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Session ii Multi-level Governance for regional tourism development


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An International Workshop on Tourism as a Catalyst for Regional Development took place in Vienna, Austria, on 12-13 December 2019.

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Session ii Multi-level Governance for regional tourism development

  1. 1. Multi-level governance for regional tourism development OECD Workshop on Tourism as a Catalyst for Regional Development - Session II John Bachtler Vienna, 12-13 December 2019
  2. 2. 2 an arrangement for making binding decisions engages a multiplicity of independent but interdependent actors – private and public operates across different territorial levels continuous deliberation / implementation no exclusive policy competence at any level Multi-level governance.... Schmitter 2004
  3. 3. EVOLUTION OF MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE From top-down governance…. 3 Central government Firms Local authorities
  4. 4. EVOLUTION OF MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE ….to multi-level relationships…. 4 European Union Central government Regional offices of state Regional govt authorities Firms Local authorities Communities
  5. 5. EVOLUTION OF MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE ….and the involvement of new actors 5 European Union Central government Para-statalorganisations(quangos) Regional offices of state Regional govt authorities Non-governmentalorganisations Firms Local authorities Communities
  6. 6. Uncoupled • mutual adjustment • autonomy of actors • institutional competition • executive dominance TYPES OF MULTI-LEVEL GOVERNANCE 6 Loosely coupled • cooperative adjustment • institutional diversity • network relationships • voluntary negotiation Tightly coupled • joint decision-making • institutional homogeneity • multilateral negotiation Where does the governance of tourism fit? Adapted from Benz (2012)
  7. 7. 7 Complex challenges… • multiple policy fields • economic, social and environmental perspectives • different geographies • diverse actors (multinationals  family-owned SMEs) • mix of public and private interests (and partnerships) • dynamic environment – rapid adaptation to changing context MLG AND TOURISM How to become inclusive AND sustainable?
  8. 8. Managing vertical and horizontal relationships through • planning frameworks • strategies • contracts • networks • partnership agreements SUB-NATIONAL GOVERNANCE OF TOURISM 8 What works in different contexts? At different scales?
  9. 9. • regional integration strategies? • specialisation vs diversification? • institutional leadership & capacity-building? • developing regional linkages (direct/indirect)? • knowledge flows? • innovation systems? • community/citizen engagement? PROMOTING THE REGIONAL EMBEDDEDNESS OF TOURISM: WHAT IS EFFECTIVE? 9
  10. 10. 10 Thank you for your attention
  11. 11. Slide 2: Adapted from Schmitter P C (2004) ‘Neo-neofunctionalism’, in T Diez and A Wiener (eds.) European Integration Theory, Oxford: Oxford University Press Slide 6: Adapted from: Benz A (2012) ‘The European Union as a loosely coupled multi-level system’, in H Enderlein, S Walti & M Zurn (eds.) Handbook on Multi-Level Governance. Edward Elgar Publishing. See also: Metis (Tödtling-Schönhofer H, Radzyner A, Frangenheim A) and EPRC (Bachtler J, Mendez C, Charles D and Granqvist K) (2013) An assessment of multilevel governance in Cohesion Policy 2007-2013, Study for the European Parliament, Brussels. Slide 8: Examples of the different MLG tools can be found in: OECD (2012) Tourism Trends and Policies 2012, OECD Paris (Chapter 1). References 11