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D1 pm - session 3 - Sigita Strumskyte, OECD


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This presentation was made by Sigita Strumskyte, at the 3rd Experts Meeting on Gender Budgeting held at the OECD Conference Centre, Paris, on 19-20 September 2019.

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D1 pm - session 3 - Sigita Strumskyte, OECD

  1. 1. GENDER EQUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABIILITY: FOSTERING AN INTEGRATED POLICY AGENDA Sigita Strumskyte Coordinator for Gender and SDGs - Director’s Office Environment Directorate OECD September 2019
  2. 2. • Links between environmental sustainability and gender equality • OECD on gender equality • Country initiatives • Challenges & Next steps Outline
  3. 3. Lack of access to energy and electricity affect women more than men: Environmental policies and budgets cannot be gender blind – a look at developing countries Lack of adequate sanitation affects women and girls more than men:  40% of girls were found to remain absent from school during their menstruation due to lack of clean toilets, clean water, privacy, soap and sanitary supplies (Vashisht et al., 2018).  Only 45% of schools in least-developed and low-income countries had adequate sanitation facilities (UNICEF, 2011).  In 25 sub-Saharan African countries, women spend 16 million hours daily collecting water, compared to 6 million hours spent by men and 4 million hours spent by children (UN Women, 2016).  In rural areas in Brazil, girls are 59% more likely to complete primary education when they have access to electricity than those without (O’Dell et al. 2015)
  4. 4. • Indoor pollution: over 4 million people – mainly women and children – die every year from indoor air pollution (WHO, 2016). • Natural disasters: women and children account for more that 75% of displaced persons worldwide.  In 1991, during the cyclone disasters in Bangladesh, of the 140,000 people who died, 90% were women (Ikeda, 1995).  In the 2004 Tsunami in coastal Indonesia, women and girls accounted for more than three-quarters of deaths in most of the surveyed villages (Oxfam 2005).  In the 2008 cyclone Nargis in Myanmar, 61% of the victims were women (UNEP 2013). Environmental impact is not gender- neutral
  5. 5. Gender-environmental-sustainability nexus in OECD countries Transport and urban design Pollution and climate change Attitudes and consumption patterns Decision- making
  6. 6. Gender & infrastructure in OECD countries – transport and urban design facts • Urban and transport infrastructure accounts for more than 60% of greenhouse gas emissions. • Women travel shorter trips than men, use public transport more and travel more during off-peak hours (Ng and Acker, 2018) • An increase of 1 minute in commuting time in metropolitan areas is associated with approximately 0.3 percentage point decline in the women’s labour force participation. (Black et al, 2012)
  7. 7. Gender & Infrastructure – transport and urban design facts (cont’d) Women place more emphasis on their commute time when deciding whether or not to leave their jobs, while men prioritise pay
  8. 8. • In Santiago, Chile, high pollution days (over 100 μg/m3) are common and double the gender gap in working hours as women are more likely to stay at home with their children (Montt, 2018). • Air pollution is as bad for pregnant women as smoking in terms of elevating the risk of miscarriage (Leiser et al, 2019). • Tweet in March 2019: The Ella Roberta Family Foundation (@rosamund_ElsFdn) - "Ella's death certificate could be the first to include air pollution as a cause of death." OECD countries: gender-specific pollution and climate change facts
  9. 9. • Chemicals affect men and women differently due to size, physiological, hormonal, and enzyme differences. • OECD Test Guidelines prescribe the measurement of male- or female-specific effects. • There are differences in men and women’s exposure to chemicals due to occupational differences, different behavior and consumption patterns. • Undergoing survey on willingness-to- pay by gender to avoid chemicals-related negative health impacts OECD countries: gender-specific impact of chemicals
  10. 10. • Men use more energy than women for transport, ranging from 70% more in Germany to over 350% more in Greece (Räty, Carlsson-Kanyama, 2009). • Women city dwellers are less satisfied with air quality than men (OECD, 2012). • Women urban designers value environmental aspects more, even though they feel unable to influence policies (Wallhagen et al., 2018) • Women are more likely to recycle, minimise waste and buy organic food and eco-labelled products (OECD, 2008, 2011) OECD countries: gender-specific attitudes and consumption patterns
  11. 11. Three levels of the Gender-Environmental-Sustainability Nexus Global: Environment, Trade, Investment, Corporate activity, Migration, Development Co- operation National: Legal Frameworks, Public policies Asset ownership and control, Physical and Social Infrastructure Individual: Education and Employment, Consumption attitudes, Habitat and Housing Gender- Environmental Sustainability Nexus Budget is a tool for policy coherence
  12. 12. Women and men in decision-making
  13. 13. In the U.S. House of Representatives… When discussing the government budget – women members devoted more time to natural disasters, infrastructure and transportation, and the environment, as well as to sectors heavily impacted by climate change (e.g. health)
  14. 14. In the UK House of Commons… Women MPs focus more of their speeches on welfare reforms, child care, NHS and social care and refer to development and climate and change three times more than their male counterparts.
  15. 15. • 15 out of 36 OECD members currently have female Ministers of Environment But : • Around 40% of OECD members’ national representatives at UN Conventions are women, with the exception of biodiversity, where women are overrepresented (20 out of 36) • Women make up around 20% of the total workforce in the transport, energy, mining, and water sectors, and hold even less leadership positions. • Out of the 60 member countries of the International Transport Forum, only 13 countries have female Ministers of Transport • Only 7 OECD countries have female Ministers of Finance Women’s underrepresentation ultimately has an impact on the way budgets, policies and projects take shape, and by extension, their efficacy and sustainability. Beyond women in parliaments…
  16. 16. Ecosystems’ management facts • Over-exploitation of water resources by agriculture is damaging ecosystems by reducing water flows below minimum levels (OECD, 2010). Only 21.35% of agricultural land owners are female on average in OECD countries (FAO) • Men mostly involved in fish and aquaculture harvesting (81% in 2014 in OECD countries), women in secondary fields (90%), which are often low paid or unpaid (UN Women)
  17. 17. • The 2013 OECD Recommendation on Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship • The 2015 OECD Recommendation on Gender Equality in Public Life (+Toolkit) • The OECD Development Centre's Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) OECD Gender Policy Platform: Accelerating Gender Mainstreaming through the SDGs OECD guidance supports linkages between the environment, gender equality, and smart budgeting
  18. 18. • New Zealand’s Well-being Budget: a cleaner, greener and low-carbon approach; a just transition that ensures environmental sustainability, decent work and social inclusion Budget initiatives that address the Gender-Environmental-Sustainability Nexus: • Sweden’s feminist approach on marrying climate and budget goals • Canada’s Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) applies a gender lens in climate change policies • Costa Rica’s gender approach on agro-forestry systems • Gender impact assessments in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Finland, Sweden, Spain – The city of Vienna’s gender-mainstreaming of infrastructure development
  19. 19. • Iceland found that building a new road tunnel had different impacts on men and women; • In Sweden, Stockholm’s “gender equal snow ploughing strategy” prioritised cleaning bus and bicycle lanes over roads; • In Japan, re-designing Kitakyushu city’s industrial structure with a more sustainable approach; • Australia’s National Broadband Network: 2,3% average increase of self-employed women per year Budget initiatives for inclusive infrastructure development
  20. 20. Evidence gap OECD, 2017
  21. 21. • Overcoming challenges: lack of gender- disaggregated and gender-sensitive data – start collecting! • Find/Build interlinkages between green and gender budgeting; • OECD Framework for Better Governance of Infrastructure – extend or complement to incorporate a gender perspective. • Stocktaking exercise - OECD survey on integrating gender in environmental policy-making – can you help? Next steps
  22. 22. • How is your country already integrating a gender perspective in budgeting practices for environmental policies? At what level? • How best to interlink green and gender- responsive budgeting? • What challenges are you facing? Questions for discussion
  23. 23. THANK YOU