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Experiences and Strategy of Infrastructure Development in Japan - Toshio Okazumi, Japan


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Presentation made by Toshio Okazumi, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan, at the Symposium on Governance of Infrastructure held at the OECD, Paris, on 29 February 2016

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Experiences and Strategy of Infrastructure Development in Japan - Toshio Okazumi, Japan

  1. 1. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Experiences and Strategy of Infrastructure Development in Japan February 29, 2016 Toshio OKAZUMI Director of International Cooperation and Infrastructure Engineering, Overseas Projects Division, Policy Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism- JAPAN
  2. 2. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Contents 1 1. Quality Infrastructure – its high quality effect as a stock of social assets – 2. Japanese Destiny and Present Problems we are facing 3. Our Challenges and Strategy
  3. 3. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 2 1. Quality Infrastructure – its high quality effect as a stock of social assets –
  4. 4. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Improvement of Ring Road (Tokyo) Wednesday, November 27, 2013 Friday, March 13, 2015 After openingBefore opening Road conditions before and after opening Inner Ring Expressway Shinagawa Route Opened in March 2015 Changes in traffic and time loss from congestion 4.6 2.2 47.9 45.5 0.0 30.0 60.0 0.0 3.0 6.0 開通前 開通後 Traffic Central Ring Road Time loss from congestion Amount of traffic Time loss from congestion Prior to opening:March 10 to April 7, 2015 、 After opening: March 10 to April 7, 2016 Before opening After opening 5% reduction 50% Reduction ○9 hour daily traffic congestion around the Hamasakibashi Junction was almost resolved. before after ○Traffic accumulation in Tokyo was distributed as a result of the Inner Ring Expressway, then traffic congestion reduced by half. Timelossfromcongestion (Tenthousand/day,time/day Metropolitan Inner City Expressway Outer Ring Expressway Ohashi Junction Gotanda EXIT Gotanda ENTRANCE Oi Junction Inner Ring Expressway 3
  5. 5. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 0 10 20 30 H14 H15 H16 H17 H18 H19 H20 H21 H22 H23 H24 H25 産業指定地内の企業立地の件数 件 首都圏外郭放水路 部分通水 首都圏外郭放水路 完全通水 30 20 10 0 件 数 (件 ) H14 H16 H18 H20 H22 H24 企業立地件数※2 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 NumberofBusinessLocations ○ Reduction of inundated buildings from flood by the effect of the Metropolitan Outer Underground Channel →Approximately 7,000 buildings (from 1975 to 1984) →Approximately 50 buildings (from 2005 to 2014) ○Kasukabe City could be designated as an “Industrial Designated Area” in 2003, thanks to this Underground Channel. ○28 businesses (warehouses, shopping centers) were newly located in this area thanks to the Channel Metropolitan Outer Underground Channel (Saitama) 首 都 圏 外 郭 放 水 路 春日部市 before after Newly located businesses(warehouses, shopping centers) Industrial Designated Area Kasukabe City Route16 Route 16 Channel 18 Outer Discharge Channel Shaft Channel 18Nakagawa Nakagawa Shaft Kasukabe City New Business in the Industrial Designated Partial functioned Channel Complete 4
  6. 6. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Use of Sewage Heat in Makuhari (Chiba Prefecture) before after Heat Pump (Heat Source Equipment) Air Temperature 0℃ Use as a heater When using outside air as a heat source Heater 47℃ +47℃ Amount of Energy Consumption Release -5℃ Room Temperature 40℃ High Power Heat Pump (Heat Source Equipment) Use as a Heater When using sewage as a heat source Sewage 20℃ Heater 47℃ +27℃ Amount of Energy Consumption Release 15℃ Room Temperature 40℃ Low Power (58,000m3/ 日) Kaihinmakuhari Station Makuhari Shintoshin Makuhari Shintoshin Hanamikawa Terminal Treatment Plant Water intake for thermal usage Discharged as is Hanamikawa Terminal Treatment Plant Kaihinmakuhari Station ○In Makuhari Shintoshin Area of Chiba Prefecture, sewage water discharged from the treatment plant is introduced to the area’s cooling and heating. It is used as a cooler, heater, and hot water supply at 14 buildings. ○Use of sewage heat reduces CO2 as well as lowers economic costs by approximately 100 million yen annually Use of Sewage Heat 1 2 8 8 11 14 0 5 1 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 H2 H7 H12 H17 H22 H27 下水熱利用量 下水熱利用箇所数 SewageHeatUse (Calculatedbyevery 10,000households) 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Amount of used sewage Number of sewage use locations 5
  7. 7. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 6 2. Japanese Destiny and Present Problems we are facing
  8. 8. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 7 Japanese destiny based on its characteristics • Although the area of Japan is only 0.25% of the area of the world, 20% of earthquakes over 6.0 on the Richter scale occurred in Japan and its surrounding area. Vulnerable to disasters Japan 220 Number of Earthquakes (1994~2003) Total 960 Source: Central Disaster Prevention Council -Japan (22.9%) Epicenter Distribution ※Earthquakes over 6.0 on the Richter scale
  9. 9. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 8 【Tokyo】 【Paris】 【New York】 【London】 Japanese destiny based on its characteristics 8 Vulnerable to disasters • The elevation of cities in Japan is lower than the flood water level of rivers. • There are many steep rivers in Japan compared with rivers in foreign countries. River flood water surface elevation in London, Paris and New York River flood water surface elevations in Tokyo River slopes in Japan and foreign countries Source: MLIT Rhine Rivers in Japan Seine Loire Colorado Mekong Distance (km) Elevation (m) 出典:「水害の世紀―日本列島で何が起こっているのか」森野美徳 監修
  10. 10. Country area (10,000㎢) Habitable land area (10,000㎢) Ratio (%) Japan 37.86 10.35 27.3 U.K. 24.38 20.63 84.6 France 54.79 39.72 72.5 Germany 35.67 23.79 66.7 Japan U.K. Germany France Habitable land area Japanese destiny based on its characteristics 9 Limited habitable land • The ratio of habitable land area to country area in Japan is lower than in foreign countries. Legend Habitable area in white
  11. 11. Japanese destiny based on its characteristics 10 Infrastructure development under severe conditions • Infrastructure in Japan has been developed against severe natural disasters under vulnerable condition. Piers of HANSHIN Expressway in Japan Piers of access road to Charles-de- Gaulle Airport in France
  12. 12. Inundation disaster caused by the heavy rain on Sep 10 (2015) in Jyoso city Jyoso city Sep 20152006 :KINU river basin Recent Disasters 11
  13. 13. 石巻市 南三陸町 東松島市 七ヶ浜町 仙台市 多賀城市 名取市 亘理町 山元町 岩沼市 南相馬市 新地町 相馬市 陸前高田市 気仙沼市 釜石市 大槌町 山田町 気仙沼市 陸前高田市 Maximum area inundated ※1: Aug 4 ,2011 press release by City Bureau ※2: Produced from “Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures associated with 2011 Tohoku district - off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake” by National Police Agency (As of Feb. 14, 2012)  535km2 of land was inundated  Approx. 10% (119km2) was urban area  Approx. 129,000 buildings were destroyed  15,850 Fatalities, 3,282 missing Recent Disasters Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011 Produced from “Inundation Condition Map” by Geospatial Information Authority 12
  14. 14. Recent Disasters • Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake, January, 1995 13
  15. 15. There is concern that the safety of various types of infrastructure against large- scale accidents and disasters will deteriorate as a result of their aging. Corroded impeller of a draining pump plantAged seabank 破断箇所 補修後 平成19年6月20日破断を発見 平成19年6月29日補修完了 Fractured diagonal member of a truss bridge (Great Kiso River Bridge) Sinking of the apron part of a port facility Aging of Infrastructure Fractured part 14
  16. 16. 18% 25% 2% 8% 43% 43% 9% 32% 67% 64% 24% 58% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 2013 2023 2033 2013 2023 20332013 2023 2033 Road bridges River facilities (e.g. water gates) Sewerage piping Port quays Among the facilities developed during and after the high economic growth period, the proportions of the ones that will become 50-years-old or older will increase at increasing rates in the next 20 years. Present Situation of the Aging Infrastructure 2013 2023 2033 * The figures are all as of March. Proportions of Infrastructure that 50-years-old or older 15
  17. 17. 16 3. Our Challenges and Strategy
  18. 18. Challenges for “smart use of infrastructure” • Under these limited conditions, Japan proactively has been selecting “smart use of infrastructure” instead of “expanding it”. 出典 オンタリオ州政府 /transtek/roadtalk/rt16-4/ 17 Limitation of infrastructure development
  19. 19. Challenges for “smart use of infrastructure” 18 <Smart route selection using “ETC 2.0” > 相模湾 Pacific ocean Maximum efficiency Congested Not congested About 80% (by 2015) <Construction of ring expressway> Three ring roads in Tokyo Metropolitan Area 64% complete Chuo Expressway Inner Ring Expressway Congestion! 22 Legend Sectors that are in service (as of June 14, 2013) Provisional 2 lanes* To be in service by FY 2015* 4 lanes Under construction (to be completed in FY 2016 or thereafter) 6 lanes ○○○ Under study ※ ※ * It is not known when non-completed lanes of provisional 2 lanes will be constructed. New challenges for “smart use of infrastructure ” • “Smart use of roads” utilizing ITS(Intelligent Transport System) or toll control measures optimizes distribution of traffic volume .
  20. 20. Challenges for “smart use of infrastructure” 19 • Congestion at toll gates on expressways throughout Japan is largely eliminated Successful examples of “smart use of infrastructure ”: “ETC” (Electronic toll collection system) 2000 (before ETC) 2008 (after ETC) 3,974 times (30% of congestion on expressway) 60 times < Congestion at toll gates > Congestion is eliminated ※ETCは2001年に 本格導入 ※渋滞回数: 年間渋滞回数が30回以上又は平均渋滞長が2km以上かつ渋滞回数 が5回以上の主要渋滞ポイントの渋滞回数 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% 90.0% 100.0% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 <Adoption rate for ETC> (On-board Device) Roadside antenna Bidirectional wireless communications
  21. 21. Challenges for “smart use of infrastructure” 20 • The “SHINKANSEN” realizes high safety, reliability and environmental friendliness. Safety 1 Reliability 2 Environmental Friendliness 3 Passenger Fatalities ①Operating frequency CO2 emissions ②Average delay time per trip 15trains/hour within 1 min. – ZERO – 50Years (1964→2014) 1 : 5 : 7.5 g-CO2/person-km Successful examples of “smart use of infrastructure ”: High speed train “SHINKANSEN”
  22. 22. 21 Reduction through preventive maintenance and of new technologies. ○ To prevent further acceleration of the deterioration of infrastructures due to their aging, MLIT has been intensively conducting inspections, diagnoses, etc. ○ MLIT is aiming at establishing a preventive maintenance-based maintenance cycle to reduce and level the maintenance cost. Image of the maintenance cost reduction and leveling to be achieved Image of the envisaged maintenance cycle Diagnosis Recording Lifespan Prolongation Plan Reflection Improvement MeasuresInspection Establishing a Maintenance Cycle Leveling through planned efforts
  23. 23. Dejima Bridge (Nagasaki City) [1910 (105 years)] Establishing a Maintenance Cycle - success examples No.10 Sluiceway (Kamiita Town, Tokushima Prefecture) [1922 (93 years)] Rokugo Water Gate (Ota Ward, Tokyo) [1930 (85 years)] 22
  24. 24. Improvingtheproductivityandquality Consensus is reached faster. Decisions can be made faster Reduce mistakes in the design and the extra time Workability is improved Data sharing between CIM and ICT-aided project on site Shorteningthetimetocompletion Comparisons and evaluations can be made easily. Reinforcement bar layout simulation Selection of the optimal route Confirmation of a complex order of work steps Meeting for explaining the project to local residents Meeting between the project owner and contractor Machine control Design changes can be made easily ResearchDesign Work implementation Maintenance work センサー情報 モデル化素材 議論情報 etc 情報共有ツール センサーデータ ヘルスモニタリング 異常値を感知すると、メンバーへの 通知(アラート)が可能 Image of an information-sharing tool for maintenance work Establishment and operation of an asset management system Optimization of maintenance work Evacuation route Inclination of slope 3-dimensional model (simplified) 3-dimensional model (detailed) Safety of the project site 3-dimensional model 3-dimensional model 3-dimensional model One of the most advanced construction production systems in the world ⇒ Creation of a new industry Introducing Construction Information Modeling (CIM) The tool’s settings can be set so that an alarm message will be sent to the members when an abnormal value is detected. Data for modeling Discussioninformation Sensor information Monitor for the operator The record of the work performed and the status of the work being performed are displayed. Sensor data Health monitoring Information sharing tool 23
  25. 25. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Logistics High-speed railways Urban railways / transport system Toll Roads Ships / Offshore units Port terminals Airport terminals Urban development  First Project (October 2015): The Management and Operation of Thi Vai International Port’s Terminal Business in Vietnam  Second Project (November 2015): The Texas High-Speed Railway Project  Third Project (December 2015): Urban Passenger Railway Transportation Project in Brazil JOIN (Japan Overseas Infra. Investment Corp.) 24
  26. 26. Our Challenges and Strategy 1. “Revolution in Construction” to be realized (strategic management, long-term plan, prioritizing effective stock effect, i-Construction) 2. Introduction and utilization of various funds (national, local, PPP/PFI, charge, fare, JOIN, etc.) 3. Preventive and Strategic Maintenance (maintenance cycle, maintenance industry, introducing robot in the fields, etc.) 4. Japanese Contribution for international fields (quality infrastructure, technology transfer, capacity building, PPP, etc.) Important strategy for future Infrastructure A) Economic and Effective use of infrastructure and Preventive and Strategic Maintenance B) Investment of Infrastructure Development must be recognized as basic needs for development 25
  27. 27. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Thank you for your attention 26