesEstoniaSwitzerlandChileIrelandHungaryAustriaGermanyAustraliaNorwayEU21averageFranceUnitedKingdomLuxembourgNetherlandsOECDaverageDenmarkGreeceBelgiumNewZealandIcelandItalySpainPortugalBrazilMexicoTurkeyMen Women%Chart A1.4
  7. 7. Three out of four young people today will completeupper secondary education before they are 25Estimated upper secondary graduation rates among those younger than/older than 25 (2011)0102030405060708090100SloveniaFinlandJapanKoreaUnitedKingdomGermanyNetherlandsDenmarkNorwayPortugalIrelandSpainIcelandHungaryCanadaIsraelSlovakRepublicEU21averagePolandChileOECDaverageItalyCzechRepublicUnitedStatesSwedenChinaLuxembourgGreeceAustriaTurkeyMexico% <25 ≧25 Total%Chart A2.1
  8. 8. Graduates of vocational programmes are generallyolder than graduates of general programmesAverage age of upper secondary graduates (2011)15171921232527293133PortugalIcelandBrazilPolandCzechRepublicFinlandHungaryIrelandDenmarkEU21averageNorwayChileOECDaverageArgentinaSlovakRepublicBelgiumLuxembourgItalySwedenSloveniaCanadaAustriaMexicoIndonesiaEstoniaFranceUnitedStatesTurkeyNetherlandsIsraelAustraliaAgeGeneral programmes Vocational programmes%Chart A2.2
  9. 9. Preparing for and entering university-level education(2011)Access to tertiary-type A education for upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary graduates under 250102030405060708090100IrelandFinlandIsraelChileSwedenSlovakRepublicItalyPolandAustraliaBelgiumHungaryEstoniaNetherlandsNorwayDenmarkIcelandTurkeyCzechRepublicFranceMexicoArgentinaSloveniaAustria%Graduation rates from upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary programmesdesigned to prepare students under 25 for tertiary-type A educationEntry rates into tertiary-type A education for students under 25Chart A2.3
  10. 10. The average graduate with a bachelors degree is 27years oldAverage age of graduates at ISCED 5A level and age distribution (2011)2223242526272829303132IcelandSwedenBrazilIsraelFinlandDenmarkChileNorwayCzech…NewZealandSpainAustriaAustraliaPortugalOECDaverageGermanyEU21averageSwitzerlandHungarySlovak…ItalySloveniaPolandTurkeyIrelandKoreaCanadaGreeceEstoniaNetherlandsMexicoIndonesiaUnited…%Tertiary-type A programmes (first degree)%Chart A3.1
  11. 11. Less than 70% of students entering tertiary educationgraduateProportion of students who enter tertiary education and graduate with at least a first degree0102030405060708090100JapanAustraliaDenmarkFranceSpainFinlandGermanyTurkeyBelgium(Fl.)NetherlandsCzechRepublicUnitedKingdomSlovakRepublicEU21averageOECDaveragePortugalMexicoAustriaPolandNewZealandNorwaySwedenUnitedStatesHungary%Chart A4.1
  12. 12. More women than men earn a university-level degreeProportion of students who enter tertiary education and graduate with at least a first degree/qualification at this level, by gender (2011)0102030405060708090100JapanAustraliaSpain,DenmarkFinlandBelgium(Fl.)TurkeyNetherlandsCzechRepublicGermanyPolandEU21averagePortugalOECDaverageMexicoAustriaNorwayNewZealandHungaryUnitedStatesSwedenWomen Men%Chart A4.2
  13. 13. Employment rates are highest among people whohave a tertiary educationEmployment rates among 25-64 year-olds, by educational attainment (2011)0102030405060708090100NorwaySwedenSloveniaIcelandGermanyNetherlandsAustriaSwitzerlandDenmarkRussianFederationLuxembourgNewZealandAustraliaBelgiumBrazilIsraelFinlandPolandJapanEU21averageOECDaverageUnitedKingdomIrelandPortugalCzechRepublicFranceCanadaSlovakRepublicEstoniaUnitedStatesSpainMexicoHungaryItalyChileKoreaTurkeyGreece% Lower secondary education Tertiary-type A and advanced research programmesChart A5.1
  14. 14. Adults with no upper secondary education suffereven more in weak labour marketsUnemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds with below upper secondary education (2005, 2008 and 2011)05101520253035404550KoreaMexicoChileBrazilNorwayNetherlandsAustraliaLuxembourgNewZealandAustriaIsraelIcelandSwitzerlandTurkeyDenmarkItalySwedenUnitedKingdomFinlandCanadaBelgiumOECDaverageSloveniaFrancePortugalGermanyRussianFederationEU21averageUnitedStatesPolandGreeceCzechRepublicIrelandHungaryEstoniaSpainSlovakRepublic%2011 2008 2005Chart A5.2-1
  15. 15. Adults with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiaryeducation have some insurance against weak labour marketsUnemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds with upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2005, 2008 and 2011)05101520NorwayAustriaSwitzerlandKoreaLuxembourgAustraliaNetherlandsNewZealandMexicoChileSwedenJapanIcelandBelgiumCzechRepublicIsraelGermanyUnitedKingdomItalyDenmarkBrazilCanadaFinlandOECDaverageRussian…FranceSloveniaEU21averagePolandTurkeyHungaryUnitedStatesPortugalSlovakRepublicEstoniaIrelandGreeceSpain%2011 2008 2005Chart A5.2-2
  16. 16. A tertiary education is an advantage, even during aneconomic downturnUnemployment rates for 25-64 year-olds tertiary educated people (2005, 2008 and 2011)051015NorwayAustriaGermanySwitzerlandCzech…NetherlandsAustraliaBrazilKoreaJapanBelgiumLuxembourgNewZealandRussian…SwedenIsraelUnited…HungaryFinlandIcelandPolandSloveniaOECD…MexicoFranceUnitedStatesCanadaDenmarkItalyEU21…Slovak…ChileIrelandTurkeyEstoniaPortugalSpainGreece%2011 2008 2005Chart A5.2-3
  17. 17. Unemployment rates increased in most countries, particularlyamong those with no upper secondary educationDifference in unemployment rates between 2008 and 2011, by educational attainment- 505101520GermanyIsraelTurkeyChileBrazilKoreaAustraliaAustriaNorwayBelgiumLuxembourgMexicoSwitzerlandItalyNetherlandsCanadaNewZealandSlovakRepublicFranceFinlandUnitedKingdomSwedenOECDaverageCzechRepublicIcelandEU21averageDenmarkPolandPortugalHungaryUnitedStatesSloveniaGreeceSpainIrelandEstonia% Below upper secondary Upper secondary TertiaryChart A5.2-4
  18. 18. A vocationally oriented upper secondary education offers betterinsurance against unemployment than a general uppersecondary educationUnemployment rates among 25-64 year-olds with vocational or general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011)02468101214161820NorwaySwitzerlandAustriaNetherlandsAustraliaSwedenIcelandNewZealandBelgiumGermanyIsraelItalyDenmarkCanadaFinlandOECDaverageFranceHungarySloveniaTurkeyEU21averagePolandSlovakRepublicEstoniaIrelandSpainGreece%Vocational education at ISCED 3/4 level General education at ISCED 3/4 levelChart A5.3
  19. 19. A vocationally oriented upper secondary education offers betterinsurance against unemployment than a general uppersecondary educationUnemployment rates among 35-44 year-olds with vocational or general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011)02468101214161820AustriaSwedenNetherlandsSwitzerlandAustraliaLuxembourgIsraelNewZealandDenmarkUnitedKingdomBelgiumCzechRepublicGermanyItalyFinlandHungarySloveniaCanadaTurkeyOECDaverageFrancePolandEU21averageEstoniaSlovakRepublicIrelandGreeceSpain%Vocational education at ISCED 3/4 level General education at ISCED 3/4 levelChart A5.3-35-44
  20. 20. A vocationally oriented upper secondary education offers betterinsurance against unemployment than a general uppersecondary educationUnemployment rates among 25-34 year-olds with vocational or general upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education (2011)051015202530AustraliaSwitzerlandNetherlandsAustriaLuxembourgSwedenUnitedKingdomNewZealandCzechRepublicGermanyCanadaFinlandBelgiumHungaryDenmarkTurkeyIsraelItalyOECDaverageEU21averageSloveniaPolandFranceEstoniaSlovakRepublicIrelandSpainGreece%Vocational education at ISCED 3/4 level General education at ISCED 3/4 levelChart A5.3-2 25-34
  21. 21. People with a tertiary degree will earn 57% morethan those with only upper secondary education.Relative earnings of 25-64 year-old employed men, by educational attainment (2011)050100150200250300ChileBrazilHungarySloveniaUnitedStatesCzechRepublicIrelandSlovakRepublicGreecePortugalPolandGermanyLuxembourgAustriaEU21averageUnitedKingdomOECDaverageNetherlandsSwitzerlandIsraelTurkeyFinlandJapanItalyKoreaFranceSpainCanadaAustraliaEstoniaBelgiumNorwayDenmarkSwedenNewZealandBelow upper secondary educationTertiary educationUpper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary educationChart A6.1
  22. 22. Men with a tertiary degree will earn 62% more thanthose with only upper secondary education.Relative earnings of 25-64 year-old employed men, by educational attainment (2011)050100150200250300350ChileBrazilHungarySloveniaIrelandCzechRepublicUnitedStatesPolandSlovakRepublicFranceIsraelPortugalFinlandGermanyEU21averageOECDaverageAustriaGreeceLuxembourgCanadaTurkeyItalyUnitedKingdomSwitzerlandNetherlandsAustraliaKoreaEstoniaDenmarkSpainSwedenJapan5BelgiumNewZealandNorwayTertiary-type A or advanced research programmes Tertiary-type B educationBelow upper secondary educationMenIndexChart A6.2 -1
  23. 23. Women with a tertiary degree will earn 61% morethan those with only upper secondary educationRelative earnings of 25-64 year-old employed women, by educational attainment (2011)050100150200250300350ChileBrazilGreeceIrelandSloveniaUnitedKingdomJapanUnitedStatesHungaryCanadaPortugalOECDaverageAustriaSlovakRepublicEU21averageSpainPolandKoreaLuxembourgGermanyIsraelCzechRepublicSwitzerlandNetherlandsTurkeyAustraliaFinlandFranceBelgiumEstoniaNewZealandItalyNorwaySwedenDenmarkTertiary-type A or advanced research programmes Tertiary-type B education Below upper secondary educationWomenChart A6.2 -2
  24. 24. The wage premium for tertiary educated workersincreases with agePercentage points difference, earnings relative to upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary- 30 - 20 - 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70IrelandTurkeyAustriaUnited KingdomUnited StatesNew ZealandEstoniaBelgiumNorwayAustraliaIsraelSwitzerlandDenmarkHungaryCzech RepublicSwedenSpainSlovak RepublicEU21 averageOECD averageNetherlandsFinlandCanadaGermanyChileItalyBrazilPortugalLuxembourgJapanSloveniaPolandFranceGreeceKoreaPercentage points differenceBelow upper secondary education Tertiary educationRelative earningshigher with ageRelativeearningslower with ageChart A6.3
  25. 25. The net public return on investment for a man intertiary education is over USD 100 000.Net private and public returns associated with a man attaining tertiary education (2009)0 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 300 000 350 000 400 000United StatesIrelandCzech RepublicPolandSloveniaSlovak RepublicHungaryAustriaUnited KingdomCanadaFinlandEU21 averageFrancePortugalOECD averageKoreaItalyAustraliaIsraelNetherlandsJapanEstoniaGermanySpainBelgiumNorwaySwedenDenmarkGreeceNew ZealandTurkeyEquivalent USDPrivate net returns Public net returnsChart A7.1
  26. 26. The private returns on an investment in tertiaryeducation are substantial, especially for menPrivate costs and benefits for a man attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary education (2009)-200 000 -100 000 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000Greece 14798Finland 30897Turkey 35082Poland 36764Estonia 45121Germany 56193New Zealand 58058Hungary 63962France 69168Italy 72302Israel 73154Denmark 80729Slovenia 80936EU21 average 89071Portugal 96530OECD average 100277Sweden 104322Canada 105055Spain 106512Australia 122526Czech Republic 133693Ireland 142366Norway 143459United Kingdom 148730Austria 156870Slovak Republic 163387United States 214382Korea 252207Equivalent USDDirect cost Foregone earnings Income tax effect Social contribution effectTransfers effect Gross earnings benefits Unemployment effectBenefitsCostsfor a manChart A7.2 -1
  27. 27. The private returns on an investment in tertiaryeducation are substantialPrivate costs and benefits for a woman attaining upper secondary or post-secondary non tertiary education (2009)-200 000 -100 000 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000Finland 16009Germany 26191Turkey 33223Estonia 43139France 44992Norway 46450Poland 47335Canada 47643New Zealand 51151Greece 53481United Kingdom 59818Denmark 59882Australia 60094Slovenia 64352Israel 68602Sweden 68678OECD average 69124EU21 average 70941Korea 71432Hungary 73554Italy 74010Portugal 76019Austria 93226Czech Republic 108418Spain 112703Ireland 118058Slovak Republic 137078United States 141680Equivalent USDDirect cost Foregone earnings Income tax effectSocial contribution effect Transfers effect Gross earnings benefitsNet present value Costs Benefitsfor a womanChart A7.2 -2
  28. 28. Adults with a tertiary education are half as likely to be obese asthose with only a below upper secondary educationPercentage of adults who are obese, by educational attainment (2011)01020304050UnitedKingdomUnitedStatesNewZealandChileAustraliaCanadaIcelandHungaryCzechRepublicOECDaverageEstoniaSloveniaPolandGreeceEU21averageSlovakRepublicIsraelIrelandBelgiumNorwaySwedenTurkeyFranceAustriaSpainNetherlandsBelow upper secondary education Upper secondary education Tertiary education%Chart A8.1
  29. 29. An individual with a higher level of education is lesslikely to smokePercentage of adults who smoke, by educational attainment (2011)0102030405060GreeceChilePolandSpainCzechRepublicHungaryIsraelSlovakRepublicEstoniaEU21averageBelgiumNorwayOECDaverageNetherlandsSloveniaFranceIrelandAustriaUnitedStatesCanadaAustraliaIcelandNewZealandUnitedKingdomSwedenBelow upper secondary education Upper secondary education Tertiary education%Chart A8.2
  30. 30. OECD countries spend USD 9 313 per student peryear on primary through tertiary educationIn equivalent USD converted using PPPs, based on full-time equivalents, for primary through tertiary education02 0004 0006 0008 00010 00012 00014 00016 000UnitedStatesSwitzerlandNorwayDenmarkAustriaSwedenNetherlandsBelgiumUnitedKingdomAustraliaIrelandJapanFranceFinlandSpainEU21averageSloveniaOECDaverageItalyIcelandKoreaNewZealandPortugalIsraelPolandEstoniaCzechRepublicSlovakRepublicHungaryRussianFederationChileArgentinaBrazilMexicoIn equivalent USDconverted using PPPsCore servicesAncillary services (transport, meals, housing provided by institutions) and R&DTotalChart B1.1
  31. 31. Annual spending per primary student ranged fromUSD 2 400 to USD 21 240Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2010)02 0004 0006 0008 00010 00012 00014 00016 00018 00020 00022 000LuxembourgNorwaySwitzerlandUnitedStatesDenmarkAustriaSwedenIcelandAustraliaUnitedKingdomSloveniaBelgiumIrelandJapanItalyEU21averageNetherlandsFinlandSpainNewZealandFranceKoreaPolandPortugalIsraelSlovakRepublicEstoniaHungaryCzechRepublicChileArgentinaBrazilMexicoTurkeyPrimary educationExpenditure per student (equivalentUSD converted using PPPs)OECDaverageChart B1.2-1
  32. 32. Annual spending per secondary student ranges fromUSD 2 600 to USD 17 633Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2010)02 0004 0006 0008 00010 00012 00014 00016 00018 00020 000LuxembourgSwitzerlandNorwayAustriaUnitedStatesNetherlandsDenmarkIrelandBelgiumFranceUnitedKingdomAustraliaSwedenJapanSpainEU21averageFinlandPortugalItalySloveniaNewZealandKoreaIcelandCzechRepublicEstoniaIsraelPolandSlovakRepublicHungaryArgentinaChileMexicoBrazilTurkeyEquivalent USDSecondary education Lower secondary education Upper secondary educationOECD averageChart B1.2-2
  33. 33. OECD countries spend nearly twice as much perstudent at the tertiary level as at the primary levelAnnual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2010)02 0004 0006 0008 00010 00012 00014 00016 00018 00020 00022 00024 00026 00028 00030 000UnitedStatesSwitzerlandSwedenDenmarkNorwayNetherlandsFinlandJapanIrelandUnitedKingdomBelgiumAustraliaFranceAustriaSpainBrazilEU21averageIsraelPortugalNewZealandKoreaSloveniaItalyPolandHungaryIcelandMexicoCzechRepublicChileSlovakRepublicEstoniaArgentinaOECD averageExpenditure per student (equivalent USDconverted using PPPs)Tertiary educationChart B1.2-3
  34. 34. In nearly all countries, expenditure per student riseswith the level of educationExpenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, at various levels of education relative to primary education (2010) - Primary education = 100050100150200250300350BrazilMexicoUnitedStatesFranceFinlandNetherlandsChileSwedenJapanIrelandSwitzerlandHungaryIsraelCzechRepublicSpainPortugalDenmarkBelgiumOECDaverageUnitedKingdomAustraliaArgentinaNewZealandKoreaNorwayPolandAustriaEstoniaSlovakRepublicItalySloveniaIcelandIndexPre-primary education Secondary education Tertiary education473Chart B1.3
  35. 35. In most countries, spending per primary and secondary studentincreased by at least 10% between 2005 and 2010Change in expenditure per student by educational institutions (2005 = 100, 2010 constant prices )708090100110120130140150160170180190200BrazilSlovakRepublicPolandRussianFederationChileKoreaEstoniaIrelandAustraliaCzechRepublicBelgiumIsraelNewZealandCanadaOECDaverageEU21averageLuxembourgSloveniaNetherlandsSpainUnitedStatesSwedenFinlandNorwayAustriaPortugalUnitedKingdomJapanSwitzerlandFranceMexicoDenmarkItalyHungaryIcelandIndex of change(2005=100)Change in expenditureChange in the number of students (in full-time equivalents)Change in expenditure per studentPrimary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education473Chart B1.6-1
  36. 36. In some major countries expenditure per tertiary student did notalways keep pace with increases in tertiary enrolmentChange in expenditure per student by educational institutions (2005 = 100, 2010 constant prices )60708090100110120130140150160170180EstoniaKoreaPolandIrelandBrazilFinlandFranceJapanItalySwedenSpainEU21averageHungaryBelgiumChileOECDaverageCzechRepublicPortugalMexicoSloveniaSlovakRepublicDenmarkNetherlandsAustraliaNorwayIsraelUnitedKingdomNewZealandUnitedStatesRussianFederationAustriaIcelandSwitzerlandIndex of change(2005=100)Change in expenditureChange in the number of students (in full-time equivalents)Change in expenditure per studentTertiary educationChart B1.6-2
  37. 37. In 2010, OECD countries spent an average of 6.3%of their GDP on educational institutionsExpenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP for all levels of education (2000, 2005 and 2010)0123456789DenmarkIcelandKoreaNorwayIsraelUnitedStatesNewZealandArgentinaBelgiumCanadaFinlandUnited…SwedenIrelandChileFranceNetherlandsOECDaverageMexicoAustraliaEstoniaEU21averageSloveniaPortugalPolandAustriaBrazilSpainSwitzerlandJapanRussian…CzechRepublicItalySlovak…Hungary% of GDP 2010 2005 2000Chart B2.1
  38. 38. Nearly two-thirds of spending on educational institutions isdevoted to primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educationExpenditure on educational institutions, from public and private sources, as a percentage of GDP (2010)011223344556NewZealandIcelandDenmarkUnitedKingdomIrelandArgentinaBelgiumAustraliaIsraelKoreaFinlandNetherlandsFranceSwitzerlandUnitedStatesMexicoSwedenEstoniaSloveniaPortugalCanadaPolandAustriaLuxembourgChileSpainItalySlovakRepublicJapanCzechRepublicRussianFederationNorwayBrazilHungaryTurkey% of GDPPrimary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary educationPublic expenditure on education institutions Private expenditure on education institutionsOECD average (totalexpenditure)Chart B2.2-1
  39. 39. One-quarter of spending on educational institutions isdevoted to tertiary educationExpenditure on educational institutions, from public and private sources, as a percentage of GDP (2010)0112233UnitedStatesCanadaKoreaChileFinlandDenmarkSwedenNetherlandsNorwayIsraelAustraliaEstoniaRussianFederationNewZealandIrelandJapanAustriaFranceArgentinaPolandPortugalBelgiumMexicoUnitedKingdomSpainSwitzerlandSloveniaIcelandCzechRepublicItalySlovakRepublicBrazilHungary% of GDPTertiary educationPublic expenditure on education institutionsPrivate expenditure on education institutionsOECD average (totalexpenditure)Chart B2.2-2
  40. 40. Between 2008 and 2010, only five countries cutpublic expenditure on educational institutionsIndex of change between 2008 and 2010 in expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, for all levels of education (2008=100, 2010 constant prices)80859095100105110115120125AustraliaSlovakRepublicDenmarkIrelandPortugalFinlandNewZealandNetherlandsJapanUnitedKingdomCanadaCzechRepublicSloveniaMexicoSpainEU21averageAustriaOECDaverageNorwayKoreaFranceSwitzerlandSwedenEstoniaBelgiumIsraelUnitedStatesRussianFederationPolandIcelandItalyHungaryChileIndex of change(2008=100)Change in public expenditure on educational institutionsChange in Gross Domestic ProductChange in expenditure on education institutions as a percentage of GDPChart B2.3-1
  41. 41. Between 2009 and 2010, public expenditure oneducational institutions fell in one-third of OECD countriesIndex of change between 2008 and 2010 in expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, for all levels of education (2008=100, 2010 constant prices)859095100105110115120SlovakRepublicMexicoIsraelAustraliaJapanChileKoreaFinlandPolandBelgiumSwedenUnitedKingdomDenmarkNetherlandsOECDaverageFranceCanadaSwitzerlandSloveniaCzechRepublicAustriaNewZealandIrelandPortugalNorwaySpainUnitedStatesItalyHungaryEstoniaIcelandRussianFederationIndex of changeBetween 2008 and 2009Between 2009 and 2010Index of change in expenditure on educational institutionsChart B2.3-2
  42. 42. In most countries, GDP rose (in real terms) between2009 and 2010Index of change between 2008 and 2010 in expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, for all levels of education (2008=100, 2010 constant prices)859095100105110115120ChileSwedenSwitzerlandKoreaMexicoIsraelRussianFederationSlovakRepublicPolandJapanCanadaCzechRepublicOECDaverageFinlandAustraliaEstoniaUnitedStatesAustriaBelgiumUnitedKingdomNetherlandsSloveniaEU21averageNorwayFrancePortugalDenmarkItalyHungaryNewZealandSpainIrelandIcelandIndex of change Between 2008 and 2009Between 2009 and 2010Index of change in Gross domestic productChart B2.3-3
  43. 43. Some 16% of all spending on educational institutionscomes from private sourcesShare of private expenditure on educational institutions (2010)01020304050607080ChileUnitedKingdomKoreaJapanUnitedStatesAustraliaIsraelCanada1RussianFederationNewZealandItalyOECDaveragePortugalMexicoSlovakRepublicPolandNetherlandsEstoniaArgentinaEU21averageSpainCzechRepublicIrelandFranceSloveniaAustriaBelgiumSwedenIcelandDenmarkFinlandNorwaySwitzerlandLuxembourg%Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Tertiary educationChart B3.1
  44. 44. The share of private expenditure on tertiary institutionsincreased from 24% in 2000 to 32% in 2010Share of private expenditure on tertiary educational institutions (2000, 2005 and 2010)0102030405060708090ChileUnitedKingdomKoreaJapanUnitedStatesAustraliaIsraelCanadaRussianFederationNewZealandItalyEU21averageOECDaveragePortugalMexicoSlovakRepublicPolandNetherlandsEstoniaArgentinaSpainCzechRepublicIrelandFranceSloveniaAustriaBelgiumSwedenIcelandDenmarkFinlandNorway%2010 2005 2000Chart B3.3
  45. 45. Public expenditure, per student, is higher on publictertiary institutions than on private institutionsAnnual public expenditure on educational institutions per student in tertiary education, by type of institution (2010)05 00010 00015 00020 00025 000Norway(86%)Sweden(90%)Denmark(99%)Finland(77%)Belgium(43%)Austria(m)Netherlands(91%)France(82%)Spain(86%)UnitedStates(70%)OECDaverage(68%)Iceland(82%)Australia(93%)Slovenia(90%)NewZealand(89%)Portugal(77%)Italy(91%)Japan(23%)Israel(1%)Hungary(84%)CzechRepublic(85%)Mexico(68%)SlovakRepublic(m)Poland(73%)Estonia(17%)UnitedKingdom(0%)Korea(20%)Chile(16%)In equivalent USDconverted using PPPsPublic institutions Private institutions Total public and private institutionsChart B3.4
  46. 46. In 2010, 13% of total public spending was devoted toeducationPublic expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure (1995, 2005, 2010)0510152025MexicoNewZealandBrazilChileKoreaSwitzerlandDenmarkAustraliaNorwayIcelandEstoniaIsraelSwedenCanadaUnitedStatesBelgiumOECDaverageFinlandUnitedKingdomNetherlandsEU21averagePolandSloveniaAustriaPortugalSpainSlovakRepublicRussianFederationFranceHungaryIrelandCzechRepublicJapanItaly% of total publicexpenditure2010 2005 1995Chart B4.1
  47. 47. Between 2008 and 2010, countries varied in the share oftotal public expenditure they allocated to educationIndex of change between 2008 and 2010 in public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditure for all levels of education combined (2008=100, 2010 constant prices)707580859095100105110115120125AustraliaIcelandUnitedKingdomSwitzerlandNewZealandIsraelChileKoreaDenmarkSwedenSlovakRepublicCzechRepublicAustriaPortugalOECDaverageFinlandEstoniaJapanFranceNetherlandsEU21averageSpainPolandSloveniaBelgiumItalyHungaryNorwayUnitedStatesBrazilMexicoIrelandIndex of changeChange in public expenditure on educationChange in public expenditure for all servicesChange in total public expenditure on education as a percentage of total public expenditureChart B4.2
  48. 48. More than one-third of countries offer public supportto private entities for university-level educationPublic support to households and other private entities as a percentage of total public expenditure on tertiary education (2010)051015202530354045505560657075808590UnitedKingdomUnitedStatesDenmarkSloveniaItalySlovakRepublicChileAustriaPortugalFinlandHungaryNewZealandBelgiumOECDaverageIrelandAustraliaPolandNetherlandsNorwayIsraelSwedenSpainFranceSwitzerlandCanadaBrazilEstoniaMexicoKoreaCzechRepublicArgentinaJapanIceland% of total publicexpenditure ontertiary educationScholarships/ other grants to households Transfers and payments to other private entities Student loansChart B5.3. Public subsidies for education inChart B5.2
  49. 49. The salary cost of teachers per primary studentincreased by 10% between 2000 and 2011Salary cost per primary teacher in 2000, 2005 and 201105001 0001 5002 0002 5003 0003 5004 0004 500DenmarkBelgium(Fl.)Belgium(Fr.)PortugalNorwayItalyUnitedStatesAustraliaAustriaSpainIrelandJapanOECDaverageFinlandSloveniaKoreaFranceHungaryIsraelCzechRepublicTurkeyMexicoUSDSalary cost in 2011 Salary cost in 2005 Salary cost in 2000Primary educationChart B7.2-1
  50. 50. The salary cost of lower secondary teachers perstudent increased by 11% between 2000 and 2011Salary cost of lower secondary teachers in 2000, 2005 and 201101 0002 0003 0004 0005 0006 000Belgium(Fl.)Belgium(Fr.)PortugalAustriaFinlandAustraliaSpainDenmarkItalyOECDaverageNorwayJapanIrelandUnitedStatesSloveniaFranceKoreaHungaryIsraelCzechRepublicMexicoUSDSalary cost in 2011 Salary cost in 2005 Salary cost in 2000lower secondary educationChart B7.2-2
  51. 51. From 1995 to 2011, participation in education among 20-29 year-olds increased by more than 10 percentage pointsEnrolment rates of 20-29 year-olds (1995, 2000, 2005 and 2011)051015202530354045FinlandDenmarkIcelandSwedenNetherlandsSloveniaAustraliaGermanyBelgiumKoreaPolandNorwayNewZealandEU21averageEstoniaOECDaverageArgentinaChileUnitedStatesSpainHungaryAustriaCanadaCzechRepublicSwitzerlandPortugalIsraelRussianFederationBrazilItalyIrelandSlovakRepublicTurkeyFranceUnitedKingdomMexicoIndonesia2011 2000 1995%Chart C1.1
  52. 52. From 1995 to 2011, participation in education among15-19 year-olds increased from 77% to 85%Enrolment rates of 15-19 year-olds for full-time and part-time students in public and private institutions (1995, 2000, 2005 and 2011)0102030405060708090100BelgiumIrelandPolandNetherlandsSloveniaHungaryGermanyCzechRepublicEU21averageIcelandPortugalFinlandEstoniaDenmarkKoreaNorwaySpainSwedenSlovakRepublicSwitzerlandFranceAustraliaOECDaverageGreeceNewZealandItalyCanadaUnitedStatesAustriaUnitedKingdomRussianFederationBrazilLuxembourgChileArgentinaIndonesiaIsraelTurkeyMexicoChina2011 2000 1995%%Chart C1.2
  53. 53. Some 82% of 4-year-olds are enrolled in earlychildhood educationEnrolment rates in early childhood and primary education at age 4 (2005 and 2011)0102030405060708090100SpainMexicoNetherlandsFranceBelgiumDenmarkUnitedKingdomNorwayIcelandItalyGermanyNewZealandIrelandLuxembourgSwedenIsraelHungaryJapanAustriaEstoniaEU21averageSloveniaPortugalCzechRepublicOECDaverageKoreaUnitedStatesChileRussianFederationArgentinaSlovakRepublicAustraliaPolandFinlandBrazilCanadaSwitzerlandTurkey2005 2011%Chart C2.1
  54. 54. The average age at which mothers have their firstchild has risen from 24 in 1970 to 28 in 2009.Average age when mothers have their first child, in 1970, 1995 and 20092021222324252627282930GermanyUnitedKingdomItalySpainSwitzerlandLuxembourgJapanKoreaSwedenNetherlandsGreeceFranceDenmarkIrelandAustraliaPortugalOECDaverageBelgiumFinlandCanadaAustriaNorwayCzechRepublicHungarySlovakRepublicIcelandPolandEstoniaUnitedStatesMexicoAge 1970 1995 20090 -Chart C2.2
  55. 55. Expenditure on pre-primary education accounts foran average of 0.6% of GDP.Expenditure on early childhood educational institutions as a percentage of GDP, by funding sources (2010)0001111DenmarkIcelandSpainIsraelRussianFederationLuxembourgSloveniaFranceSwedenHungaryPolandMexicoChileBelgiumNewZealandArgentinaEU21averageAustriaOECDaverageCzechRepublicNorwayUnitedStatesSlovakRepublicItalyEstoniaFinlandBrazilNetherlandsPortugalUnitedKingdomKoreaJapanSwitzerlandAustraliaPrivate expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDPPublic expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDPTotal% of GDPChart C2.3
  56. 56. The ratio of pupils to teaching staff also indicates thelevel of resources devoted to pre-primary educationRatio of pupils to teaching staff in early childhood education in public and private institutions (2011)02468101214161820222426MexicoIsraelChinaTurkeyChileFranceIndonesiaUnitedKingdomBrazilKoreaBelgiumPolandPortugalJapanNetherlandsOECDaverageAustriaCzechRepublicUnitedStatesEU21averageSpainGermanySlovakRepublicItalyLuxembourgHungarySaudiArabiaFinlandSloveniaNewZealandEstoniaSwedenIcelandStudent to teaching staff ratioChart C2.4
  57. 57. Some 60% of young adults are expected to enteruniversity programmes, 48% before the age of 25.Entry rates into tertiary-type A education (2011)0102030405060708090100AustraliaIcelandPolandNewZealandNorwaySloveniaUnitedStatesSwedenRussianFederationDenmarkKoreaFinlandNetherlandsUnitedKingdomSlovakRepublicCzechRepublicArgentinaOECDaverageEU21averageIsraelSpainSaudiArabiaAustriaHungaryJapanIrelandItalyGermanyChileSwitzerlandEstoniaGreeceFranceTurkeyMexicoBelgiumIndonesiaChina% All studentsExcluding international studentsChart C3.1
  58. 58. Between 1995 and 2011, entry rates into universityprogrammes increased by more than 20 percentagepointsEntry rates into tertiary-type A education (2000, 2011)020406080100AustraliaIcelandPolandNewZealandNorwaySloveniaUnitedStatesSwedenRussianFederationDenmarkKoreaFinlandNetherlandsUnitedKingdomSlovakRepublicCzechRepublicOECDaverageEU21averageArgentinaIsraelSpainSaudiArabiaAustriaHungaryJapanIrelandItalyGermanyChileSwitzerlandEstoniaGreeceFranceTurkeyMexicoBelgiumLuxembourgIndonesiaChina% Tertiary-type A (2000) Tertiary-type A (2011)Chart C3.2
  59. 59. The most popular fields of education chosen by newentrants into tertiary programmes are social sciences,business and lawDistribution of new entrants into tertiary programmes, by field of education (2011)202530354045IndonesiaMexicoRussianFederationHungaryDenmarkTurkeyFranceNetherlandsAustraliaSwitzerlandIsraelPortugalItalyAustriaPolandNewZealandArgentinaSloveniaOECDaverageEU21averageCzechRepublicNorwayIcelandBelgiumGreeceSpainEstoniaSwedenJapanUnitedKingdomSlovakRepublicChileGermanyIrelandFinlandSaudiArabiaKoreaHumanities, arts and education Health and welfareSocial sciences, business and law ServicesChart C3.3
  60. 60. More than one in 30 students will pursue studies up to thehighest academic level, often after the age of 30Entry rates into advanced research programmes and average age of new entrants (2011)2932293030283037363331303231363233 33 3330352927312937363327262830323436380123456GermanySloveniaSwitzerlandAustriaDenmarkCzechRepublicSlovakRepublicIcelandPortugalAustraliaEU21averageUnitedKingdomSwedenChinaEstoniaKoreaOECDaverageNorwayNewZealandFinlandFranceRussianFederationItalyIsraelHungaryNetherlandsJapanTurkeyArgentinaSpainMexicoChileIndonesiaSaudiArabiaAll students Excluding international students Average Age% AgChart C3.4
  61. 61. In 2011, more than 4.3 million students were enrolled intertiary education outside their country of citizenship.Evolution in the number of students enrolled outside their country of citizenship, by region of destination (2000 to 2011)01122334452000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Worldwide OECD G20 countries Europe North America OceaniaMillion studentsChart C4.1
  62. 62. Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the United Kingdomand the United States together receive more than 50% ofall foreign students worldwide.Percentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled, by destination (2000, 2011)0510152025UnitedStatesUnitedKingdomGermanyFranceAustraliaCanadaRussianFederationJapanSpainSouthAfricaChinaItalyNewZealandAustriaKoreaSwitzerlandNetherlandsBelgiumOtherOECDOtherG0andnon-OECD2000 2011Marketshare (%)OECDcountriesOther G20 andnon-OECD countries20002011Chart C4.3
  63. 63. At least 10% of tertiary enrolments in Australia, Austria,New Zealand, Switzerland and the United Kingdom areinternational studentsInternational or foreign student enrolment as a percentage of total tertiary enrolment (2011)05101520AustraliaUnitedKingdomSwitzerlandNewZealandAustriaBelgiumSwedenDenmarkCanada¹IrelandIcelandNetherlandsFinlandHungarySlovakRepublicJapanUnitedStatesPortugalSpainEstoniaSloveniaNorwayPolandChileFranceCzechRepublicSouthAfrica¹GreeceItalySaudiArabiaRussianFederationKoreaIsraelTurkeyChinaBrazilForeign students2%International studentsOECD averageChart C4.4
  64. 64. In 2011, 5% of students were employed full-time and7.3% part-time.Proportion of part-time (PT), involuntary part-time and full-time (FT) workers among 15-29 year-olds in education (2011)051015202530HungarySlovakRepublicGreeceItalyCzechRepublicBelgiumSpainKoreaTurkeyLuxembourgFranceChileMexicoIrelandPolandJapanIsraelEU21averageEstoniaSwedenUnitedKingdomOECDaverageBrazilNorwayUnitedStatesFinlandSloveniaNewZealandCanadaAustriaGermanyAustraliaIcelandSwitzerlandNetherlandsDenmark%Employed FT and in educationEmployed PT and in education (excluding involuntary PT)Involuntary PTChart C5.1-1
  65. 65. In 2011, 5% of 15-29 year-olds no longer in educationwere part-time workers; 32% worked full time.Proportion of part-time (PT), involuntary part-time and full-time (FT) workers among 15-29 year-olds no longer in education (2011)05101520253035404550BrazilAustriaCzech…SwitzerlandNorwayCanadaMexicoEstoniaLuxembourgPolandAustraliaUnited…Slovak…NewZealandFranceSwedenBelgiumGermanyKoreaUnited…TurkeyGreeceHungaryNetherlandsIrelandChileSloveniaFinlandSpainIcelandItalyIsraelDenmarkJapanEU21…%Employed FT and no longer in educationEmployed PT and no longer in education (excluding involuntary PT)Involuntary PTChart C5.1-2
  66. 66. On average across OECD countries, 8.2% of 15-19 year-olds were neither in education nor employed in 2011(2.7% unemployed and 5.8% inactive),Percentage of 15-19 year-olds not in education and unemployed or not in the labour force (2011)051015202530354045TurkeyMexicoBrazilIsraelChileNewZealandAustraliaUnitedKingdomCanadaNorwaySpainItalyOECDaverageUnitedStatesPortugalAustriaIrelandSwitzerlandKoreaDenmarkNetherlandsSwedenGreeceEU21averageFranceBelgiumEstoniaIcelandFinlandSlovakRepublicGermanyCzechRepublicHungaryPolandLuxembourg%Not in education and unemployedNot in education and not in the labour forceNot in education (Total)Chart C5.2
  67. 67. Between 2008 and 2011, the share of NEET among 15-19year-olds grew in more than half of the OECD countriesPercentage of 15-19 year-olds who were neither employed nor in education or training (NEET) in 2008 and 20110510152025303540Turkey-12.3Switzerland-4.4Slovenia-1Hungary-0.9Norway-0.8Brazil-0.7SlovakRepublic-0.3UnitedKingdom-0.3Sweden-0.2Germany-0.2Austria-0.2OECDaverage-0.2UnitedStates-0.1Greece-0.1Finland0Luxembourg0.2Canada0.5Belgium0.6Ireland1.0Portugal1.0CzechRepublic1.0Mexico1.1France1.2Denmark1.3Netherlands1.4Spain1.5Poland1.5Estonia1.5Australia1.5NewZealand1.7Korea1.7Italy1.8Israel1.92008 2011%Chart C5.3-1
  68. 68. Almost 30% of 15-29 year-olds working part time in2011 would have liked to work more.Involuntary part-time 15-29 year-old workers among total part-time workers (2011), and change in part-time employment (2008-11)6694723564592834477167514265951622171573010244629813190204060801001201401600 5 10 15 20 25 30 35IcelandDenmarkNetherlandsKoreaCanadaSlovak RepublicTurkeyItalySpainEU21 averageOECD averageAustraliaEstoniaUnited KingdomGreeceLuxembourgFinlandNew ZealandNorwayHungaryFranceBelgiumSwedenCzech RepublicAustriaPolandGermanyMexicoJapanSwitzerlandSloveniaIsraelPart time (not in education) 2011 in % Part time (not in education) 2008 in %Involuntary part time/Total part time (%)Chart C5.4
  69. 69. Students in OECD countries receive an average of 7 751hours of instruction during primary and lower secondaryeducation, most of which is compulsoryNumber of intended instruction hours in public institutions (2011)0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000AustraliaIrelandNetherlandsSpainLuxembourgIcelandIsraelFrancePortugalMexicoCanadaChileDenmarkEnglandNorwayOECD averageEU21 averageBelgium (Fr.)ItalyGermanyJapanIndonesiaSlovak RepublicGreeceBelgium (Fl.)AustriaFinlandSwedenPolandSloveniaCzech RepublicKoreaRussian FederationEstoniaHungaryTurkeyTotal number of intended instruction hoursCompulsory instruction time Non-compulsory instruction timeCompulsory instruction time Non-compulsory instruction timePrimary education Lower secondary educationChart D1.1
  70. 70. Instruction in reading, writing and literature, mathematicsand science represents 51% of compulsory instructiontimeInstruction time per subject in primary education as a percentage of total compulsory instruction time (2011)0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%HungaryFranceMexicoDenmarkSlovakRepublicAustriaIrelandLuxembourgGreeceCanadaEU21averagePortugalOECDaverageNorwayIsraelTurkeySpainItalyFinlandRussianFederationSloveniaEstoniaJapanKoreaBelgium(Fl.)ArgentinaPolandGermanyChileIcelandIndonesiaReading, writing and literature Mathematics ScienceModern foreign languages Other compulsory core curriculum Compulsory flexible curriculumChart D1.2a
  71. 71. Instruction in reading, writing and literature, mathematicsand science represents 41% of compulsory instructiontime for lower secondary studentsInstruction time per subject in lower secondary education as a percentage of total compulsory instruction time (2011)0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%IrelandItalyIsraelDenmarkRussianFederationCanadaGreeceBelgium(Fr.)SpainHungaryArgentinaChileFrancePolandNorwayOECDaverageEU21averageSlovakRepublicMexicoBelgium(Fl.)AustriaEstoniaGermanyIcelandEnglandLuxembourgSloveniaKoreaIndonesiaFinlandPortugalJapanReading, writing and literature MathematicsScience Modern foreign languagesOther compulsory core curriculum Compulsory flexible curriculumChart D1.2b
  72. 72. Primary school classes tended to become smallerbetween 2000 and 2011Average class size in primary education (2000, 2011)010203040ChinaChileJapanIsraelKoreaTurkeyIndonesiaArgentinaUnitedKingdomBrazilIrelandAustraliaFranceSpainGermanyBelgium(Fr.)HungaryPortugalDenmarkUnitedStatesCzechRepublicMexicoFinlandItalySloveniaPolandIcelandAustriaSlovakRepublicRussianFederationEstoniaGreeceLuxembourgNumber of studentsper classroom2011 2000Chart D2.1
  73. 73. On average in OECD countries, class size increases bytwo or more students between primary and lowersecondary educationAverage class size in educational institutions, by level of education (2011)0102030405060ChinaChileJapanIsraelKoreaTurkeyIndonesiaArgentinaUnitedKingdomBrazilIrelandAustraliaFranceSpainOECDaverageGermanyBelgium(Fr.)HungaryPortugalDenmarkUnitedStatesEU21averageCzechRepublicMexicoFinlandItalySloveniaPolandIcelandAustriaSlovakRepublicRussianFederationEstoniaGreeceLuxembourgNumber of studentsper classroomPrimary education Lower secondary educationChart D2.2
  74. 74. On average, OECD countries counted one teacherfor every 14 pupils in pre-primary schoolRatio of pupils to teaching staff in educational institutions at the pre-primary level (2011)0102030MexicoIsraelChinaTurkeyChileFranceIndonesiaUnitedKingdomBrazilKoreaBelgiumPolandPortugalJapanNetherlandsAustriaCzechRepublicUnitedStatesSpainGermanySlovakRepublicItalyLuxembourgHungarySaudiArabiaFinlandSloveniaNewZealandEstoniaSwedenIcelandPre-primary educationNumber of students per teacher in full-timeequivalentsOECD averageChart D2.3-1
  75. 75. On average, OECD countries counted one teacherfor every 15 students in primary schoolRatio of students to teaching staff in educational institutions at the primary level (2011)010203040MexicoChileBrazilTurkeyIndonesiaRussianFederationUnitedKingdomKoreaCzechRepublicFranceJapanChinaSlovakRepublicNewZealandGermanySloveniaIsraelNetherlandsIrelandAustraliaUnitedStatesFinlandEstoniaSpainBelgiumAustriaItalySwedenPortugalSaudiArabiaPolandHungaryNorwayIcelandLuxembourgNumber of studentsper teacher in full-timeequivalentsPrimary educationOECD averageChart D2.3-2
  76. 76. On average, OECD countries counted one teacherfor every 13 students in lower secondary schoolRatio of students to teaching staff in educational institutions at the lower secondary level (2011)010203040MexicoChileBrazilKoreaIndonesiaNewZealandNetherlandsUnitedStatesUnitedKingdomFranceChinaJapanGermanyIsraelSlovakRepublicItalySwedenCzechRepublicIcelandHungarySpainEstoniaPolandNorwaySaudiArabiaFinlandAustriaPortugalBelgiumSloveniaLower secondary educationNumber of students per teacher in full-timeequivalentsOECD averageChart D2.3-3
  77. 77. On average, OECD countries counted one teacherfor every 14 students in upper secondary schoolRatio of students to teaching staff in educational institutions at the upper secondary level (2011)010203040MexicoChileIndonesiaChinaNetherlandsTurkeyUnitedKingdomBrazilFinlandKoreaUnitedStatesSlovakRepublicSloveniaNewZealandGermanyEstoniaSwedenItalyHungaryJapanCzechRepublicIcelandIsraelPolandSaudiArabiaBelgiumFranceAustriaSpainNorwayPortugalUpper secondary educationNumber of students per teacher in full-timeequivalentsOECD averageChart D2.3-4
  78. 78. Classes in public primary schools have an average of 21students, while those in private schools have 20 studentsAverage class size in public and private primary schools (2011)01020304050ChinaChileIsraelJapanKoreaTurkeyIndonesiaUnitedKingdomBrazilArgentinaIrelandAustraliaFranceOECDaverageGermanyHungaryPortugalBelgium(Fr.)DenmarkUnitedStatesSpainCzechRepublicEU21averageMexicoFinlandItalyPolandSloveniaIcelandAustriaSlovakRepublicRussianFederationEstoniaGreeceLuxembourgPublic institutions Private institutionsNumber of students perclassroomChart D2.4-1
  79. 79. In 13 countries, the average lower secondary class islarger in private schools than in public schoolsAverage class size in public and private lower secondary institutions (2011)0102030405060ChinaIndonesiaKoreaJapanChileIsraelBrazilArgentinaMexicoGermanyFranceSpainUnitedStatesOECDaveragePolandAustraliaPortugalEU21averageItalyGreeceCzechRepublicAustriaHungaryUnitedKingdomDenmarkFinlandSlovakRepublicIcelandLuxembourgSloveniaRussianFederationEstoniaPublic institutions Private institutionsNumber of students perclassroomChart D2.4-2
  80. 80. The statutory salary of lower secondary teachers with15 years of experience averages USD 39 934Teachers salaries in lower secondary education in public institutions, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs (2011)020 00040 00060 00080 000100 000LuxembourgSwitzerlandGermanyNetherlandsCanadaIrelandDenmarkAustraliaKoreaScotlandUnitedStatesJapanSpainBelgium(Fl.)AustriaBelgium(Fr.)EnglandNewZealandFinlandEU21averageOECDaveragePortugalNorwayFranceItalySwedenSloveniaGreeceIcelandIsraelMexicoChileCzechRepublicPolandArgentinaHungarySlovakRepublicEstoniaIndonesiaEquivalent USDconverted using PPPsChart D3.1-1
  81. 81. In only 6 countries were relative salaries for teachershigher than those of comparably educated workersRatio of teachers salary to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education aged 25-64 (2011 or latest available year)0112SpainKoreaLuxembourgPortugalNewZealandCanadaGermanyFinlandIsraelEnglandAustraliaDenmarkBelgium(Fl.)OECDaverageEU21averageNetherlandsBelgium(Fr.)IrelandSwedenSloveniaFranceScotlandPolandChileNorwayUnitedStatesEstoniaAustriaItalyHungaryCzechRepublicIcelandSlovakRepublicRatioChart D3.1-2
  82. 82. Lower secondary teachers salaries at the top of the scaleare 61% higher, on average, than starting salariesAnnual statutory teachers salaries, in public institutions, in equivalent USD converted using PPPs (2011)020 00040 00060 00080 000100 000120 000140 000LuxembourgSwitzerlandGermanyDenmarkSpainNetherlandsUnitedStatesCanadaAustraliaIrelandNorwayFinlandAustriaBelgium(Fl.)Belgium(Fr.)PortugalSwedenEU21averageEnglandOECDaverageScotlandItalyFranceNewZealandKoreaSloveniaJapanIcelandGreeceMexicoIsraelChileCzechRepublicArgentinaPolandEstoniaHungarySlovakRepublicIndonesiaStarting salary and minimum trainingSalary at top of scale and maximum qualificationsEquivalentUSD convertedChart D3.2
  83. 83. Between 2000 and 2011, teachers’ salaries rose, in realterms, in almost all countries. Notable exceptions areFrance and Japan.Index of change between 2000 and 2011 (2000 = 100, constant prices),for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training8090100110120130140150160170180190200210220CzechRepublicEstoniaIrelandPortugalDenmarkKoreaHungaryScotlandAustriaIsraelEU21averageOECDaverageAustraliaSwedenMexicoIcelandFinlandSpainNewZealandEnglandBelgium(Fr.)Belgium(Fl.)ItalyUnitedStatesSwitzerlandGreeceFranceJapan2011 2005Index of changeChart D3.3
  84. 84. Between 2009 and 2011, teachers’ salaries fell, for thefirst time since 2000, by around 2% at all levels ofeducationOECD average of the index of change between 2005 and 2011 (2000 = 100, constant prices),for teachers with 15 years of experience and minimum training1001051101151201251302005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Primary level Lower secondary level Upper secondary levelIndex of changeChart Box_D3.1
  85. 85. Between 2000 and 2011, the number of teaching hours atthe secondary level remained relatively stable.Number of teaching hours per year in lower secondary education (2000, 2005 and 2011)- Net statutory contact time in public institutions01002003004005006007008009001 0001 1001 2001 3001 4001 5001 600ArgentinaChileUnitedStatesMexicoScotlandNewZealandAustraliaPortugalGermanyNetherlandsCanadaLuxembourgIrelandSpainOECDaverageEnglandSloveniaBelgium(Fl.)EU21averageNorwayBelgium(Fr.)SlovakRepublicDenmarkFranceCzechRepublicItalyIcelandKoreaEstoniaIsraelAustriaHungaryJapanFinlandPolandIndonesiaRussian…GreeceHours per year2000 2011Chart D4.1
  86. 86. Public-school teachers teach between 994 hours per yearat the pre-primary level to 664 hours at the uppersecondary level of education, on averageNumber of teaching hours per year, by level of education (2000, 2005 and 2011)- Net statutory contact time in public institutions01002003004005006007008009001 0001 1001 2001 3001 4001 5001 6001 7001 800ArgentinaChileUnitedStatesScotlandMexicoAustraliaPortugalNewZealandNetherlandsCanadaLuxembourgIrelandGermanyEnglandSpainOECDaverageFranceIndonesiaEU21averageSloveniaItalySlovakRepublicBelgium(Fl.)KoreaHungaryCzechRepublicBelgium(Fr.)AustriaEstoniaTurkeyFinlandIcelandPolandNorwayIsraelJapanRussianFederationGreeceDenmarkHours per yearUpper secondary education, general programmes Pre-primary educationPrimary education Lower secondary educationChart D4.2
  87. 87. In 2011, 64% of secondary school teachers were atleast 40 years oldAge distribution of teachers in secondary education (2011)0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100ItalyAustriaGermanyEstoniaIcelandNetherlandsCzech RepublicFinlandNorwaySwedenSpainNew ZealandSwitzerlandEU21 averageJapanHungaryOECD averageSloveniaFranceSlovak RepublicIsraelBelgiumIrelandPortugalUnited StatesKoreaLuxembourgCanadaChilePolandUnited KingdomBrazilIndonesia%Aged less than 30 Aged 30-39 Aged 40-49 Aged 50 or olderChart D5.1
  88. 88. In 2011, 59% of primary school teachers were atleast 40 years oldAge distribution of teachers in primary education (2011)0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100ItalySwedenGermanyEstoniaCzech RepublicAustriaHungaryNew ZealandIcelandJapanFinlandEU21 averageSloveniaPolandOECD averageSwitzerlandNorwayIndonesiaSlovak RepublicNetherlandsPortugalUnited StatesSpainLuxembourgCanadaChileFranceBelgiumBrazilIsraelIrelandKoreaUnited Kingdom%Aged less than 30 Aged 30-39 Aged 40-49 Aged 50 or olderChart D5.3
  89. 89. The proportion of female teachers decreases as thelevel of education increasesPercentage of women among teaching staff in public and private institutions, by level of education (2011)0102030405060708090100EstoniaIcelandSloveniaIsraelHungaryItalyChileSlovakRepublicNorwayCzechRepublicPolandCanadaFinlandBrazilAustriaPortugalDenmarkKoreaEU21averageOECDaverageSwedenUnitedStatesNewZealandIrelandFranceGermanyBelgiumUnitedKingdomSpainIndonesiaLuxembourgSwitzerlandSaudiArabiaMexicoChinaNetherlandsJapanTurkeyLower secondary education Pre-primary education Primary educationUpper secondary education Tertiary education%Chart D5.2

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