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ANDREAS SCHLEICHER
Special advisor to the Secretary-General on Education Policy
Deputy Director for Education and Skills
S...
Survey of Adult Skills
Participating countries
1
2013
(**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide).
2016
Survey of Adult Skills
Participating countries
2
(**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide).
Survey of Adult Skills
in brief
4
(**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide).
4
in literacy, numeracy and problem
solving...
Literacy
The ability to...
Understand, evaluate, use and engage with written texts.
In order to..
Achieve one’s goals, and...
1968-1977 1978-1987 1998-2007 2008-20161988-1997
1972-1980 1981-1990 2001-2010 2011-20201991-2000
55-65 45-54 35-44 25-34 ...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Skills Transform Lives
and Drive Economies
What people know and what they can do with what
they kno...
Likelihood of positive social and economic
outcomes among highly proficient adults
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
Good to
exc...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Inequality in skills
relates to how wealth is
shared in nations
11
Inequality in the distribution of
income and literacy skills
12
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Fi...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
The level and distribution of skills
differs markedly across countries
Much of the variation in ski...
240 250 260 270 280 290 300
Spain
Italy
United States
France
Ireland
Northern Ireland (UK)
Poland
England/N. Ireland (UK)
...
240 250 260 270 280 290 300
Italy
Spain
France
Ireland
Poland
Northern Ireland (UK)
Cyprus**
Austria
United States
Germany...
100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Italy
Spain
France
Ireland
Poland
Northern Ireland (UK)
Cyprus**
Austria
United States
Germany...
100 150 200 250 300 350 400
Italy
Spain
France
Ireland
Poland
Northern Ireland (UK)
Cyprus**
Austria
United States
Germany...
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.0
1.8
4.2
1.5
0.4
1.4
0.3
1.2
0.9
0.3
0.6
0.0
5.2
0.4
2.2
0.0
1.9
2.3
0.0
1.2
80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80
...
Evolution of employment in occupational groups
defined by level of skills proficiency
31
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
Occupations with...
100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100
Poland
Ireland
Slovak Republic
Estonia
Korea
United States
Austria
Czech Republic
Averag...
New technologies
Percentage of workers who reported the introduction of new process or technologies in their
current workp...
225 275 325
Italy
Flanders (Belgium)
Spain
Ireland
Northern Ireland…
Poland
Slovak Republic
England/N.…
England (UK)
Denma...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Successful integration is not simply a matter of time.
In some countries, the time elapsed since im...
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
Native-born
Literacy proficiency
by immigration background
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
Native-born Foreign-born - < 5 years
172
Literacy proficiency
by immigration background
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
Native-born Foreign-born - < 5 years Foreign-born - 5 years and more
172
Literacy proficiency
...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Some countries have made
significant progress in
improving skills proficiency
51
240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300Score
Literacy skills in younger
and older generations
Average16-24year...
Adults at Level 4/5 in literacy
12.6 million
16-24 year-
olds scoring
at Level 4/5
Estonia, 0.2%
Flanders
(Belgium)
, 1%
I...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Formal education plays a
key role in developing
foundation skills…
55
70 50 30 10 10 30 50 70
Estonia
Poland
Korea
Ireland
Canada
Slovak Republic
Northern Ireland (UK)
Japan
Austria
United Sta...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
…but more education
does not automatically
translate into better skills
62
Mean literacy proficiency and distribution
of literacy scores, by educational
attainment
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 3...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Success is increasingly
about building skills
beyond formal education
64
Level 2
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65
Literacy skills and age
65
Age
Score
Literacy
una...
Likelihood of participating in adult education and
training, by level of literacy proficiency
76
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8 Level 1 L...
Lessons
from strong
performers
High quality initial
education and
lifelong learning
• Investing in high quality
early chil...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Make learning
everybody’s
business
• Governments, employers,
workers and parents
need effec...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Effective links
between learning
and work
• Emphasis on workbased
learning allows people to...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Allow workers to
adapt learning to
their lives
• Flexibility in content
and delivery (part-...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Identify those who
can benefit from
learning most
• Disadvantaged adults
need to be offered...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Improve
transparency
• Easy-to-find
information about
adult education
activities
• Combinat...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Putting skills to effective use
Skills will only translate into better
economic and social outcomes...
Use of skills at work
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
Reading at
work
Writing at
work
Numeracy at
work
ICT at work Problem
solving a...
The use of information-processing
skills at work, by establishment size
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
Reading at
work
Writing at...
0 10 20 30 40
Austria
Spain
Czech…
Ireland
Germany
Slovak…
Italy
Korea
Average
Japan
Cyprus**
Australia
United States
Norw...
Labour productivity
and the use of reading skills at work
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Equal skills don’t always
imply equal opportunities
Gender differences in the use of literacy and n...
Gender gap in wages and in the use of problem-
solving skills at work
104
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Guidance
• Timely data about
demand for and supply
of skills
• Competent personnel
who have...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Flexible labour-
markets
• Labour-market
arrangements that
facilitate effective skill
use a...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Help employers
make better use of
workers skills
• Flexible work
arrangements that
accommod...
Lessons
from strong
performers
Help economies
move up the value
chain
• Governments can
influence both employer
competitiv...
Find Out More at:
http://skills.oecd.org/skillsoutlook.htm
All national and international publications
The complete micro-...
SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS
Additional Slides
111
Trust and literacy proficiency
112
0
1
2
3
4
5
Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 or below
Odds Ratio
Statistically
significant diffe...
Volunteering and literacy proficiency
113
0
1
2
3
4
5
Level 2 Level 3 Level 4/5
Odds Ratio
Statistically
significant diffe...
Political efficacy and literacy proficiency
114
0
1
2
3
4
5
Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 or below
Odds Ratio
Statistically
sign...
Reported health and literacy proficiency
115
0
1
2
3
4
5 Level 2 Level 1 or below
Odds Ratio
Statistically
significant dif...
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Norway
Poland
Spain
Sweden
Unite...
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
Germany
Ireland
Japan
Korea
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Slov...
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Netherlands
Norway
Polan...
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Norway
Poland
Spain
Sweden
Unite...
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Slovak...
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
GermanyIreland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Netherlands
Norway
Poland...
Australia
Austria
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Estonia
Finland
Germany
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Netherlands
Norway
Polan...
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OECD Skills Outlook - Key findings from the survey of adult skills

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OECD Skills Outlook - Key findings from the survey of adult skills

  1. 1. ANDREAS SCHLEICHER Special advisor to the Secretary-General on Education Policy Deputy Director for Education and Skills Skilled for Life? KEY FINDINGS FROM THE SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS 0 Brussels, 8 October 2013
  2. 2. Survey of Adult Skills Participating countries 1 2013 (**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide).
  3. 3. 2016 Survey of Adult Skills Participating countries 2 (**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide).
  4. 4. Survey of Adult Skills in brief 4 (**see notes A and B in the Reader’s Guide). 4 in literacy, numeracy and problem solving in technology-rich environments. 166 thousand adults… Representing 724 million 16-65 year- olds in 24 countries/economies Took an internationally agreed assessment… Also surveyed were generic skills such as collaborating with others and organising one’s time, and how adults use their skills
  5. 5. Literacy The ability to... Understand, evaluate, use and engage with written texts. In order to.. Achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential. Literacy encompasses a range of skills from.. The decoding of written words and sentences The comprehension, interpretation and evaluation of complex texts. Numeracy The ability to… Access, use, interpret and communicate mathematical information and ideas In order to.. Engage in and manage the mathematical demands of a range of situations in adults. Numeracy involves Managing a situation or solving a problem in a real context, by responding to mathematical content/information/ideas represented in multiple ways. Technology Rich Problem Solving The ability to… Use digital technology communication tools and networks to acquire and evaluate information, communicate with others and perform practical tasks. The assessment focuses on the abilities to… Solve problems for personal, work and civic purposes by setting up appropriate goals and plans, and accessing and making use of information through computers and computer networks. “Key information-processing skills” 5 Survey of Adult Skills Skills assessed
  6. 6. 1968-1977 1978-1987 1998-2007 2008-20161988-1997 1972-1980 1981-1990 2001-2010 2011-20201991-2000 55-65 45-54 35-44 25-34 16-24 Age distribution of the Survey of Adult Skills 6 Age range: University graduation year High-School graduation year
  7. 7. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Skills Transform Lives and Drive Economies What people know and what they can do with what they know has a major impact on their life chances 7
  8. 8. Likelihood of positive social and economic outcomes among highly proficient adults 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Good to excellent health Being Employed High levels of trust Participation in volunteer activities High levels of political efficacy High wages Literacy Numeracy 8 (scoring at Level 4/5 compared with those scoring at Level 1 or below) Odds ratio
  9. 9. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Inequality in skills relates to how wealth is shared in nations 11
  10. 10. Inequality in the distribution of income and literacy skills 12 Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan KoreaNetherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United States Flanders (Belgium) England/N. Ireland (UK) 0.2 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.3 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.4 1.41.451.51.551.61.651.7 Literacy skills inequality (9th/1st decile) Income inequality (Gini coefficient) Low income inequality Low skills inequality Low income inequality High skills inequality High income inequality High skills inequality High income inequality Low skills inequality Average Average
  11. 11. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS The level and distribution of skills differs markedly across countries Much of the variation in skills proficiency is observed within countries, so most countries have significant shares of struggling adults 16
  12. 12. 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 Spain Italy United States France Ireland Northern Ireland (UK) Poland England/N. Ireland (UK) England (UK) Korea Cyprus** Canada Australia Average Russian Federation³ Germany Estonia Austria Czech Republic Slovak Republic Denmark Norway Sweden Netherlands Flanders (Belgium) Finland Japan 25th Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th 95th5th Score Skills of adults Numeracy 7 points are roughly equal to one year of education
  13. 13. 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 Italy Spain France Ireland Poland Northern Ireland (UK) Cyprus** Austria United States Germany Denmark England/N. Ireland (UK) Korea England (UK) Average Canada Slovak Republic Czech Republic Russian Federation³ Flanders (Belgium) Estonia Norway Sweden Australia Netherlands Finland Japan 25th Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th 95th5th Score Skills of adults Literacy 7 points are roughly equal to one year of education
  14. 14. 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Italy Spain France Ireland Poland Northern Ireland (UK) Cyprus** Austria United States Germany Denmark England/N. Ireland (UK) Korea England (UK) Average Canada Slovak Republic Czech Republic Russian Federation³ Flanders (Belgium) Estonia Norway Sweden Australia Netherlands Finland Japan 25th Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th 95th5th Score Skills of adults Literacy
  15. 15. 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Italy Spain France Ireland Poland Northern Ireland (UK) Cyprus** Austria United States Germany Denmark England/N. Ireland (UK) Korea England (UK) Average Canada Slovak Republic Czech Republic Russian Federation³ Flanders (Belgium) Estonia Norway Sweden Australia Netherlands Finland Japan 25th Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th 95th5th Score Skills of adults Literacy
  16. 16. 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.0 1.8 4.2 1.5 0.4 1.4 0.3 1.2 0.9 0.3 0.6 0.0 5.2 0.4 2.2 0.0 1.9 2.3 0.0 1.2 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 Italy Spain France Ireland Poland Austria United States Germany Denmark England/N. Ireland (UK) Korea Average Canada Slovak Republic Czech Republic Russian Federation³ Flanders (Belgium) Estonia Norway Sweden Australia Netherlands Finland Japan Level 2 Level 1 Below Level 1 Level 3 Level 4/5 No information % Adults at Level 4/5 can • Perform multiple-step operations to integrate, interpret, or synthesise information from complex or lengthy texts that involve conditional and/or competing information. • Make complex inferences and appropriately apply background knowledge as well as interpret or evaluate subtle truth claims or arguments. Adults at Level 3 can • Understand and respond appropriately to dense or lengthy texts. • Understand text structures and rhetorical devices. • Identify, interpret, or evaluate one or more pieces of information and make appropriate inferences. • Perform multi-step operations and select relevant data from competing information in order to identify and formulate responses. •Technicians, Professionals Adults at Level 2 can • Integrate two or more pieces of information based on criteria • Compare and contrast or reason about information and make low-level inferences. • Navigate digital texts to access and identify information from various parts of a document. •Shop assistants, machine operators Adults at Level 1 can • Read relatively short digital or print continuous, non-continuous, or mixed texts to locate a single piece of information. • Complete simple forms, understand basic vocabulary, determine the meaning of sentences, and read continuous texts with a degree of fluency. 29 What adults can do Literacy
  17. 17. Evolution of employment in occupational groups defined by level of skills proficiency 31 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Occupations with scores in or near upper half of Level 3 Occupations with scores in or near lower half of Level 3 Occupations with scores in or near upper half of Level 2 Occupations with scores in or near lower half of Level 2 Percent
  18. 18. 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 Poland Ireland Slovak Republic Estonia Korea United States Austria Czech Republic Average Flanders (Belgium) Japan England/N. Ireland (UK) Germany Canada Australia Denmark Norway Netherlands Finland Sweden Level 2 Level 3 Young adults (16-24 year-olds) All adults (16-65 year-olds) Proficiency in problem solving in technology-rich environments % 35 Adults at Level 3 can • Complete tasks involving multiple applications, a large number of steps, impasses, and the discovery and use of ad hoc commands in a novel environment. • Establish a plan to arrive at a solution and monitor its implementation as they deal with unexpected outcomes and impasses. Adults at Level 2 can complete problems that have explicit criteria for success, a small number of applications, and several steps and operators. They can monitor progress towards a solution and handle unexpected outcomes or impasses.
  19. 19. New technologies Percentage of workers who reported the introduction of new process or technologies in their current workplace during the previous three years that affected their work 39 Source: European Working Conditions Survey, 2010. See Tables A1.7a and A1.7b. 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Sweden Finland Norway Denmark UnitedKingdom Netherlands Malta Luxembourg Cyprus1 Ireland Belgium Germany Korea Latvia Austria Average Estonia Croatia SlovakRepublic France Portugal Lithuania Italy Spain Slovenia CzechRepublic Hungary Greece Montenegro Macedonia Turkey Poland Romania Bulgaria Albania Low-skilled clerical High-skilled clerical Low-skilled manual High-skilled manual Total Percent
  20. 20. 225 275 325 Italy Flanders (Belgium) Spain Ireland Northern Ireland… Poland Slovak Republic England/N.… England (UK) Denmark United States Norway Average Estonia Germany Canada Australia Czech Republic Austria Korea Sweden Netherlands Finland Japan Score General (secondary) 225 275 325 Score Vocational (secondary) Literacy skills of youth By programme orientation 25th percentile Mean and .95 confidence interval for mean 75th percentile Average score for general orientation Average score for general orientation Average score for vocational orientation
  21. 21. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Successful integration is not simply a matter of time. In some countries, the time elapsed since immigrants arrived appears to make little difference to their proficiency in literacy and numeracy, suggesting either that the incentives to learn the language of the receiving country are not strong or that policies that encourage learning the language of the receiving country are of limited effectiveness Foreign-language immigrants with low levels of education tend to have low skills 45
  22. 22. 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 Native-born Literacy proficiency by immigration background
  23. 23. 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 Native-born Foreign-born - < 5 years 172 Literacy proficiency by immigration background
  24. 24. 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 Native-born Foreign-born - < 5 years Foreign-born - 5 years and more 172 Literacy proficiency by immigration background
  25. 25. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Some countries have made significant progress in improving skills proficiency 51
  26. 26. 240 245 250 255 260 265 270 275 280 285 290 295 300Score Literacy skills in younger and older generations Average16-24year-olds KOREA Germany Norway Average55-65year-olds Spain Finland France US UK
  27. 27. Adults at Level 4/5 in literacy 12.6 million 16-24 year- olds scoring at Level 4/5 Estonia, 0.2% Flanders (Belgium) , 1% Ireland, 0.2% Korea,1% 7.9 million 55-65 year- olds scoring at Level 4/5 Denmark, 0.5% Those entering the job market Those nearing retirement
  28. 28. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Formal education plays a key role in developing foundation skills… 55
  29. 29. 70 50 30 10 10 30 50 70 Estonia Poland Korea Ireland Canada Slovak Republic Northern Ireland (UK) Japan Austria United States Average Germany England/N. Ireland (UK) England (UK) Denmark Australia Flanders (Belgium) Finland Czech Republic Norway Sweden Netherlands Level 2 Level 3 Below upper secondary Tertiary PercentPercent Problem solving proficiency by educational attainment
  30. 30. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS …but more education does not automatically translate into better skills 62
  31. 31. Mean literacy proficiency and distribution of literacy scores, by educational attainment 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 Lower than upper secondary Upper secondary Tertiary Italy Score 25th percentile Mean 75th percentile Lower than upper secondary Upper secondary Tertiary 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 400 Japan Score 63 Qualifications don’t always equal skills Level 2Level 1 and below
  32. 32. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Success is increasingly about building skills beyond formal education 64
  33. 33. Level 2 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Literacy skills and age 65 Age Score Literacy unadjusted Numeracy unadjusted Numeracy adjusted Literacy adjusted
  34. 34. Likelihood of participating in adult education and training, by level of literacy proficiency 76 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4/5 Reference group: Below Level 1 Odds Ratio
  35. 35. Lessons from strong performers High quality initial education and lifelong learning • Investing in high quality early childhood education and initial schooling, particularly for children from disadvantaged backgrounds • Financial support targeted at disadvantage • Opportunities and incentives to continued development of proficiency, both outside work and at the workplace.
  36. 36. Lessons from strong performers Make learning everybody’s business • Governments, employers, workers and parents need effective and equitable arrangements as to who does and pays for what, when and how • Recognise that individuals with poor skills are unlikely to engage in education on their own and tend to receive less employer- sponsored training .
  37. 37. Lessons from strong performers Effective links between learning and work • Emphasis on workbased learning allows people to develop hard skills on modern equipment and soft skills through real- world experience • Employer engagement in education and training with assistance to SMEs • Strengthen relevance of learning, both for workplace and workers broader employability .
  38. 38. Lessons from strong performers Allow workers to adapt learning to their lives • Flexibility in content and delivery (part- time, flexible hours, convenient location) • Distance learning and open education resources .
  39. 39. Lessons from strong performers Identify those who can benefit from learning most • Disadvantaged adults need to be offered and encouraged to improve their learning • Foreign-language migrants • Older adults • Show how adults can benefit from improved skills, both economically and socially .
  40. 40. Lessons from strong performers Improve transparency • Easy-to-find information about adult education activities • Combination of easily searchable, up-to-date online information and personal guidance and counselling services • Less educated workers tend to be less aware of the opportunities • Recognise and certify skills proficiency .
  41. 41. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Putting skills to effective use Skills will only translate into better economic and social outcomes if they are used effectively 87
  42. 42. Use of skills at work 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 Reading at work Writing at work Numeracy at work ICT at work Problem solving at work Average United States Italy Japan United Kingdom Most frequent use = 4 Least frequent use = 0 Indexofuse
  43. 43. The use of information-processing skills at work, by establishment size 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 Reading at work Writing at work Numeracy at work ICT at work Problem solving 1-10 employees 11-50 employees 51-250 employees 251-1000 employees 1000+ employees Most frequent use = 4 Least frequent use = 0 Indexofuse
  44. 44. 0 10 20 30 40 Austria Spain Czech… Ireland Germany Slovak… Italy Korea Average Japan Cyprus** Australia United States Norway UK Flanders… Denmark Poland Estonia England Northern… Netherlands Canada Finland Sweden Under-skilled Over-skilled % Percentage of workers who are over/under qualified over/under-skilled in literacy 40 30 20 10 0 Under- qualification Over- qualification % %
  45. 45. Labour productivity and the use of reading skills at work Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United States England/N. Ireland (UK) 3 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4 4.2 4.4 4.6 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 (log)Labourproductivity Use of reading skills at work Slope = 1.118 (0.407) R2 = 0.296 Adjusted prediction Slope = 1.643 (0.504) R2 = 0.371 98
  46. 46. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Equal skills don’t always imply equal opportunities Gender differences in the use of literacy and numeracy skills are partly due to the fact that men appear to be slightly more proficient but also that they are more commonly employed in full-time jobs, where skills are used more intensively. 103
  47. 47. Gender gap in wages and in the use of problem- solving skills at work 104 Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United States Flanders (Belgium) England/N. Ireland (UK)Cyprus1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percentagedifferencebetweenmen’sand women’swages(menminuswomen) Percentage difference in the use of problem-solving skills at work (men minus women) Slope 0.840 (0.199) R2 = 0.472 Adjusted prediction Slope 0.068 (0.123) R2 = 0.015
  48. 48. Lessons from strong performers Guidance • Timely data about demand for and supply of skills • Competent personnel who have the latest labour-market information at their fingertips to steer learners • Qualifications that are coherent and easy to interpret .
  49. 49. Lessons from strong performers Flexible labour- markets • Labour-market arrangements that facilitate effective skill use and address skill mismatches • Encourage mobility to optimise skill match .
  50. 50. Lessons from strong performers Help employers make better use of workers skills • Flexible work arrangements that accommodate workers with care obligations and disabilities • Encourage older workers to remain in the labour market • Encourage employers to hire those who temporarily withdrew from the labour market .
  51. 51. Lessons from strong performers Help economies move up the value chain • Governments can influence both employer competitiveness strategies and product- market strategies, which determine in what markets the company competes • Strengthen 21st century skills • Foster entrepreneurship.
  52. 52. Find Out More at: http://skills.oecd.org/skillsoutlook.htm All national and international publications The complete micro-level database Without data, you are just another person with an opinion …and remember: Email Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org 109
  53. 53. SURVEY OF ADULT SKILLS Additional Slides 111
  54. 54. Trust and literacy proficiency 112 0 1 2 3 4 5 Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 or below Odds Ratio Statistically significant differences are in a darker tone Reference group: Level 4/5
  55. 55. Volunteering and literacy proficiency 113 0 1 2 3 4 5 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4/5 Odds Ratio Statistically significant differences are in a darker tone Reference group: Level 1 or below
  56. 56. Political efficacy and literacy proficiency 114 0 1 2 3 4 5 Level 2 Level 3 Level 1 or below Odds Ratio Statistically significant differences are in a darker tone Reference group: Level 4/5
  57. 57. Reported health and literacy proficiency 115 0 1 2 3 4 5 Level 2 Level 1 or below Odds Ratio Statistically significant differences are in a darker tone Reference group: Level 4/5
  58. 58. Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea Norway Poland Spain Sweden United States 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 Averageat26-28 OECD average for PISA 2000 Survey of Adult Skills score Mean literacy proficiency in PISA and in the Survey of Adult Skills (26-28 year-olds) 116 PISA Score + – + + – – – + Mean reading score in PISA 2000 and literacy score in the Survey of Adult Skills 2012
  59. 59. Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Ireland Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden Flanders (Belgium) AverageEngland (UK) Northern Ireland (UK) 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 Mean literacy proficiency in PISA and in the Survey of Adult Skills (20-22 year-olds) 117 Averageat20-22 OECD average for PISA 2006 PISA Score Survey of Adult Skills score + – +/– average in PISA 2006 +/– average in Survey of Adult Skills in 2012 + + – – – + Mean reading score in PISA 2006 and literacy score in the Survey of Adult Skills 2012
  60. 60. Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United States Flanders (Belgium) Average England (UK) Northern Ireland (UK) 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 Mean reading score in PISA 2009 and literacy score in the Survey of Adult Skills 2012 Averageat17-19 OECD average for PISA 2009 PISA Score Survey of Adult Skills score Mean literacy proficiency in PISA and in the Survey of Adult Skills (17-19 year-olds) 118 + – + + – – – +
  61. 61. Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea Norway Poland Spain Sweden United States 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 Mean literacy proficiency in PISA and in the Survey of Adult Skills (26-28 year-olds) 119 Averageat26-28 OECD average for PISA 2000 PISA Score Survey of Adult Skills score + – + + – – – + Mean reading score in PISA 2000 and literacy score in the Survey of Adult Skills 2012
  62. 62. Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United States 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 220 240 260 280 300 320 Averageat23-25 OECD average for PISA 2003 PISA Score Survey of Adult Skills score Mean literacy proficiency in PISA and in the Survey of Adult Skills (23-25 year-olds) 120 Mean reading score in PISA 2003 and literacy score in the Survey of Adult Skills 2012 + – + + – – – +
  63. 63. Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland GermanyIreland Italy Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United States Flanders (Belgium) 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 220 240 260 280 300 320 Mean numeracy proficiency in PISA and in the Survey of Adult Skills (20-22 year-olds) 121 Averageat20-22 OECD average for PISA 2006 PISA Score Survey of Adult Skills score + – + + – – – + Mean reading score in PISA 2006 and literacy score in the Survey of Adult Skills 2012
  64. 64. Australia Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Ireland Italy Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Spain Sweden United States Flanders (Belgium) 450 470 490 510 530 550 570 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 Mean numeracy proficiency in PISA and in the Survey of Adult Skills (17-19 year-olds) 122 Averageat17-19 OECD average for PISA 2009 PISA Score Survey of Adult Skills score Mean reading score in PISA 2009 and literacy score in the Survey of Adult Skills 2012 + – + + – – – +

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