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The Pluricourts Investment Treaty Arbitration Database

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Prof. Malcolm Langford, FOI Roundtable presentation – 23 October 2018
Presentation on new research databases for investment treaties and ISDS by Professor Malcolm Langford of the University of
Oslo and its PluriCourts Centre.
OECD-hosted Freedom of Investment (FOI) Roundtable:
www.oecd.org/daf/inv/investment-policy/foi.htm

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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The Pluricourts Investment Treaty Arbitration Database

  1. 1. PITAD The Pluricourts Investment Treaty Arbitration Database Malcolm Langford Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Oslo Affiliate Researcher , Pluricourts and Co-Coordinator, LEGINVEST Co-Director, Centre for Law & Social Transformation University of Bergen & CM
  2. 2. International Investment Treaties: 1980-2018 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 0 50 100 150 200 250 BITs Treaties with Investment Provisions Cumulative
  3. 3. International Investment Arbitration Cases: 1987-2018 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 Treaty-Based Contract/FDI Law ICISD Annulment Cumulative
  4. 4. Database 1.0 Law à UNCTAD 29.10.2018 5
  5. 5. 29.10.2018 6
  6. 6. 29.10.2018 7
  7. 7. 29.10.2018 8
  8. 8. Database 2.0 Empirical 29.10.2018 9
  9. 9. 1. Chart deeper trends in jurisprudence & treaties 29.10.2018 10 Tarald Berge and Wolfgang Alschner, Reforming Investment Treaties: Does treaty design matter?, Investment Treaty News, 17 October 2018.
  10. 10. 29.10.2018 11
  11. 11. 2. Assess empirical claims (e.g. on legitimacy crisis)
  12. 12. Investor win rates by development 0,57 0,43 0,52 0,47 0,21 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 Lower quintile (n=60) 2 (n=63) 3 (n=69) 4 (n=71) Upper quintile (n=65) Predicetd probability of investor win Respondent country GDP per capita (quintiles) 0,63 0,48 0,45 0,21 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1 Low income (n=33) Lower middle income (n=99) Upper middle income (n=146) High income (n=51) Predicetdprobabilityofinvestorwin Respondent country World Bank Income Group Daniel Behn, Tarald Berge and Malcolm Langford, ‘Poor States or Poor Governance: Explaining Outcomes in Investment Treaty Arbitration’, Northwestern Journal for International Law and Business 38(3) (2018), 333-389.
  13. 13. 3. Social science: Understand actor behaviour 29.10.2018 14
  14. 14. 29.10.2018 15 Taylor St John, Daniel Behn, Runar Lie and Malcolm Langford, Glass Ceilings and Arbitral Dealings: Gender and Investment Arbitration, ASIL Research Forum, 2018.
  15. 15. 4. Law: Modelling, prediction and legal technology 29.10.2018 16 Wolfgang Alschner and Dmitriy Skougarevskiy, ‘Towards an Automated Production of Legal Texts Using Recurrent Neural Networks’, 16th International Conference Artificial Intelligence and Law, Conference Proceedings, June 2017, pp. 229-332.
  16. 16. 29.10.2018 17
  17. 17. PITAD Database Hosted by LEGINVEST Project Pluriucourts Centre of Excellence Associate Professor Daniel Behn Professor Ole Kristian Fauchald Research Fellow Maksim Usynin Research Fellow Runar Lie Research Fellow Tarald Berge Lecturer Taylor St. John St Andrews Assistant Professor Ottawa Research Fellow Tori Kirkebø
  18. 18. 110 variables 29.10.2018 20 Case25 Legal basis 3 Contested measures 6 Policy areas 1 Claimants 9 Legal counsel 6 Decisions 22 Merits 3 Claims discussed 1 Damages 7 Costs 7 Dissents/separate opinions 4 Other awards/orders 2 Arbitrator challenges 3 Annulments 7 Arbitrators 10 Tribunal secretary 2 Expert witness 4 Third parties 4 States 20 146 Variables Cases
  19. 19. Treaties 29.10.2018 21 311 variables
  20. 20. Export Data
  21. 21. The Revolving Door in International Investment Arbitration
  22. 22. 1. Arbitral asymmetry • Top 25 Arbitrators account for 4% of total arbitrators • But 37% of all appointments 29.10.2018 26 • Malcolm Langford, Daniel Behn and Runar Lie, ‘The Revolving Door in International Investment Arbitration’ Journal of International Economic Law 20 (2), 2017, pp. 301–332.
  23. 23. 29.10.2018 27
  24. 24. Arbitrator Network (update) 29.10.2018 28 Rank Arbitrator Nationality HITS hub Page rank Rank Cases Rank (Puig) 1 Gabrielle Kaufmann-Kohler Switzerland 1.0000 0.0130 2 5 2 Brigitte Stern France 0.9034 0.0210 1 1 3 V.V. Veeder UK 0.7109 0.0099 9 11 4 L. Yves Fortier Canada 0.6308 0.0153 3 8 5 Charles Brower USA 0.6183 0.0123 4 6 6 Francisco Orrego Vicuña Chile 0.5716 0.01281 NI* 2 7 Albert Jan van den Berg Netherlands 0.5176 0.0123 6 9 8 Bernard Hanotiau Belgium 0.4851 0.0103 8 13 9 Karl-Heinz Böckstiegel Germany 0.4469 0.0114 8 16 10 Vaughan Lowe UK 0.4334 0.0075 19 22
  25. 25. Revolving Door • Sequential • Simultaneous – ‘Double hatting’ 29.10.2018 29
  26. 26. Legal counsel asymmetry • Only 1% of legal counsel have acted in more than 10 cases. 29.10.2018 30
  27. 27. 2. Legal Counsel Rank Counsel Nationality Law firm(s) For claimant For resp. Total cases* 1 Stanimir Alexandrov Bulgaria Sidley Austin 13 18 31 2 Nigel Blackaby UK Freshfields 26 4 30 3 Osvaldo Guglielmino Argentina Argentina Ministry 0 25 25 4 Emmanuel Gaillard France Shearman & Sterling 14 7 21 5 Todd Weiler Canada Todd Weiler 20 0 20 6 Angelina Abbona Argentina Argentina Ministry 0 19 19 6 Ronald Goodman US Foley Hoag 3 16 19 7 Stephen Jagusch NZ Quinn Emanuel 12 6 18 7 Gabriela Álvarez-Avila Mexico Curtis Mallet 0 18 18 7 Jan Paulsson France Freshfields 7 11 18 7 Hamid Gharavi France Derains & Gharavi 11 7 18 29.10.2018 31
  28. 28. 3. Expert witnesses 29.10.2018 32 Rank Expert Nationality Role For claimant For resp. Total cases 1 Brent Kaczmarek US Quantum/Industry Expert 17 11 28 2 Rudolf Dolzer Germany International Law Expert 13 4 17 3 W. Michael Reisman US International Law Expert 9 7 16 4 Christoph Schreuer Austria International Law Expert 11 2 13 5 Manuel Abdala US Quantum/Industry Expert 5 1 6 6 Anne-Marie Slaughter US International Law Expert 0 5 5 6 Ismael Mata Argentina National Law Expert 0 5 5 6 James Crawford Australia International Law Expert 1 4 5 6 James Dow US Quantum/Industry Expert 0 5 5 6 Joseph Kalt US Quantum/Industry Expert 4 1 5 6 Nico Schrijver Netherlands International Law Expert 2 3 5 6 Pablo Spiller US Quantum/Industry Expert 4 1 5
  29. 29. 4. Tribunal secretaries 29.10.2018 33 Rank Secretary name Nationality Institution Total cases 1 Gonzalo Flores Chile ICSID 38 2 Martina Polasek Czech ICSID 30 3 Eloïse Obadia France ICSID 28 4 Aurélia Antonietti France ICSID 25 5 Ucheora Onwuamaegbu Nigeria ICSID 24 6 Natalí Sequeira Costa Rica ICSID 21 7 Claudia Frutos-Peterson Mexico ICSID 20 8 Gabriela Alvarez-Avila Mexico ICSID 19 9 Mercedes Cordido-Freytes de Kurowski Venezuela ICSID 16 10 Aïssatou Diop Senegal ICSID 15 10 Anneliese Fleckenstein Venezuela ICSID 15
  30. 30. Entire Network: The Powerbrokers Rank Name Nationality Arbitrations Counsel Expert witness HITS Hub 1 G. Kaufmann-Kohler Switzerland 56 0 0 1.00000 2 L. Y. Fortier Canada 53 0 0 0.87664 3 B. Stern France 88 0 0 0.87278 4 V. V. Veeder UK 37 2 0 0.55004 5 F. Orrego Vicuña Chile 49 0 0 0.54280 6 S. Alexandrov Bulgaria 32 31 0 0.52113 7 C. Brower US 52 0 0 0.48111 8 J. Crawford Australia 27 14 5 0.48067 9 D. Price US 18 13 0 0.48031 10 E. Gaillard France 23 21 0 0.47015 29.10.2018 34
  31. 31. 29.10.2018 35
  32. 32. Implications for arbitral appointments • Role of symbolic and network capital in obtainining appointments • Structural barriers to new entrants – Role of insiders in arbitration appointments – Lack of transparency around process 29.10.2018 36
  33. 33. Double Hatting 29.10.2018 37
  34. 34. Case Study: Telekom Malaysia v Ghana 38
  35. 35. Critics • “it is possible to recognise the difficulty that may arise if a lawyer spends a morning drafting an arbitral award that addresses a contentious legal issue, and then in the afternoon as counsel in a different case drafts a pleading making arguments on the same legal issue. Can that lawyer, while acting as arbitrator, cut herself off entirely from her simultaneous role as counsel?” • Philippe Sands 29.10.2018 39
  36. 36. Top 10 Double hatters 29.10.2018 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Zachary Douglas Eric Schwartz Stanimir Alexandrov Stephen Schwebel Florentino Feliciano Robert Volterra Daniel Price James Crawford Jan Paulsson Emmanuel Gaillard
  37. 37. Double Hatting Across Time 29.10.2018 41
  38. 38. Reforms? • Internal debate • EU’s Investment Court • UNICTRAL reform process • Proposals for transitional rules 29.10.2018 42

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