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Phobic Disorders


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Phobic Disorders

  1. 1. PHOBIC DISORDERS       Intense, irrational fear responses to an external object, activity or situation. Anxiety is experienced if the person comes in contact with the dreaded object or situation. Phobia- response to an experienced anxiety. Characterized by persistent fear of specific places or things. Anxiety is displaced or externalized to a source outside the body. Persists even though the phobic persons recognized that they are irrational.
  2. 2. Persons may control the intensity of their anxiety simply by avoiding the object or situation they fear.  Most people are able to function normally and fulfill role expectations, responsibilities, and relationships. Phobic symptoms may become phobic disorders when they cause severe distress and impair functioning.  One of the most prevalent anxiety disorders with potentially disabling, chronic and recurrent patterns. 
  3. 3. AGOROPHOBIA (WITHOUT HISTORY OF PANIC DISORDER)  Fear of being in public or open spaces, places, or situations where escape could be difficult or help may not be available; for example if the person should faint.
  4. 4. SOCIAL PHOBIAS     Fear of being humiliated, scrutinized, or embarrassed in public. Example: choking while eating in front of others or stumbling while dancing in view of others, public speaking, writing in public. Potentially disabling and chronic course that threatens the person’s social, interpersonal, and occupational functioning and overall quality of life. Nonpharmacologic interventions:       Pyschotherapies: individual, cognitive- behavioral therapy Desensetization Rehearsal An array of homework assignments Progressive muscle relaxation Abdominal deep breathing exercises
  5. 5. SPECIFIC PHOBIAS   Fear of a specific object or a situation that is not either of the above. Example: Fear of            Animals Flying Heights Storms Illnesses Death Injury Appear to rise from anxiety-provoking situation that generate intense emotions, fear and panic. Theories: social or learning behavioral- cognitive, biologic, and genetic factors. Treatment is consistent with that of other phobic disorders. May gain relief from pharmacological and nonpharmacologic treatment approaches that reduce their cognitive, biological, and behavioral responses to anxiety- provoking objects or situations.
  6. 6. ETIOLOGY Specific individual factors, environment, family environment, genetic factors
  8. 8. Nurse- patient relationship  Nursing  Accept interventions: patient and their fears with a noncritical attitude.  Provide and involve patients with activities that do not increase anxiety but will increase involvement rather than avoidance.  Help patients with physical safety and comfort needs.  Help patients to recognize that their behavior is a method of coping with anxiety.
  9. 9. Psychopharmacology  Behavior therapies  Drugs that reduces or block panic attacks or reduces depression:  Imipramine (Tofranil)  Alprazolam (Xanax)  Clonazepam (Klonopin)  Phenelzine (Nardil)
  10. 10. Milieu Management  Assertiveness- training and goal-setting groups.  Social skills groups and other milieu activities- redevelop social skills and decrease avoidance.  Behavior therapy: systematic desensitization, flooding, exposure, and self-exposure treatment