Intense, irrational fear responses to an external
object, activity or situation.
Anxiety is experienced if the person comes in
contact with the dreaded object or situation.
Phobia- response to an experienced anxiety.
Characterized by persistent fear of specific
places or things.
Anxiety is displaced or externalized to a source
outside the body.
Persists even though the phobic persons
recognized that they are irrational.
Persons may control the intensity of their
anxiety simply by avoiding the object or
situation they fear.
Most people are able to function normally
and fulfill role
expectations, responsibilities, and
relationships. Phobic symptoms may
become phobic disorders when they cause
severe distress and impair functioning.
One of the most prevalent anxiety
disorders with potentially disabling, chronic
and recurrent patterns.
HISTORY OF PANIC DISORDER)
Fear of being in public or open spaces,
places, or situations where escape could
be difficult or help may not be available;
for example if the person should faint.
Fear of being humiliated, scrutinized, or embarrassed in
Example: choking while eating in front of others or
stumbling while dancing in view of others, public
speaking, writing in public.
Potentially disabling and chronic course that threatens
the person’s social, interpersonal, and occupational
functioning and overall quality of life.
Pyschotherapies: individual, cognitive- behavioral therapy
An array of homework assignments
Progressive muscle relaxation
Abdominal deep breathing exercises
Fear of a specific object or a situation that is not either of the above.
Example: Fear of
Appear to rise from anxiety-provoking situation that generate intense
emotions, fear and panic.
Theories: social or learning behavioral- cognitive, biologic, and genetic
Treatment is consistent with that of other phobic disorders.
May gain relief from pharmacological and nonpharmacologic treatment
approaches that reduce their cognitive, biological, and behavioral
responses to anxiety- provoking objects or situations.
Specific individual factors,
environment, family environment,
Nurse- patient relationship
patient and their fears with a
Provide and involve patients with activities
that do not increase anxiety but will increase
involvement rather than avoidance.
Help patients with physical safety and
Help patients to recognize that their
behavior is a method of coping with anxiety.
Drugs that reduces or block panic
attacks or reduces depression:
training and goal-setting
Social skills groups and other milieu
activities- redevelop social skills and
Behavior therapy: systematic
desensitization, flooding, exposure, and