An Architecture based on Linked Data
technologies for the Integration and reuse of
OER in MOOCs Context
Edmundo Tovar (UPM...
Agenda
• Purpose
• The emergence of MOOCs
• Issues of Openness
• Use of Linked Data on OER domain
• The framework
I. Purpose
• To present a framework based on Semantic
Web technologies to support the inclusion of
open materials in massi...
II. THE EMERGENCE OF MOOCs
The recent emergence of Open Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) has helped to spread the Open ...
C. Hodgkinson-Williams, and E. Gray, “Degrees of Openness: The
emergence of Open Educational Resources at the University o...
OERs
discoverability:
•Technical issues around search engines and
repositories, practical searching skills and
the volume ...
IV. USE OF LINKED DATA ON OER
DOMAIN
• The philosophy of Linked Data is that the value
and usefulness of data increase in ...
Educational content
Open licenses
data in machine format
OPEN: "A piece of knowledge is open if you are free to use, reuse...
Linked Data technologies
• Linked Data technologies can also help to
integrate the work of disperse institutions
producing...
V. Architecture for Seeker of OER from Linked
OpenCourseWare and OER Data
The process can be broken down to the following ...
Architecture for Seeker of OER from LOCWD Triplestore .
1. OER Collecting
Goal: Identify and select OER repositories, then extract metadata and
educational resources with Open Li...
• Examples of extracted OER properties include the
name of the resource, its creation date, abstract,
keywords, informatio...
2. OER – Data Publication
Goal: Development and delivery of open educational
resources data as Linked Data.
Description: L...
Publication of OER data
Identify and select
heterogeneous
repositories.
Model vocabularies
for OER domain.
Data extraction...
Overview of conceptual map about general
structure of OCW
LOCWD Vocabulary Modeling
Common data available from
OCW website...
Semantic Annotation of OERs
• We also focus on semantic or conceptual
annotation of OERs, which consists in
attaching “sem...
Some properties and values about the entity Java Programing .
Property Value
owl:sameAs http://dbpedia.org/resource/Catego...
Topics and Subject related to Programing and Java. The table shows the resources
retrieved from DBPedia related to “progra...
Some of the resources returned
3. MOOC profiles provider
Goal: Extract Data from a course profile that serves
as a filter onto the whole universe.
Descri...
Some properties for describe a MOOC profile for Java Course
4. Seeker of resources
Goal: Merge the functionalities of recommendation seeker and Course
Profile.
This module is designe...
A specific topic for Java Course: Introduction to Java programming
Summary of Resources found in LOCWD data source for Topic “Introduction to
Java programming
5. OER Recommender
Goal: For our purpose, a preference is an individual mental
state concerning a subset of items from the...
OER recommended for subtopic: Programming introduction
Conclusions
• Our aim: our willing to contribute to the
Openness in in the MOOC environment
• A more interoperable and int...
this work is licensed under a CreativeCommons Attribution3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/
Edmund...
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An Architecture based on Linked Data technologies for the Integration of OER in MOOCs Context

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This work presents a data architecture based on semantic web technologies that support to the inclusion of open materials in massive online courses. The framework provides transparent access to RDF data sources for Open Educational Resources stored in OpenCourseWare repositories.

Speaker(s): Nelson Piedra and Edmundo Tovar

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An Architecture based on Linked Data technologies for the Integration of OER in MOOCs Context

  1. 1. An Architecture based on Linked Data technologies for the Integration and reuse of OER in MOOCs Context Edmundo Tovar (UPM) Nelson Piedra, Janneth Chicaiza, Jorge López (UTPL) LJUBLJANA, SLOVENIA - 23 - 25 April 2014 Theme: “Open Education for a Multicultural World” UPM GICAC Research Group this work is licensed under a CreativeCommons Attribution3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/
  2. 2. Agenda • Purpose • The emergence of MOOCs • Issues of Openness • Use of Linked Data on OER domain • The framework
  3. 3. I. Purpose • To present a framework based on Semantic Web technologies to support the inclusion of open materials in massive online courses. • The framework provides a service that allows MOOCs’ users to discover and access open educational resources that are extracted from open repositories distributed.
  4. 4. II. THE EMERGENCE OF MOOCs The recent emergence of Open Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) has helped to spread the Open concept but not to clarify the true meaning of Open. MOOCs are large-scale online courses where thousands of participants may assist. Although MOOCs are free as in gratis, they are not open in the sense of being reusable of openly accessible. Students are forced to sign up and get access to the course; MOOC initiatives emphasize free access and interactive features rather than static content. The dominant message is of the quantity of access rather than the openness of educational resources for use, re-use, adaptation or repurpose. The use of Linked Data has been the approach used by the authors for years to face to the previous challenge. The goal is to significantly improve discovery, accessibility, visibility, and to promote reuse of open educational content in massive course.
  5. 5. C. Hodgkinson-Williams, and E. Gray, “Degrees of Openness: The emergence of Open Educational Resources at the University of Cape Town,” International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2009, Vol. 5, Issue 5, pp.101-116. III. ISSUES OF OPENNESS
  6. 6. OERs discoverability: •Technical issues around search engines and repositories, practical searching skills and the volume of available resources in different subject areas. •Tutors are still expecting to find useful materials online and are prepared to spend time searching for them. Open Licensing: •Most of OER repositories are licensed under Creative Commons Licenses. The use of open licenses can help users to discover materials that they know can use, reuse, adapt and redistribute. •OER suitable for a new use or purpose, easier to discover, adapt and remix, and consequently affect the level of openness of an OER. This implies the right to adapt, adjusts, modify, or alter the content itself. OERs Reuse: •One of the two fundamental concepts related to OER is "the ability to freely adapt and re-use existing pieces of knowledge" to improve quality, meet a teaching need and peer suggestion. •Reuse is to use a resource for using as another resource, usually for a purpose unintended by the original creator. OER Main Purpose: ensuring wide access to quality education
  7. 7. IV. USE OF LINKED DATA ON OER DOMAIN • The philosophy of Linked Data is that the value and usefulness of data increase in proportion to their links with other data. • Linked Data uses the Web to create different types of links among data from different sources.
  8. 8. Educational content Open licenses data in machine format OPEN: "A piece of knowledge is open if you are free to use, reuse, and redistribute it” http://www.opendefinition.org/okd OER semantic based on LinkedData approach + +
  9. 9. Linked Data technologies • Linked Data technologies can also help to integrate the work of disperse institutions producing diverse linked data. • Linked Open Data (LOD) is well known for providing a extensive amount of detailed and structured information. • Linked Data vision enables a new generation of open educational resources that can be semantically described and connected with other data and discoverable sources.
  10. 10. V. Architecture for Seeker of OER from Linked OpenCourseWare and OER Data The process can be broken down to the following steps: 1. OER collecting. 2. OER Data Publication and Semantic Annotation of OER. 3. MOOC profiles provider. 4. Seeker of resources. 5. OER recommender.
  11. 11. Architecture for Seeker of OER from LOCWD Triplestore .
  12. 12. 1. OER Collecting Goal: Identify and select OER repositories, then extract metadata and educational resources with Open Licenses Description: The initial step is to identify and select the OER repositories that are available in the Web. There is a large amount of unstructured data of an OCW resource available on the Web, but only in a human-readable representation, HTML. Most OCW web sites do not have APIs for data consumption. So, the only other alternative for automatically reconstitute the underlying data from an OCW web site is to use web-scraping techniques.
  13. 13. • Examples of extracted OER properties include the name of the resource, its creation date, abstract, keywords, information about creator, language, open license information, format, MIME type, expected study duration, expected level of difficulty, and so on. • On the other hand, metadata correspond to the properties of the knowledge and skills designed, such as learning objectives, learning pathways, and examinations.
  14. 14. 2. OER – Data Publication Goal: Development and delivery of open educational resources data as Linked Data. Description: LOCWD reuses a set of RDF(S) vocabularies. Each vocabulary includes a set of terms and classes that are common to a particular knowledge domain. The aim of these vocabularies is to connect the described OCW domain with Datasets in the LOD cloud.
  15. 15. Publication of OER data Identify and select heterogeneous repositories. Model vocabularies for OER domain. Data extraction from OER repositories. Generate OER data as Linked Data. Publish linked data. Consume and display linked data. The following is an outline for producing Linked Data in OER context: Using Linked Data design issues, developers can query Linked Data from multiple sources at once and merge it without the need for a single common schema that all data shares. Linked data technologies can also help to integrate the work of disperse institutions producing diverse linked data.
  16. 16. Overview of conceptual map about general structure of OCW LOCWD Vocabulary Modeling Common data available from OCW websites are: title, knowledge area, open educational materials, open licenses, repositories, higher education institutions, content creators, fields of knowledge, learning guides, licenses, accessibility conformance, and others
  17. 17. Semantic Annotation of OERs • We also focus on semantic or conceptual annotation of OERs, which consists in attaching “semantic labels” to a resource or parts of a course using semantic features provided by a formal knowledge organization called ontology or semantic vocabulary. • The primary external source of semantic annotation of OER is DBpedia, the most important part of the Linked Open Data.
  18. 18. Some properties and values about the entity Java Programing . Property Value owl:sameAs http://dbpedia.org/resource/Category:Java_programming_language rdf:type skos:Concept rdfs:label Java programming language is skos:broader of category:Java_APIs category:Java_specification_requests category:Eclipse_(software) category:Software_programmed_in_Java category:Articles_with_example_Java_code category:Java_libraries category:Java_programmers
  19. 19. Topics and Subject related to Programing and Java. The table shows the resources retrieved from DBPedia related to “programming and Java”. The query returned 899 related subjects from DBPedia.
  20. 20. Some of the resources returned
  21. 21. 3. MOOC profiles provider Goal: Extract Data from a course profile that serves as a filter onto the whole universe. Description: Users don't know precisely what they can find on OER site, or what to search for. Self- learners are trying to discover relationships or trends between MOOC profile and OER data.
  22. 22. Some properties for describe a MOOC profile for Java Course
  23. 23. 4. Seeker of resources Goal: Merge the functionalities of recommendation seeker and Course Profile. This module is designed to access two data sources: The first one reline on LOCWD data, which provides RDF data extracted from OCW and OER websites. The second one use the LOD Project, particularly from DBPEDIA, which provides RDF data extracted from the info-boxes of Wikipedia pages in a structured way. Description: The architecture uses seekers based on SPARQL to express preferences and resources needs by rating OERs. The system focuses on SPARQL query-based algorithms for matching OER based on MOOC preferences and weighting the interest of MOOC designer with similar taste to produce a recommendation for the resources seeker.
  24. 24. A specific topic for Java Course: Introduction to Java programming
  25. 25. Summary of Resources found in LOCWD data source for Topic “Introduction to Java programming
  26. 26. 5. OER Recommender Goal: For our purpose, a preference is an individual mental state concerning a subset of items from the universe of alternatives. Users can use the architecture because a single taxonomic order or a single folksonomy is not suitable or sufficient for explorer OER resources. Description: The architecture proposed attempt to recommend OERs that are similar to educational resources planned by the MOOC Designer and others records of social activity, such as OCW Syllabus and system usage history.
  27. 27. OER recommended for subtopic: Programming introduction
  28. 28. Conclusions • Our aim: our willing to contribute to the Openness in in the MOOC environment • A more interoperable and integrated system to sharing, connecting and discovering data and metadata of OCW initiatives that are extracted from open repositories distributed. • The framework provides an approach that allows to MOOC Designers and users to discover and access open educational resources. • Our principal OER providers are OCW institutions.
  29. 29. this work is licensed under a CreativeCommons Attribution3.0 License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ec/ Edmundo Tovar (UPM, @etc91) - Nelson Piedra (UTPL, @nopiedra) Thanks! OCWC Global Conference 2014 Theme: “Open Education for a Multicultural World” http://conference.ocwconsortium.org/2014/ LJUBLJANA, SLOVENIA - 23 - 25 April 2014 UPM GICAC Research Group

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