OBIS exposes the still-to-be-explored ocean by depth as well as latitude and longitude. On a cross section of the global oceans, the spectrum from red to blue extends from many to few or no records. The records are concentrated near shores and in shallow waters, while the largest habitat on Earth, the vast middle waters, is largely unexplored. For more than 20 percent of the ocean ’ s volume the Census database still has no records at all, and for vast areas very few. Source: Ocean Biogeographic Information System
For larger fishes and other vertebrates, historical records indicate a decline of about 90% of top predators in comparison to past levels. Recovery, though typically very slow, may be possible when protective measures are taken. Despite such alarming declines, the ocean still holds plenty of marine life which requires appropriate management and conservation measures.
Generally speaking if we consider the occurrence points as pure collections, then the classic algebraic operation can be applied. Our idea is to apply a Data Set centric paradigm: a user could be investigating a certain dataset coming from a single source. Then, at a certain moment, he\\she could want to expand such set. Then the user will search for other datasets on the same species and will possible merge the information. For such scope, algebraic operations can allow to highlight some points respect to others by understanding which are common observations (those in the union set) and which are uncommon (those in the subtraction set).
OBIS introduction-for-i marine
Introduction to OBIS Ward Appeltans IOC/UNESCOiMarine-VLIZ-OBIS Meeting, 28 Augustus 2012 - Oostende
VISIONWe make biogeographic data from all over the worldfreely available to policy makers, environmentalmanagers, researchers and the public at large, in orderto increase our knowledge to better manage and protectour oceans.
History in a nutshell Marine spp Datasets Records (M)1997 1st COML workshop – OBIS concept1999 Preparatory workshop Washington2000 OBIS launched, funding Sloan and NSF2001 1st Int. Comm. Meeting, M.J. Costello chair, 1 staff member (Ph. Zhang)2002 1st OBIS node (OBIS-SEAMAP)2004 40,000 38 5.62006 75,000 153 10.32007 E. Vanden Berghe director, 2-3 staff at Rutgers 79,000 206 13.12008 13 OBIS nodes 104,000 492 16.42009 OBIS part of UNESCO-IOC/IODE 108,000 725 22.12010 Launch new data portal 114,000 912 30.72011 Database servers hosted by VLIZ (Ostend) 118,000 1,056 32.32012 W. Appeltans manager at IODE (Ostend) 119,000 1,125 33.6
Dots are projectsOBIS NetworkOBIS is astrategicalliance ofhundreds ofscientists andorganisationswho contributedata,informationand expertiseto OBIS.
Questionaire by EuroMarine in 2012Results: among 48 data systems (based on 360reponses –18% response rate), OBIS is listed in the: – Top 5 best-known data systems – Top 10 best searched and downloaded systems – Top 10 systems were people have contributed data to – Top 10 most consulted systems on a monthly basisLINK to report
Funding resources for the OBISSecretariat• Current: – European Commission • iMarine EU FP7 project – UNESCOs Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (UNESCO-IOC) • IOC Member States: Flanders, Brazil, Canada, USA, Australia• Past: – Alfred P. Sloan Foundation – Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation – National Science Foundation (NSF) – European Commisson (EMODNET) – National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) – National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
Data System Architecture portal Queries GBIF GEO Mapping production Extraction EOL iMarine LifeWatchGCMD staging WoRMSmarbound ITIS, CoL, IRMNGWOD/ODP assemblyGEBCO node node node -Excel, DiGIR, IPT -OBIS (extended DwC) schema
Association of observation points with oceanography Observation data associated withEnvironmental attributes from World Ocean Atlas Bottom depth Temperature Salinity Nitrogen / Oxygen Phosphate / Silicate Visualized through interactive graphs Time-series graphs Histograms WOA09, http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/OC5/WOA09/pr_woa09.html
OBIS allows extraction of observations based on environmental conditions Example map #1 Cetacean species observations in LME region ‘Celtic-Biscay Shelf’ (no environmental conditions set)Example map #2Cetacean species observations in LME region‘Celtic-Biscay Shelf’ filtered by a temperaturerange of 13 to 15 degrees
Summary stats: number of recordsand species per year
Summary stats: growth of data in OBIS#spp *100#datasets # distribution records
Summary stats: it is becoming moredifficult to add more species to OBIS
Summary stats: it is becoming moredifficult to add more species to OBIS(1950-2005) species records
Number of species observed in OBISand described as new in WoRMS
The Unknown Ocean: A slice Red = many records, dark blue noneCoastal areas > open waters;Surface areas > the deep sea;Vertebrates and other large animals > smaller invertebrates;Northern hemisphere > southern.The vast midwaters,Earth’s largesthabitat by volume,mostly unexplored(~95%) Source: CoML OBIS Webb, O’Dor, Vanden Berghe
OBIS assists in identifying global patternsin the distribution of biodiversity(a) Total records in OBIS, corrected for the difference in surface areabetween squares on different latitude; (b) total number of species, correctedfor surface area; (c) Shannon Index; (d) Hurlbert’s index, es(50)
An altered ocean: changes in composition andabundance (90% declines in some groups) 1950s 1980s 2007 McClenachen (2009) Cons. Biol.
CBD-COP10 listed OBIS as a key source of information for the identification of Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) part of CBD Areas of special importance for the life history of a Areas of significant naturalness Areas of high biodiversity species Areas of uniqueness or rarity
OBIS feeds models of speciesdistributions and species richness ‘Aquamaps’ uses environmental envelope modelling to extrapolate species distributions beyond the actual observations (www.aquamaps.org)
IMarine• iMarine is a new EU project to establish a global e- infrastructure to share data & knowledge for sustainable fisheries management and conservation policies. In iMarine, IOC/OBIS coordinates the biodiversity cluster and is involved in the creation of a Community of Practice.http://www.i-marine.eu 23
OBIS’ role in iMarineEfforts:•WP3 (18 person months) – setting up an Ecosystem Approach Community of Practice (EA- CoP) through: • iMarine Board meetings, data and metadata harmonisation and standardisation • Business Cases/Clusters (e.g. Biodiversity)•WP6 (6 person months) – Virtual Research Environments Deployment and Operation
Set Operations – Algebraic OperationsOccurrence Data from GBIF Occurrence Data from WoRMS Occurrence Data from OBIS ∩ ᴜ - Intersection Union Difference A Data Set centric view will be adopted
Advantage for OBIS• Data analysis: – Scientists (or group of scientists) can set up a Virtual Research Environment – Access to many data sources, statistical and geospatial tools• Policy level: – Supporting establishment of VMEs and EBSAs 27
Advantage for OBIS• Data quality and enrichment – QC tools – Identify outliers – Gap analysis – Taxon name reconciliation – Environmental envelopes• Export tools, OGC-webservices• Man- and computing power 28