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  2. 35 Prageeth Gamage 77 Nuwan Gunawardena 79 Ganiesha Kekulandala 80 Mihiri Weerasinghe 81 Mubeen Rahuman 77 Danushka Karunarathne
  3. Kekulandala Gunawardena Gamage 81 77 Rahuman  Analysis of National Security 77 80 Weerasinghe  Analysis of Balance of Power and War  Balance of Power  Anarchy and Security  Introduction of International Relations 35 79 47 Karunarathne  Conclusion
  4. INTRODUCTION  The study of international relations involves many subjects such as international and regional peace and security, international organizations, nuclear proliferation, globalization, human rights, economic development, intervention, international financial relations, and international trade relations  The academic field of international relations is a branch of political science that is concerned with the study of relations between states, the foreign policy of nation-states, and the mechanisms and institutions through which states interact. EVOLUTION  The evolution of international relations can be traced back to thousands of years ago. The history of international relations based on sovereign states and many more types are often traced back to the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, a steppingstone in the development of the modern state system.  What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I. Many cite Sun Tzu's The Art of War (6th century BC), Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War (5thcentury BC), Chanakya's Arthashastra (4th century BC), as the inspiration for realist theory
  5. IMPORTANCE OF IR  The world has become a global village due to technological advances. Therefore, an event in one part of the world has an immediate effect on the other part. All the states in the world are now under compulsion to interact with each other.  IR teaches us that peace could only be achieved if the world actors subjectively solve the problems faced by the world politics like excessive nationalism and narrow national interest Modern theory of IR demonstrates that the traditional concept of sovereignty has become outdated and needs modification.
  6. REALISM  Realism is considered the most dominant school of thought in IR. It is the exercise of power by state toward each other. (power politics)  Realist share a belief that states are unitary rational actors that are motivated by the desire for military powers and security rather than ideals or ethics  Realist view human nature as selfish, conflictual competitive and the primary objective is survival, and believe that states are inherently aggressive (offensive realism) and obsessed with security (defensive realism) Realist value order and does not welcome change.
  7. LIBERALISM Liberalism is the most accepted alternative theoretical perspective to realism and was developed in 1970s.  Due to globalization, the rise of global communications and an increase in international trade meant states could no longer rely on simple power poitics.  Cosmopolitan morality rather than balance of power, and humanity bebfits from peaceful international order  States aren’t the only important actors in IR. Societies an states have become so connected by end of the 20th century that the way they relate to each other has changed.
  8. CONSTRUCTIVISM  The behavior of humans is determined by their identity, which itself is shaped by society’s values, history, practices and institutions  Rise of constructivism : end of the cold war in 1992 – failure of dominant IR theories to explain the end of cold war, which did not end through conflict  Constructivist argue that “anarchy is what states make of it. That is states make the world dangerous (or safe) through their perspective  Recognize that material forces matter, but they also believe that it is the subjective understanding of objective conditions matter equally if not more
  10. ANARCHY  The condition of interaction between multiple individuals without a common superior. Typically this superior is an institution, government  The absence of common government
  11. The absence of common government Absence of state (centralized government with a territorial base and population) The absence of common authority or a common ruler (Absence of word government) In a narrower sense In a broader sense
  12. CONSEQUENCES OF ANARCHY No suprastate actor capable of enforcing international law Primary goal becomes survival Every government reserves the right to decide what is just or necessary for itself
  14. NATIONAL SECURITY The ability of a state to cater for the protection of its people from outside interferences. Personal security The security of each and every person of the society of a perticular territory deter prevent defeat
  15. INTERNATIONAL SECURITY International society Is an internal problem for the international society as a whole 9/11 attack Refugees, transnational crimes, drug/human trafficking, cyber crimes Anarchical society Attack Result Global war on terrorism Use of armed forces in international society
  16. HUMAN SECURITY The right to live in freedom and dignity free from poverty and dispair with an equal opportunity to enjoy their rights fully develop their human potential Economic Health Personal Political Food Environme ntal Community Human security Security of the person Security of the state Security of the society of states
  18. BALANCE OF POWER  It is one of the oldest concepts of international relations.  Several scholars have approached the BOP concept.  Mostly it is defined as a state of dynamic equilibrium characterizing relations among nations.
  19. MAJOR ASSUMPTION OF BALANCE OF POWER  The Balance of Power rests upon several fundamental postulates and assumptions. FIVE PRINCIPAL ASSUMPTIONS:  Firstly, Balance of Power assumes that states are determined to protect their vital rights and interests by all means, including war.  Secondly, vital interests of the states are threatened.  The relative power position of states can be measured with a degree of accuracy.  Balance of Power assumes that “balance” will either deter the threatening state from launching an attack or permit the victim to avoid defeat if an attack should occur.  The statesmen can, and they do make foreign policy decisions intelligently on basis of power considerations.
  20. TYPES OF THE BALANCE OF POWER Simple Balance. Multiple Balance. Local, Regional, and Global. Flexible and Rigid.
  21. METHOD OF MAINTAINING BALANCE OF POWER Alliances and counter alliances. Armament and disarmament. Acquisition of territory . Compensation and partition.
  22. OBJECTS OF BALANCE OF POWER  Preservation of independent of states.  Preservation of peace.  Maintenance of international law.
  24. ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR  A Source of Stability in International Relations “Balance of Power has many a times prevented war. War breaks out only when any state assumes excessive power.” —Fredric Geniz  It suits the real nature of International Relations Counterbalancing actions helps to maintain the stability of relations between states on the face of rapid changes in International power.  Balance of Power Discourages War Because each state knows that any attempt to have excessive power provoke war hence, it keeps its ambitions under control.
  25. ARGUMENTS AGAINST  Balance of Power cannot ensure Peace It suggests that states may secure their survival by preventing any one state from gaining enough military power to dominate all others.  Narrow Basis of Balance of Power It gives near total importance to preservation of self and national- interest as the motives of all state actions.  Uncertainty and unreality of Balance of Power Since the evaluation of the national power of a nation is always uncertain, no nation can afford dependence upon the balance of power.
  26.  States are no longer unitary actors State actors represent a government while non-state actors do not. However, they have impact on the state actors.  Variable factors  Intention : Perceived intention of the major powers in the system determines whether balancing will be preferred by secondary states over other options such as bandwagoning.  Preferences of states : Ever present possibility of war in an anarchic system, states may not cooperate even with their allies because survival is guaranteed only with a“proportionate advantage” -Joseph Grieco-
  27. ANALYSIS WITH CONTEMPORARY WORLD  End of the European Domination and the dawn of Global Politics Narrow European dominated international system has been transformed to a truly global system in which Asian, African and Latin American states enjoy a new and added importance.  Preponderance of Power between US and USSR The actual period of strict bipolarity during the Cold War is much shorter than is conventionally believed.  Balance of Power and stability of International system  Under multi-polarity : threats are more difficult to evaluate, and states shift their responsibilities and rely on others to balance against an emerging state.  Under Uni-polarity and Bipolarity : Tendency to fight Proxy Wars.
  28.  Uneven distribution of power resources Evaluation of the balance of power in the twenty first century become difficult because power resources are unevenly distributed among the great powers.  Change of Concept of War into Total War In the twentieth century, the costs of fighting such a war have soared, while the perceived benefits of winners have abated. Therefore Total war is not impossible.  The Emergence of Global Actors The presence of the UN has made a big change in the structure and functioning of the international system. “The Structural changes in international politics of post-war period have not greatly affected the principle of Balance of Power. It still holds good in respect of regional relations among nations.” —Arnold Wolfers
  30. MAIN PURPOSE The goal of the national security strategy is to ensure the protection of our nation's fundamental and enduring needs.
  31. WHAT IS NATIONAL SECURITY A country's national security is its ability to protect itself from the threat of violence or attack
  32. ELEMENTS OF NATIONAL SECURITY?  Military security  Economic security  Resource security  Border Security  Demographic security  Disaster security  Energy security  Geostrategic security
  33. HOW DOES NATIONAL SECURITY AFFECT THE ECONOMY? Spending too much wealth on security (i.e., the military) can decrease a nation's productivity and lead to economic decline.
  35. With reference to my colleagues…… IR is not a new concept. It has the same history of modern man, i.e. Homospains, finally ended-up in IR, human development has made it more complexed, an obvious result of human development
  36. Man always wants, likes and loves – power, individual development, self-esteem, individuality, formation of groups, developing common cultural understandings, appointing leaders to lead group, formation of states.
  37. IR THEORIES – EVOLUTION OF MAJOR IR THEORIES My colleagues have done an in-depth analysis and elaborated different IR theories such as Realism, Liberalism, Marxism, Bi-polar, Uni- polar Intentionally or unintentionally different groups formed as Nations have selected above approaches or a combination, each selection is different to anther….. Which theory is inappropriate, still IR continues….God knows the best theory, b
  38. National interest and National security– what ever the theory National Interest matters. Importance of National and cultural identity developed Intervention: This happens with good or bad intensions emphasizing each ones National interests, a complexed situation as highlighted by my colleagues
  39. Balance of power – is important to avoid drawbacks of intervention

Editor's Notes

  1. The goal of the national security strategy is to ensure the protection of our nation's fundamental and enduring needs protect the lives and safety of citizens; maintain the sovereignty of that country, with its values, institutions and territory intact; and provide for the prosperity of the nation and ... Specific measures taken to ensure national security include: using diplomacy to rally allies and isolate threats; marshaling economic power to facilitate or compel cooperation; ... using counterintelligence services or secret police to protect the nation from internal threats.
  2. National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic power, diplomacy, power projection and political power. The concept developed mostly in the United States after World War II. The National Security Council (NSC) of Sri Lanka is the executive body of the Sri Lankan government that is charged with the maintenance of national security with authority to direct the Sri Lankan military and Police.
  3. Spending too much wealth on security (i.e., the military) can decrease a nation's productivity and lead to economic decline. Privileging the economy over security, on the other hand, can lead to a state having less influence on the world order in which it operates. Government economic security programs such as food assistance, housing subsidies, and working-family tax credits — which bolster income, help families afford basic needs, and keep millions of children above the poverty line — also have longer-term benefits, studies find: they help children to do better in school and