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Ulmer chapter1definingcrisiscommunication


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Ulmer chapter1definingcrisiscommunication

  1. 1. Defining Crisis Communication
  2. 2. ● We live in a risk society: For example, we build homes close large bodies of water, our energy comes from dangerous sources, to produce products we utilize dangerous processes. The way we live makes us vulnerable to natural disasters (e.g. hurricanes), human- caused disasters (e.g. oil-spills) and human-natural disaster (e.g. flooding caused by deforestation). ● Organizations now find it critical to have people trained to communicate during crises. ● Crises are opportunities for organizational improvement.
  3. 3. Three characteristics that distinguish crises from other unpleasant occurrences within an organization: • Surprise: They either occur at an unexpected time or occur with at unexpected intensity. An earthquake that no one predicted is an example of a crisis. A hurricane that occurs during the regular hurricane season but with unprecedented force is also an example of a crisis. • Threat: crises creates threatening circumstances that the reach beyond the typical problems organizations face. BP’s oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, for example, created new problems for BP, its customers, its neighbors, and others. • Short response time: crises must be addressed quickly.
  4. 4. Organizational Crisis: a specific, unexpected , and non-routine event or series of events that create high levels of uncertainity and threaten or are perceived to threaten an organization’s high priority goals. Unexpected: The event comes as a surprise. Non-routine: Crises cannot be managed by routine procedures used to handle everyday organizational problems. Produces uncertainity: Crises produce tremendous uncertainity. Threaten high priority goals: Crises can hinder an organization’s attempts to meet its important goals.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Types of crises: </li></ul><ul><li>Intentional crises: </li></ul><ul><li>crises initiated by international acts designed to harm an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Sabotage </li></ul><ul><li>Workplace violence </li></ul><ul><li>Poor employee Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Risk Management </li></ul><ul><li>Hostile Take Overs </li></ul><ul><li>Unethical Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Unintentional Crises: crises created by events that are largely unpredictable. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Disasters </li></ul><ul><li>Disease Outbreaks </li></ul><ul><li>Unforeseeable Technical Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Product Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Downturns in the economy </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Four primary communication demands common to all crises </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Uncertainity </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a consistent voice </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the cause of the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Contacting everyone affected by the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Determining current and future risks </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to the Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing uncertainity </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinating activities </li></ul><ul><li>Disseminating information </li></ul><ul><li>Resolving the Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Compensating victims </li></ul><ul><li>Renewing the organizations reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Grieving and memorializing the events </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from the Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing safety and prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing industry standards </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing community dialogue </li></ul>