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1
Sustainable phosphorus sources ready for the European market
Chris Thornton
European Sustainable
Phosphorus Platform
(ES...
2
Without mineral phosphate fertilisers
we could feed maybe 1/5th
of the current world population
Adapted from Dawson et a...
3
200 – 260 million tonnes of
phosphate rock are mined annually
(17 - 24 Mt P)
95% of use is in agriculture:
- fertilisers...
4
3 July 2018
http://www.stockholmresilience.org
Baltic Sea
eutrophication,
source WWF
Eutrophication is a major environme...
5
EU policies to address phosphorus:
from prevention to stewardship
• EU water policy
- Urban Waste Water Treatment Direct...
6
Why recycle phosphorus?
• Synergies
- reducing phosphorus losses to surface waters
- manure management / Nitrates Direct...
7
National legislation
• Switzerland 2016
- P-recycling obligation from sewage sludge
incineration ash and from animal by-...
8
Recycling potential
• European Commission 1
STRUBIAS recycled products
could replace 25-40%
of EU mineral phosphate fert...
9
Recycling routes
today demonstrated /operational
• Manure / food industry by-products organic fertilisers
• Sewage bios...
10
Veolia UK: fertilisers from wastes
Pro-Grow:
• 10 UK composting sites producing 200 000 t/year soil conditioners
from g...
11
EasyMining Sweden Ash2Phos®
• P-recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash & iron ore tailings
 CleanMAP® = technica...
12
Yara : nitrogen recovery
from municipal waste, Oslo
• Ammonia stripping
in VEAS municipal waste anaerobic digester
650 ...
13
Thames Water – Ostara Pearl®
• Slough municipal wastewater treatment plant, UK, since 2013
• 150 tonnes Crystal Green® ...
14
Timac AGRO – Roullier Group:
specific maize starter fertiliser including struvite
• Fertiliser industry added-value for...
15
ICL fertilisers Amsterdam & Ludwigshaven
• Use of secondary materials
in fertiliser production:
- meat and bone meal as...
16
Ecophos P-recycling from sewage sludge ash
• Pilot plant operational Varna, Bulgaria
• Production of DCP (Di Calcium Ph...
17
Suez Phosphogreen
• Struvite recovery from sewage
• Biological P removal sewage works
with anaerobic sludge digestion
-...
18
Why the EU Fertilising Products Regulation (FPR) is essential
- Open EU markets for recycled nutrient products
- Europe...
19
Sustainable phosphorus sources ready for the European market
Chris Thornton
European Sustainable
Phosphorus Platform
(E...
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Sustainable phosphorus sources ready for the European market - EU GreenWeek 2019 event Sustainable fertilisers: greener practices to be promoted by the upcoming Fertilising Products Regulation, 16 May 2019

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Presenter: Chris Thornton

European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP)
www.phosphorusplatform.eu

Sustainable management of nutrients is crucial for agriculture, food, industry, water and the environment. ESPP brings together companies and stakeholders to address the Phosphorus Challenge and its opportunities for the circular economy.

Phosphorus, Fosfor, Fòsfòrm, Фосфор, Fosforas, Fosfors, Fuosfuors, Ffуsfforws, Fosfar, Fosfaar, Fosforus, Φωσφορος, Ֆոսֆոր, ફૉસ્ફરસનો, फास्फोरस, Fosfori, Foszfor, Паликандур, Фосфор,فوسفور, Fosforoa, ფოსფორი, [fūsfūr], Fosfru, Lìn, リン, 인, ฟอสฟอรัส, Photpho, 磷, Posporo, Pūtūtae-whetū, ഫോസ്ഫറസ്, பொஸ்பரசு, Fosofo, Fosforase, Posfori, Fósforo, Phusphuru, Fosforimi, Fosforo, Fosforon, Pesticium

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Sustainable phosphorus sources ready for the European market - EU GreenWeek 2019 event Sustainable fertilisers: greener practices to be promoted by the upcoming Fertilising Products Regulation, 16 May 2019

  1. 1. 1 Sustainable phosphorus sources ready for the European market Chris Thornton European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP) info@phosphorusplatform.eu www.phosphorusplatform.eu @phosphorusfacts
  2. 2. 2 Without mineral phosphate fertilisers we could feed maybe 1/5th of the current world population Adapted from Dawson et al., Food Policy 2011: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03069192 Without mineral nitrogen fertilisers we could support around 1/2 of world food production Fertilizers Europe 2018, based on Erisman, Sutton et al., Nature Geoscience 2008 DOI: 10.1038/ngeo325 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/248828433_ How_a_century_of_ammonia_synthesis_changed_the_world https://phosphorusalliance.org
  3. 3. 3 200 – 260 million tonnes of phosphate rock are mined annually (17 - 24 Mt P) 95% of use is in agriculture: - fertilisers - animal feed But phosphorus is also essential (in much smaller quantities) for: - fire safety - electronics, batteries … - water treatment - chemicals and pharmaceuticals … See ESPP Phosphorus Fact Sheet www.phosphorusplatcorm.eu
  4. 4. 4 3 July 2018 http://www.stockholmresilience.org Baltic Sea eutrophication, source WWF Eutrophication is a major environmental challenge: • Phosphorus (P) = first cause of EU Water Framework Directive (non-morphological) quality status failure • 55% of rivers, 74% of lakes exceed P level for good ecological status • P discharge from sewage works reduced by 70% 1987 - 1996 • 35% of EU surface waters bodies, and 35% of EU groundwater areas are impacted by ‘diffuse’ pollution Sources: see “Phosphorus Fact Sheet” on www.phosphorusplatform.eu
  5. 5. 5 EU policies to address phosphorus: from prevention to stewardship • EU water policy - Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 1991/271 - Nitrates Directive 1991/676 - Water Framework Directive 2000/2000 - Groundwater Directive 2006/118 (P on monitoring list 2014) • Common Agricultural Policy - proposed FaST tool, 2019 • Critical Raw Materials list - phosphate rock 2014 - white phosphorus (P4) 2017 • Circular Economy Package - EU Fertilising Products Regulation, 2019
  6. 6. 6 Why recycle phosphorus? • Synergies - reducing phosphorus losses to surface waters - manure management / Nitrates Directive implementation - reducing ammonia emissions - improving sewage works operation & biosolids management - anaerobic digestion / renewable energy - return of organic carbon to soil - food waste - water reuse • Circular economy - rural jobs - reduce dependency on imports - EU leadership in recycling
  7. 7. 7 National legislation • Switzerland 2016 - P-recycling obligation from sewage sludge incineration ash and from animal by-products - 2018 ordinance defines requirements for recycled fertilisers • Germany 2017 - P-recycling obligation from sewage • Helcom 2017 - P-recycling strategy & reporting • … For details of Swiss and German legislation see ESPP Scope Newsletter n°129 http://www.phosphorusplatform.eu/scope129 and HELCOM see ESPP eNews n°9 http://www.phosphorusplatform.eu/eNews009
  8. 8. 8 Recycling potential • European Commission 1 STRUBIAS recycled products could replace 25-40% of EU mineral phosphate fertilisers • European Commission 2 Phosphorus recycling could replace 30% of EU mineral phosphate fertilisers • i.e. market value of recycled phosphates of c. 600 M€ 3 1 = JRC STRUBIAS draft « Market » report 20/12/2017 2 = IP/18/6161 http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-6161_en.htm 3 = ESPP estimate P recycling potential in EU-27 [kton P/year] Total Recycled Potential Sewage sludge 297 115 182 Biodegradable solid waste 130 38 92 Meat & bone meal 128 6 122 Total 427-555 153-160 274-396 Manure recycling = 1 736 Mineral fertiliser use = 1 448 Van Dijk et al. “Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States”, Science of the Total Environment Volume 542, Part B, 15 January 2016, Pages 1078-1093 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.048
  9. 9. 9 Recycling routes today demonstrated /operational • Manure / food industry by-products organic fertilisers • Sewage biosolids  composting / digestion  agriculture • Animal by-product incineration ash  fertiliser • Sewage sludge incineration ash  technical phosphates • Sewage sludge incineration ash  fertiliser industry • Manure  biochar  fertiliser • Struvite precipitation from sewage  fertiliser • Wastewater  algae  organic fertilisers COOPERL / Brittany farmers’ cooperatives. 400 000 t/y manure processed to organic fertiliser product ww.phosphorusplatform.eu/scope122 Géotexia, Saint Gilles du Mené, Brittany. Methanisation of 70 000 t/y pig manure. French fertiliser homologation obtained for digestate 2013 https://www.anses.fr/sites/default/files/documents/FERTIXIA NK_FSIM_2013-0856_Ans.pdf
  10. 10. 10 Veolia UK: fertilisers from wastes Pro-Grow: • 10 UK composting sites producing 200 000 t/year soil conditioners from green & food wastes • All grades have “product” status and PAS100 certified Granulation factory at Livingstone, near Edinburgh Capacity 20 000 t/y Currently: fertilisers from food industry by-product ashes liming materials micro-nutrient fertilisers Under development: recycled fertilisers
  11. 11. 11 EasyMining Sweden Ash2Phos® • P-recovery from sewage sludge incineration ash & iron ore tailings  CleanMAP® = technical grade MAP (mono ammonium phosphate)  plus iron and aluminium salts & silica/cement by-product • Pilot plant sewage sludge ash Helsingborg (2018) = up to 0,6t/h • Pilot plant iron mining tailings, underway (25 kg/h) • Full scale plant construction starting 2019
  12. 12. 12 Yara : nitrogen recovery from municipal waste, Oslo • Ammonia stripping in VEAS municipal waste anaerobic digester 650 000 t/y municipal waste • 12-15% of input nitrogen recovered as ammonium nitrate http://www.circulary.eu/project/yara-recovery/
  13. 13. 13 Thames Water – Ostara Pearl® • Slough municipal wastewater treatment plant, UK, since 2013 • 150 tonnes Crystal Green® fertiliser / year • High quality slow release fertiliser • Today also plants in Spain, Netherland. • 18 plants operational worldwide www.ostara.com and www.phosphorusplatform.eu/scope99 https://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/earthrise/2014/12/recyc ling-phosphorus-2014121693225616272.html
  14. 14. 14 Timac AGRO – Roullier Group: specific maize starter fertiliser including struvite • Fertiliser industry added-value for recycled nutrients • Recovered struvite from industries • Non-burning, enabling “ultra localisation” next to roots • Micro-granulation • Specific balanced formulation for maize nutrition
  15. 15. 15 ICL fertilisers Amsterdam & Ludwigshaven • Use of secondary materials in fertiliser production: - meat and bone meal ash - struvite • Objective: 100% by 2025 • Pilot testing successful • Industrial installations (storage, handling) planned www.icl-group.com
  16. 16. 16 Ecophos P-recycling from sewage sludge ash • Pilot plant operational Varna, Bulgaria • Production of DCP (Di Calcium Phosphate) for fertilisers, animal feed • Dunkerque, France • First line operational since 1/2018: 220 000 t/y DCP from low grade P-rock • Second line in authorisation phase: 100 000 t/y of sewage sludge incineration ash and other secondary raw materials • Contract 60 000 t/y ash from Netherlands (SNB – HVC Groep) See SCOPE Newsletter 111 and www.ecophos.com
  17. 17. 17 Suez Phosphogreen • Struvite recovery from sewage • Biological P removal sewage works with anaerobic sludge digestion - 2013, Aby wwtp, Aarhus, 84 000 p.e. - 2015, Herning, Denmark, 150 000 p.e. - 2017, Marselisborg, Denmark 200 000p.e. • Advantages - struvite sale: 250€ - 300€ /tonne - reduced P-removal chemical costs - avoidance of nuisance deposits - reduced sludge volumes - reduced energy consumption for biological N removal https://www.suezwaterhandbook.com/degremont-R- technologies/sludge-treatment/recovery/recycle-phosphorus-from- effluent-to-produce-a-valuable-fertilizer-Phosphogreen
  18. 18. 18 Why the EU Fertilising Products Regulation (FPR) is essential - Open EU markets for recycled nutrient products - European market for organic fertilisers, biostimulants … - Open EU market for nutrient recycling technologies - Continuation of markets for ‘national’ fertilisers Challenges to address : - Add STRUBIAS to FPR annexes (struvite, biochar, ashes) = products already on the market - Clarify Nitrates Directive status of recycled products (DG ENVI ‘SafeManure’ project) - Address consumer and food industry / supermarket concerns about contaminants  European initiative? - Cost of recycling: transfer tax from labour to resources
  19. 19. 19 Sustainable phosphorus sources ready for the European market Chris Thornton European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP) info@phosphorusplatform.eu www.phosphorusplatform.eu @phosphorusfacts

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