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Shared Leadership in Teams: Expanding Traditional Approaches to Leadership to Make Teams and Organizations More Effective 
Paul Tesluk 
Center for Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness 
UB School of Management
“Leadership…the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization” 
 
House et al., 1999
Why and how is leadership evolving to increasingly be more shared, distributed and networked, what might be the advantages for teams and organizations and what are potential approaches to build systems of shared leadership?
Changing nature of work and organizations = greater reliance on teams that… 
Complex and ambiguous tasks 
Dynamic environments 
Differentiated, distributed expertise 
Flatter systems
Evolving Nature of Leadership
Morning Star 
• 
No one has a boss/manager 
• 
Colleagues negotiate responsibilities with peers 
• 
Each individual and team is responsible for acquiring own tools to do their work 
• 
No titles or promotions 
• 
Compensation decisions are peer-based
Shared Leadership 
 
Distribution of leadership influence across multiple team members 
 
Influence “claiming” and “granting” exchanges 
 
Mutual influence embedded in team member interactions related to providing direction, motivation and support 
 
Greater utilization of knowledge and expertise 
 
Team identification and mutual accountability 
 
Commitment/engagement
= Superior Relational Coordination, 
Employee Engagement, 
Customer Focus 
• 
Customer Satisfaction 
• 
Customer Loyalty 
 
Greater utilization of knowledge and expertise 
 
Team identification and mutual accountability 
 
Commitment/engagement 
Shared Leadership 
Performance 
Sources: 
Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2013). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(2): 181-198. 
D’Innocenzo, L., Mathieu, J.E., Kukenberger, M.R. (2014). A meta-analysis of different forms of shared leadership-team performance relations. Journal of Management, on-line version.
• 
What are potential boundary conditions of shared leadership and its relationship with team performance?
Team 
Performance 
Shared Leadership 
High 
Low 
Low Team 
Competence 
High Team 
Competence 
5.0 
3.0 
4.0 
Source: Chiu, C, Tesluk, P. E., & Owens, B., (2014). Initiating and Utilizing Shared Leadership in Teams: The Interactive Effects of Leader Humility, Team Social Context, and Team Composition. Working Paper. UB School of Management.
• 
What are the enabling conditions that seem to promote the development of shared leadership?
Shared Leadership Enablers 
• 
Shared purpose 
– 
Common understanding of team’s goals and purpose 
• 
Social support 
– 
Team members’ efforts to provide emotional and psychological strength to each other 
• 
Voice 
– 
Team members’ input into how the team carries out its purpose 
• 
Team trust 
– 
team members’ willingness to assume vulnerability with others on the team 
Source: Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. 2007. Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 1217–1234.
• 
What is the role and forms of external team leadership that promote the development of shared leadership?
Evolving Nature of Leadership
• 
Shared purpose 
• 
Social support 
• 
Voice 
• 
Team trust 
• 
Empowering Leadership 
– 
Emphasize significance of work 
– 
Encourage participative decision making 
– 
Build efficacy of the team 
– 
Reduce bureaucracy 
• 
Leader Humility 
– 
Demonstrate self-awareness 
– 
Acknowledge strengths and contributions of others 
– 
Open to new ideas and feedback
Shared 
Leadership 
Leader Humility 
High 
Low 
Non Proactive 
Team 
Highly Proactive 
Team 
1.0 
0.4 
0.7 
Source: Chiu, C, Tesluk, P. E., & Owens, B., (2014). Initiating and Utilizing Shared Leadership in Teams: The Interactive Effects of Leader Humility, Team Social Context, and Team Composition. Working Paper. UB School of Management.
• 
Shared purpose 
• 
Social support 
• 
Voice 
• 
Team trust 
• 
Empowering Leadership 
– 
Emphasize significance of work 
– 
Encourage participative decision making 
– 
Build efficacy of the team 
– 
Reduce bureaucracy 
• 
Leader Humility 
– 
Demonstrate self-awareness 
– 
Acknowledge strengths and contributions of others 
– 
Open to new ideas and feedback 
• 
Active Coaching 
– 
Help identify unique challenges 
– 
Assist with developing problem solutions 
– 
Facilitate team learning and adaptation
Adaptive 
Performance 
Shared Leadership 
High 
Low 
Little Active Coaching 
High Active 
Coaching 
100% 
0% 
50% 
Source: Campbell, E.M., Bartol, K.M., Parke, M.R., Tesluk, P.E. (2014). Leading from Afar: How Virtual Team Leaders Facilitate Emergence and Effectiveness of Shared leader. Working Paper. University of Maryland and UB School of Management.
1. 
Shared leadership is well suited for the evolving nature of work and can best utilize expertise
2. 
Teams need to have a clear sense of purpose and a high level of social support, trust and voice to engage in sharing leadership
3. 
Formal team leaders can enable shared leadership in their teams by engaging in empowerment, demonstrating humility, and using active coaching
1. 
Shared leadership is well suited for the evolving nature of work and can best utilize expertise 
2. 
Teams need to have a clear sense of purpose and a high level of social support, trust and voice to engage in sharing leadership 
3. 
Formal team leaders can enable shared leadership in their teams by engaging empowerment, demonstrating humility, and using active coaching
Current shared leadership projects: 
• 
Buffalo Public Schools 
• 
Interdisciplinary health care teams 
• 
Sustainable urban transformation
Additional Resources 
• 
Recommended academic research 
– 
Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. 2007. Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 1217– 1234. 
– 
Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2013). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology. 99(2): 181-198. 
– 
D’Innocenzo, L., Mathieu, J.E., Kukenberger, M.R. (2014). A meta-analysis of different forms of shared leadership-team performance relations. Journal of Management, on-line version. 
• 
You tube clip on shared leadership concept 
–http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haqy9ff2BS8 
• 
Great example of shared leadership (and followership) in sports –leadership philosophy of coach Phil Jackson 
–http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVWqTQn-jU4 
– 
See also, Jackson’s book, “11 Rings” 
• 
Ted Talk by General Stanley McCrystalwhere shared leadership is covered 
–http://www.ted.com/talks/stanley_mcchrystal 
• 
Wall Street Journal editorial column 
–http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB121441363110903891
Contact information: 
Paul Tesluk 
Center for Leadership & Organizational Effectiveness (CLOE) 
School of Management 
University at Buffalo, State University of New York 
Jacobs Management Center 
Buffalo, NY 14260-4000 
phone: 716-645-3246 
email: ptesluk@buffalo.edu 
http://mgt.buffalo.edu/faculty/academic/resources/cloe

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Shared Leadership in Teams: Expanding Traditional Approaches to Leadership to Make Teams and Organizations More Effective

  • 1. Shared Leadership in Teams: Expanding Traditional Approaches to Leadership to Make Teams and Organizations More Effective Paul Tesluk Center for Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness UB School of Management
  • 2. “Leadership…the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organization”  House et al., 1999
  • 3. Why and how is leadership evolving to increasingly be more shared, distributed and networked, what might be the advantages for teams and organizations and what are potential approaches to build systems of shared leadership?
  • 4. Changing nature of work and organizations = greater reliance on teams that… Complex and ambiguous tasks Dynamic environments Differentiated, distributed expertise Flatter systems
  • 5. Evolving Nature of Leadership
  • 6. Morning Star • No one has a boss/manager • Colleagues negotiate responsibilities with peers • Each individual and team is responsible for acquiring own tools to do their work • No titles or promotions • Compensation decisions are peer-based
  • 7. Shared Leadership  Distribution of leadership influence across multiple team members  Influence “claiming” and “granting” exchanges  Mutual influence embedded in team member interactions related to providing direction, motivation and support  Greater utilization of knowledge and expertise  Team identification and mutual accountability  Commitment/engagement
  • 8. = Superior Relational Coordination, Employee Engagement, Customer Focus • Customer Satisfaction • Customer Loyalty  Greater utilization of knowledge and expertise  Team identification and mutual accountability  Commitment/engagement Shared Leadership Performance Sources: Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2013). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(2): 181-198. D’Innocenzo, L., Mathieu, J.E., Kukenberger, M.R. (2014). A meta-analysis of different forms of shared leadership-team performance relations. Journal of Management, on-line version.
  • 9. • What are potential boundary conditions of shared leadership and its relationship with team performance?
  • 10. Team Performance Shared Leadership High Low Low Team Competence High Team Competence 5.0 3.0 4.0 Source: Chiu, C, Tesluk, P. E., & Owens, B., (2014). Initiating and Utilizing Shared Leadership in Teams: The Interactive Effects of Leader Humility, Team Social Context, and Team Composition. Working Paper. UB School of Management.
  • 11. • What are the enabling conditions that seem to promote the development of shared leadership?
  • 12. Shared Leadership Enablers • Shared purpose – Common understanding of team’s goals and purpose • Social support – Team members’ efforts to provide emotional and psychological strength to each other • Voice – Team members’ input into how the team carries out its purpose • Team trust – team members’ willingness to assume vulnerability with others on the team Source: Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. 2007. Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 1217–1234.
  • 13. • What is the role and forms of external team leadership that promote the development of shared leadership?
  • 14. Evolving Nature of Leadership
  • 15. • Shared purpose • Social support • Voice • Team trust • Empowering Leadership – Emphasize significance of work – Encourage participative decision making – Build efficacy of the team – Reduce bureaucracy • Leader Humility – Demonstrate self-awareness – Acknowledge strengths and contributions of others – Open to new ideas and feedback
  • 16. Shared Leadership Leader Humility High Low Non Proactive Team Highly Proactive Team 1.0 0.4 0.7 Source: Chiu, C, Tesluk, P. E., & Owens, B., (2014). Initiating and Utilizing Shared Leadership in Teams: The Interactive Effects of Leader Humility, Team Social Context, and Team Composition. Working Paper. UB School of Management.
  • 17. • Shared purpose • Social support • Voice • Team trust • Empowering Leadership – Emphasize significance of work – Encourage participative decision making – Build efficacy of the team – Reduce bureaucracy • Leader Humility – Demonstrate self-awareness – Acknowledge strengths and contributions of others – Open to new ideas and feedback • Active Coaching – Help identify unique challenges – Assist with developing problem solutions – Facilitate team learning and adaptation
  • 18. Adaptive Performance Shared Leadership High Low Little Active Coaching High Active Coaching 100% 0% 50% Source: Campbell, E.M., Bartol, K.M., Parke, M.R., Tesluk, P.E. (2014). Leading from Afar: How Virtual Team Leaders Facilitate Emergence and Effectiveness of Shared leader. Working Paper. University of Maryland and UB School of Management.
  • 19. 1. Shared leadership is well suited for the evolving nature of work and can best utilize expertise
  • 20. 2. Teams need to have a clear sense of purpose and a high level of social support, trust and voice to engage in sharing leadership
  • 21. 3. Formal team leaders can enable shared leadership in their teams by engaging in empowerment, demonstrating humility, and using active coaching
  • 22. 1. Shared leadership is well suited for the evolving nature of work and can best utilize expertise 2. Teams need to have a clear sense of purpose and a high level of social support, trust and voice to engage in sharing leadership 3. Formal team leaders can enable shared leadership in their teams by engaging empowerment, demonstrating humility, and using active coaching
  • 23. Current shared leadership projects: • Buffalo Public Schools • Interdisciplinary health care teams • Sustainable urban transformation
  • 24. Additional Resources • Recommended academic research – Carson, J. B., Tesluk, P. E., & Marrone, J. A. 2007. Shared leadership in teams: An investigation of antecedent conditions and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 1217– 1234. – Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2013). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology. 99(2): 181-198. – D’Innocenzo, L., Mathieu, J.E., Kukenberger, M.R. (2014). A meta-analysis of different forms of shared leadership-team performance relations. Journal of Management, on-line version. • You tube clip on shared leadership concept –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haqy9ff2BS8 • Great example of shared leadership (and followership) in sports –leadership philosophy of coach Phil Jackson –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVWqTQn-jU4 – See also, Jackson’s book, “11 Rings” • Ted Talk by General Stanley McCrystalwhere shared leadership is covered –http://www.ted.com/talks/stanley_mcchrystal • Wall Street Journal editorial column –http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB121441363110903891
  • 25. Contact information: Paul Tesluk Center for Leadership & Organizational Effectiveness (CLOE) School of Management University at Buffalo, State University of New York Jacobs Management Center Buffalo, NY 14260-4000 phone: 716-645-3246 email: ptesluk@buffalo.edu http://mgt.buffalo.edu/faculty/academic/resources/cloe