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WELL BEING IN DANISH CITIES
Measuring local well-being for
policymaking
7 November 2016
Outline
2
1. Why and how to measure well-being in cities
2. What are the city-regions in Denmark?
3. How do Danish city-re...
Why look at well-being at local level?
A framework for measuring local well-being
3
- Measures well-being where
people liv...
What are the city regions in Denmark?
4
• City-regions in Denmark
• 58% of national
population (2016)
• 61% of national
em...
Since 2000, disposable household income has
been growing in all Danish cities, most quickly in
Copenhagen and Aarhus.
5
Aa...
Income inequality has been rising driven by faster
growth in the top 20% of the income distribution.
6
Labour participation higher than OECD average, but
stagnating since the economic crisis, with Odense showing the fastest
d...
Unemployment is concentrated in the cores,
with the highest gap between the core and the commuting zone observed
in Esbjer...
Exposure to violent crimes is higher in the cores
than in the commuting zones, despite the generally high safety levels of...
Life expectancy is not homogeneous within cities
Differences across municipalities within the same city-region can go up t...
Life expectancy tends to be higher in municipalities with
higher median income (and larger population), on
average
11
Medi...
Spatial segregation by income is stronger among
the poorest households, a pattern similar to that
found for Dutch cities.
...
How can well-being metric be used for policy-making?
An update of the web-tool for an user-friendly visualisation of well-...
14
Translate well-being
objectives into
policy-relevant
indicators
Select indicators
Identify baselines
and expected resul...
• State of Morelos, Mexico:
– Clear well-being targets integrated in the state development plan
– Complementarities betwee...
Objectives
Geographic scale
Strategies
Distribution
Governance
How to adopt a well-being (and inclusive) approach in polic...
• Gather a solid evidence base of outcome indicators on the different
aspects of people’s lives
• Build partnerships among...
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Well Being in Danish cities - measuring local well-being for policymaking

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OECD presentation on Well Being in Danish Cities - Overview:

1. Why and how to measure well-being in cities
2. What are the city-regions in Denmark?
3. How do Danish city-regions fare in terms of people’s well-being?
4. How can well-being metrics be used for policy-making?

For more information, see the publication Well-being in Danish Cities http://www.oecd.org/gov/well-being-in-danish-cities-9789264265240-en.htm

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Well Being in Danish cities - measuring local well-being for policymaking

  1. 1. WELL BEING IN DANISH CITIES Measuring local well-being for policymaking 7 November 2016
  2. 2. Outline 2 1. Why and how to measure well-being in cities 2. What are the city-regions in Denmark? 3. How do Danish city-regions fare in terms of people’s well-being? 4. How can well-being metrics be used for policy-making?
  3. 3. Why look at well-being at local level? A framework for measuring local well-being 3 - Measures well-being where people live (the importance of the scale e.g. functional urban areas or city-regions) - Focus on outcomes rather than output - Multidimensionality - Focus on distributions of outcomes - Assess how well-being changes over time (resilience, sustainability) - It considers that well-being can be manageable to change by citizens, governance and institutions Main features
  4. 4. What are the city regions in Denmark? 4 • City-regions in Denmark • 58% of national population (2016) • 61% of national employment (2014)
  5. 5. Since 2000, disposable household income has been growing in all Danish cities, most quickly in Copenhagen and Aarhus. 5 Aarhus also shows the fastest increase in tertiary educational attainment of its working-age inhabitants. Equivalised household disposable income (US$ constant 2010 prices and PPP)
  6. 6. Income inequality has been rising driven by faster growth in the top 20% of the income distribution. 6
  7. 7. Labour participation higher than OECD average, but stagnating since the economic crisis, with Odense showing the fastest decline 7 72% 74% 76% 78% 80% 82% 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Labour force as a % of working age population Copenhagen Aarhus Odense Aalborg Esbjerg OECD (282) Copenhagen Esbjerg Aalborg Aarhus Odense OECD cities (282)
  8. 8. Unemployment is concentrated in the cores, with the highest gap between the core and the commuting zone observed in Esbjerg and Aarhus. 8 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Esbjerg Aarhus Copenhagen Aalborg Odense 2003 2013 Ratio between the unemployment rate in the cores and in the commuting zones
  9. 9. Exposure to violent crimes is higher in the cores than in the commuting zones, despite the generally high safety levels of the cities. 9 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Copenhagen Odense Aarhus Esbjerg Aalborg Rest of Denmark Number of victims of violent crime per 100 000 inhabitants Core Commuting zone
  10. 10. Life expectancy is not homogeneous within cities Differences across municipalities within the same city-region can go up to more than 5 years (Copenhagen) 10
  11. 11. Life expectancy tends to be higher in municipalities with higher median income (and larger population), on average 11 Median income in 2010 and life expectancy at birth (2011-14)
  12. 12. Spatial segregation by income is stronger among the poorest households, a pattern similar to that found for Dutch cities. 12
  13. 13. How can well-being metric be used for policy-making? An update of the web-tool for an user-friendly visualisation of well-being conditions in OECD regions has been released in the Summer www.oecdregionalwellbeing.org
  14. 14. 14 Translate well-being objectives into policy-relevant indicators Select indicators Identify baselines and expected results Monitor progress and potential of places Foster citizen engagement and communication Information, consultation and participation How can well-being metric be used for policy-making? The starting point of this well-being measurement cycle varies across regions, according to the specific objective of measuring well-being and who is leading the process. Regional well-being measurement cycle: A possible sequencing of steps
  15. 15. • State of Morelos, Mexico: – Clear well-being targets integrated in the state development plan – Complementarities between well-being dimensions addressed in the metrics • Northern Netherlands, the Netherlands: – Involvement of the academic community allowed the development of sophisticated regional well-being indicators to be used by policy makers • City of Genoa, Italy: – Political debate involving the local governments, civil society, trade unions, and social enterprises around a dashboard of well-being indicators • City of Newcastle, United Kingdom: – National mandate to highlight integrated and life-long approach to health and well- being – Measure the “right” things and combine good health service provision with low health status Examples of other local well-being initiatives at subnational level 15
  16. 16. Objectives Geographic scale Strategies Distribution Governance How to adopt a well-being (and inclusive) approach in policy making for cities Fostering both growth and equity Different scales (neighbourhoods, cities, metropolitan areas) also functional urban areas Multi-sectoral approach Support well-being of all social groups Collaboration among levels of government, citizens, private and public stakeholders
  17. 17. • Gather a solid evidence base of outcome indicators on the different aspects of people’s lives • Build partnerships among stakeholders around common strategic projects • Target policy interventions on the right geographical scale (which can range from neighbourhood scale to the metropolitan scale) • Make sure that participatory processes are truly inclusive • Tap innovative sources of financing From design to implementation

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