correlation between breakfast and student's performnace: case study of student in UiTM Shah Alam.
‘THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BREAKFAST AND PERFORMANCE AMONG STUDENTS OF UITM SHAH ALAM’ Prepared by:Group 1. Nurul Syahida binti Hassan (2010456998) 2. Noor Amalina binti Masduki ( 2010263152 ) 3. Nur Amira binti Mohamed Murad (2010461104 ) 4. Sharezza binti Kamaruddin ( 2010470662 )Prepared for:Mr Teoh Chee YongEnglish Lecturer for BEL422/420Academy of Language StudiesUiTM, Shah Alam Submission Date: 9th June 2012
SUMMARY Breakfast is said as the most important meal of the day. However, many peopleespecially students refuse to eat breakfast before they going to class due to some reasons suchas lack of time, not feeling hungry, food not available and many other reasons. Manynutritionists believe that breakfast can help in enhancing the effectiveness of thinking skills,memory and performance to students. Therefore, this study is conducted to determine anypositive correlation between eating breakfast and performance to the students of UiTM ShahAlam. Forty undergraduate students from UiTM Shah Alam participated in this study. Thesestudents were asked to fill up the survey questionnaires to investigate on students’performance where they have to rate their performance in areas such as alertness, attention,mood, test, participation etc. The survey also asked whether they eat breakfast or not as wellas they were given memory test where they had to recall 25 wordlists that have been given tothem to read. The result indicated that breakfast does seem to have some effect on theirperformance but not as much as hypothesized. The results from this memory test researchalso shows that eat breakfast seems to improve student’s memory but it does not appear tohave any real influence on other components of their performance in studies.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We were grateful to Almighty Allah for giving us enough energy to carry on ourproject to complete the partial of requirement for this course that is to write a report. We alsogive this honoured to our instructor, Mr. Teoh Chee Yong for giving us chance to do thisresearch and advised us on how to conduct our project. Your cooperation and care will bebear in our mind for good. Thank you also to our beloved friends and family that give ussupports to carry out this project.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Summary i Acknowledgements ii List of Illustrations iii 1.0 TERMS OF REFERENCE 1 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2 2.1 Background of the Study 2 2.2 Statement of the Problem 4 2.3 Objectives of the Study 4 2.4 Method and Limitations of the Study 5 3.0 FINDINGS 6 3.1 Breakfast Taken 3.1.1 Time Taken 3.1.2 Frequency of Breakfast Taken 3.1.3 Students grade 3.1.4 Student’s place of living 3.2 Breakfast Skipping 3.2.1 Reason for skipping breakfast 3.2.2 Effect of Skipping Breakfast 3.3 Quality of Breakfast 3.3.1 Types of Breakfast Taken 3.3.2 Content of Breakfast 3.3.3 Impacts of Eating in the Company of others on Breakfast Routine 3.3.4 Alternatives to Breakfast 3.4 Students’ Performance Measure 3.2.1 Participation 3.2.1 Alertness 3.2.1 Concentration 3.2.1 Mood 3.2.1 Attention 3.5 Memory Test 4.0 CONCLUSION 5.0 RECOMMENDATION 6.0 REFERENCES
1.0 TERMS OF REFERENCE On 7th March 2012, Mr Teoh Chee Yong; our BEL422 instructor are requesting us toprovide a written report as part of the course requirements to complete the course. We agreedto conduct a study on ‘the relationship between breakfast and performance among students ofUiTM Shah Alam’. This study was undertaken to determine the importance of breakfast onperformance in education. We are asked to conduct the study and assigned to find thematerials and resources research has been done before in connection with the topic. Thisreport was sent on May 9, 2012.
2.0 INTRODUCTION This section will discuss the background of the study, the statement of the problem,the objectives of the study, methods used and the limitations of the study of the relationshipbetween breakfast and performance among students of education’.2.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Breakfast is very important in our daily lives. By taking breakfast every day, we cancomplete the daily routine with active, vibrant and energetic. Breakfast is proven to provideenergy to start the day with better and more vibrant as well, contributing to the sharpness ofmind for learning. According to the American Dietetic Association as reported by the MayoClinic Staff (www.mayoclinic.com) in 2011; children and adolescents who eat a healthybreakfast are more likely to meet daily nutrient requirements, concentrate better, have betterproblem – solving skills as well as eye coordination. In addition, they reported that thechildren and adolescents will be more alert, creative, less skipping class and be morephysically active. in the article ‘Breakfast: Do not be Underestimated’, written by Norkumalabinti Awang; research officer to the Centre for Science and Environmental Studies at theInstitute of Islamic Development Malaysia (IKIM) in the Utusan Malaysia ( February 2012)states that breakfast is the daily needs that cannot be overstated. Breakfast is proven toprovide energy for daily activities throughout the day with a more vigorous and productive.This is because, when we got out of bed every morning, blood glucose level is low. Then,taking balanced nutritious meals during breakfast will supply enough energy to start the daywith a fit because the body needs glucose to generate energy. Glucose can be obtained fromthe food that we eat every day. If the supply of glucose to the brain is sufficient, it makes anintelligent, energetic and active. But if not enough glucose in the body, a person will becomeinactive; the brain will feel tired, lazy and unable to perform daily activities successfully. So,not surprisingly, students who did not get breakfast will be less active compared to studentswho took breakfast. Breakfast is closely related to health. It is not just to scare us forbreakfast to fill the stomach but also proven to reduce the persons weight. A study in thejournal Obesity Research found that 78 per cent of the respondents were able to lose weightand maintain weight loss as a result of eating breakfast on a continuous basis. Therefore,breakfast is not just to increase energy but also can create a good mood, producing a positiveattitude, good mental health and also help someone in charge of the appearance of the body.
Senior Lecturer of Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of PutraMalaysia, Dr Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof (January 2012) said the breakfast is veryimportant to start the day for a person with more energy after more than eight hours of sleep,especially the brain. She also stated that breakfast was not only provides energy to start a newday, but many health benefits including weight control and better performance. For example,by eating a nutritious breakfast and a full, rich in nutrients, vitamins and minerals can provideenergy to the body, can give more focus and better performance in the classroom and moreenergy to engage in activities in class or on the field and help reduce cholesterol. Breakfasttype recommended for students including toast and milk, bread and cheese or fried rice orfried noodles with less oil and added a variety of vegetables. The cakes that are baked orsteamed such as fresh spring rolls were also a good choice. She also added that we can reducethe amount of processed foods because these foods are high in fat and salt. The students arenot encouraged to eat foods high in fat and sugar in excess because if taken in excessiveamounts can cause drowsiness. She also said that Islam recommends Muslims to take themorning meal when you want to fast for the supply of energy throughout the day. For thosewho are fasting, morning meal is like breakfast. Thus, the practice is not only beneficial tohealth, but it also encouraged in Islam. As narrated by Abu Said al-Khudri, the Prophet s.a.w.said: "Eat morning was a blessing, therefore, do not leave even one of them was then sip adrink of water. Then, Almighty Allah blesses the people who eat pre-dawn meal. Therefore,breakfast should never be underestimated even if only just to take a favorite drink and a pieceof bread that is also capable of providing significant improvement. She was hope that itcontinues to be a practice that ultimately contribute to the health and ibadah to a Creator. Aminuddin (2006) in his article; ‘Breakfast is Important for Teenagers and Student’wrote that many nutritionists recommended that students should take breakfast becausebreakfast is the main source to begin their daily routine and thus improve their minds. Studyby nutrition experts found that people who have breakfast every day will be able to maintaingood health, systematic, optimistic, has the ideal body shape and most importantly, have ahigh skill of thinking. He also added that the breakfast should be taken at 7.00 am to 09.00am because at the time, in our bodies nutrient absorption occurs in the small intestine. Then,we are encouraged to take breakfast at least at 7.00 am, if we want to become successful.
2.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Breakfast is always being taken for granted by some people. Based on randomobservations carried out in many café, especially in UiTM Shah Alam, it is rare to seestudents having breakfast. They just take their first meal at 10.00 am to 12.00 noon.Aminuddin (2006) said many people especially students always skipped the morning mealdue to some reasons. They just don’t realize about the importance of taking breakfast evenbreakfast is vital in life. He said that many students did not take their meal before they wentto the school and they only took their first meal around 10.00 a.m. and above in school. Theyalso ignore the nutrient content of food they eat every day and sometimes, they just choosetheir favorite foods to eat in the morning. For example, they just eat foods like nuggets andsausages. This phenomenon is common in school life. This is because they do not realize theimportance of breakfast for stimulating the brain for learning purposes. Therefore, this reportwas aimed to examine the importance of breakfast on learning performance of students inUiTM Shah Alam.2.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To study the breakfast-taking students’ in their alertness and learning performance. To study the most chosen or favorable breakfast taken by the students. To investigate the reasons why some of the students skipped their breakfast. To identify the health problem symptoms faced by the respondent regarding to breakfast taken. To test the memory level between students who are taking breakfast and non-taken breakfast. To study the nutrients taken by the students every morning and its relationship with their health.
2.4 METHOD AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY In this study, we use various methods including conducting surveys, providingquestionnaires to be completed by randomly selected respondents. We also run a memory testto assess differences between the memories of students who take breakfast with who do nottake breakfast. To add input, we also examine the research papers that have been made bynutrition experts, the opinions of experts in health associations, relevant journals and articleson this topic. However, there are some shortcomings in carrying out this study. Among themare a short study period, i.e. only 10 weeks to carry out the study, the relatively limited scope,constraints opinions from local health experts because most of the studies done byinternational experts and the number of respondents willing to surveyed. Apart from that, theparticipants were not gathered randomly. Thus, convenience sampling was used insteadbecause the participants were easily accessed this way. There is also limited in finding thereal respond from the respondents because their tendency to not answering the question in thereal locus is higher where they might be in hurry while answering the questions.
3.0 FINDINGS From the survey that are conducted, there are 28 students who are taken breakfast andthe other 12 are not take their breakfast. From the 28 students, six people took heavybreakfast and 22 of them took light food for their breakfast meal.3.1 BREAKFAST TAKEN Breakfast taken analysis was examined in the Section A. These students who aretaken breakfast before classes usually take their breakfast around 07.00 a.m. to 11.00 a.m.From our analysis, there are six students, who have their breakfast at 07.00 a.m. to 08.00a.m., eleven students took breakfast at around 09.00 a.m. and nine of the 28 breakfast-takenstudents who took breakfast around 10.00 a.m. and the rest took their breakfast at 10.00 a.m.to 11.00 a.m. It is shown by the pie chart below. 10 - 11 a.m. 10 - 11 a.m. 9 - 10 a.m. 9 - 10 a.m. time 8 - 9 a.m. 8 - 9 a.m. 7 - 8 a.m 7 - 8 a.m 0 5 10 15 number of respondentsFigure 1 Time that students usually take their breakfast The frequency of breakfast taking was examined by responses to Question 3 inSection A. Table 1 shows that 17 students at least sometimes taking their breakfast with alarge percentage 42.5% indicating that the students almost always skip breakfast.TABLE 1: Frequency of Breakfast Taking Response Frequency Percentage (%) Every day 8 20.0 Often 3 7.5 Sometimes 17 42.5 Very little 0 0 TOTAL 28 70Result from the survey shows that students who are taking breakfast have CGPA above 3.00points compared to students who are not taking breakfast. The result is shown by the table.
TABLE 2: The CGPA of Respondents. BREAKFAST TAKEN BELOW 3.0 ABOVE 3.0 YES 8 20 NO 2 10 In our survey also, we analysed the place of living for every respondents we met tosee the correlation between the place of living for the students and their habit of takingbreakfast. The results show that many of off-campus students have taken their breakfastbefore they went to class compared to the students who stay in-campus.TABLE 3: Place of Living BREAKFAST TAKEN HOSTEL OFF – CAMPUS YES 9 19 NO 4 83.2 BREAKFAST SKIPPING Abdul Khan (2000) said that more than half of the students in his study at leastsometimes skip their breakfast. In our study, 12 of the respondents responded that they areskipped their breakfast due to some reasons. Five of them admitted that it is because they getup late in the morning and four of them said that they usually not hungry in the morning, sothey just skipped their breakfast. One of them said that he spend too much time on otherthings every morning as well as another person who said that he don’t like the food. The restof four students responded on the question by saying that they skipped breakfast because theydo not like to eat in the morning and the food is not available at that time. All these reasonscaused them to skip their breakfast every day. The result from this is shown by the tablebelow.
TABLE 4: REASON FOR SKIPPING BREAKFAST NO REASONS FREQUENCY 1 Usually not hungry 4 2 Get up late 5 3 Spend too much time on other things 1 4 Dieting 0 5 I don’t like the food 1 6 Do not like to eat in the morning 2 7 Food not available 2 TOTAL 15 In Section E, we also examined the preferable place if the students do not eatbreakfast at home. The students respond to Question 5 in this section. From the survey, itshows that many of students preferred to eat at cafeteria. This suggests that the students mayhave proper eating habit. This can be illustrated by the pie chart below. outside the campus 7 outside the campus place outside the faculty 2 outside the faculty cafeteria cafeteria 19 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 number of respondents Figure 2: Preferable place for breakfast3.2.1 Effects of Breakfast Skipping We has had analysed the symptoms that they may have if they take their breakfast orif they are not take any meals during breakfast time. From our analysis, 42.86% of studentswho eat breakfast said that they had sleepiness every morning and 32.14% of them said thatthey suffering from stomach pain every morning. They also agreed that they always feltindecisiveness and anxiety every morning. 25% of them felt nervous as well. This can beseen in the following Table 5.
TABLE 5: RESULT FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE TAKING BREAKFAST BREAKFAST-TAKER STUDENTS PHYSICAL MENTAL SYMPTOMS FREQUENCY % SYMPTOMS FREQUENCY %HEADACHE 6 21.43 INDECISIVENESS 5 17.86SLEEPINESS 12 42.86 ANGER 1 3.57STOMACH 9 32.14 ANXIETY 5 17.86PAINMUSCLE 4 14.29 IRRITABILITY 0 0FATIGUENONE 11 39.29 UNHAPPINESS 1 3.57 NERVOUSNESS 7 25.00 NONE 18 64.29 Most of the students who are not taken their breakfast physically felt sleepy and they also felt nervous every morning. However, they felt irritable every morning compared to students who are taken their breakfast. This is shown by the table below. TABLE 6: RESULT FOR PEOPLE WHO ARE NOT TAKING BREAKFAST NON-BREAKFAST TAKEN STUDENTS PHYSICAL MENTAL SYMPTOMS FREQUENCY % SYMPTOMS FREQUENCY % HEADACHE 3 25.00 INDECISIVEN 0 0 ESS SLEEPINESS 6 50.00 ANGER 1 8.33 STOMACH 2 16.67 ANXIETY 1 8.33 PAIN MUSCLE 0 0 IRRITABILITY 2 16.67 FATIGUE NONE 4 33.33 UNHAPPINESS 2 16.67 NERVOUSNES 4 33.33 S NONE 7 58.33 3.3 QUALITY OF BREAKFAST
3.3.1 Types of Breakfast Taken From that seven categories of food that are examined, 37.5% of the 28 students whoare taken breakfast always took bread and toast for their breakfast and they usually have itwith jam, butter, honey etc. 32.5% of them always have biscuits during breakfast. Other foodcategories such as cereals are seldom preferable by 45% of the 28 students and 42.5% ofthem are took Western food rarely. From all seven food categories, fast food is the food thatis not preferable by 25% of the 28 students to take as their breakfast while 10% of them saidthat fast food is not applicable. This is shown in the Table 7.TABLE 7: Preferable Food Frequency of Food Taken (%) Types of Food Never Not Seldom Often Always take ApplicableCereals 7.5 45 12.5 5 2.5Western Food 7.5 42.5 7.5 7.5 7.5Fast Food 25 30 7.5 0 10Biscuits 2.5 12.5 20 32.5 5Fruit and Salad 22.5 25 17.5 2.5 5Bread / Toast 0 17.5 15 37.5 2.5Traditional Food 5 10 22.5 27.5 7.5Others 0 0 0 5 0 45 40 cereals 35 western food 30 fast food 25 biscuits 20 fruit n salad 15 bread/toast 10 5 traditional food 0 others always seldom never take not applicableFigure 3 Types of preferable food taken during breakfast3.3.2 Content of Breakfast
The food are groups into two; one having proteins while the other havingcarbohydrates. The breakfast having none or negligible amount of either proteins orcarbohydrates was considered less nutritious while the breakfast with any proportion ofproteins and carbohydrates was considered nutritious. There are seven categories of breakfastmeals that are examined in the survey which included cereals, Western food (pizza, spaghettietc.), Fast food (KFC, McDonald etc.), biscuits, fruit and salads, bread and toast andtraditional food (Roti Canai, Nasi Lemak etc). Then, all seven food categories are dividedinto two groups; which are protein foods (egg, peanut butter, milk, Milo, cheese etc.) andcarbohydrates foods (cereals, bread, nasi lemak etc.). In order to classify high protein andcarbohydrate foods, the following information (taken from food labels available in localsupermarket) was used.TABLE 8: Nutrition Contains In Food Taken During Breakfast PROTEIN CARBOHYDRATE FOOD (gram/serve) (gram/serve)Cereals (QUAKER Oats) 5 27Western Food (spaghetti) 8 43KFC Hot & Spicy Drumstick 11 5Munchy’s Oat Crunch 2 21(3 pcs)Fruit salad (Banana, apple, 1.5 21.3mandarin orange)Gardenia Enriched White 5 33BreadNasi Lemak 13 80Boiled egg 6.26 0.56Lady’s Choice Creamy 9 13Peanut ButterMilk 8 13Nestle Milo Chocolate 2.4 12.9Flavoured Drink MixKraft Cheddar Explosion 2 51Cheese The responses to Question 2 in Section E: ‘What do you put on your toast or bread ifyou eat toast or bread?’ showed that only 55% of students put cheese, peanut butter, egg etc.on toast or bread. This suggests that the rest may not be having sufficient proteins in theirbreakfast while having breakfast on the way to class. This is shown by the table below.TABLE 9: Frequency responses to Question 2
Food Frequency Per centNot taken 12 30.0butter 2 5.0jam 6 15.0peanut butter 3 7.5egg 1 2.5nothing 6 15.0more than one 10 25.0topping Figure 4 Preferable topping among studentsTotal 40 100.0 The responses to Question 3 of Section E: ‘What drink do you usually have forbreakfast?’, almost of the students who have breakfast on the way to school (95%) drink anykind of drink or nothing because managing to have a water on the way to faculty seems hard.This shows that the students did not consume enough water in their daily routine.TABLE 10: Frequency responses to Question 2Drinks Frequency Per centNot taken 12 30.0tea 5 12.5coffee 4 10.0water 2 5.0juice 1 2.5milo 5 12.5nothing 1 2.5more than 10 25.0one drinkTotal 40 5 Preferable drinks among students Figure 100.03.3.3 Impacts of Eating in the Company of others on Breakfast Routine The impacts of eating in the company of others on breakfast routine were also lookedinto through Question 4. Sometimes this could be a factor for skipping breakfast in themorning. Having breakfast with company of other people could encourage the students toregularly have breakfast. This is shown by the table below.
TABLE 11: Companion during BreakfastCompanions Frequency Per centNot taken 12 30.0own 15 37.5with some of 3 7.5familywith all family 2 5.0with all friends 4 10.0with family or 2 5.0alonewith family or 1 2.5friendswith friends or 1 2.5alone Figure 6 Companion during breakfastTotal 40 100.03.3.4 The Alternatives to BreakfastThe timing of the first meal of the day was examined if students skipped their breakfastthrough Question 6. Out of those who skip breakfast (12 students), there is (%) eat nothinguntil lunch hour. They chose to have their first meal in some other time and places. This canbe shown by the following table.TABLE 12: Alternatives to Breakfast at HomeAlternatives Frequency Per centNot taken 12 30.0before 8 a.m. 6 15.08 - 10 a.m. 16 40.0during lunch 6 15.0hourTotal 40 100.0 Figure 7 Alternatives to breakfast3.4 STUDENTS PERFORMANCE MEASURE
3.4.1 PARTICIPATION From 28 students who take breakfast, 37.5% of them agreed that they alwaysparticipate in the class before they had their lunch, while 10% of them disagreed withthat statement. This is shown in the table below. Frequency Percent Not answer 11 27.5 Disagree 4 10.0 Undecided 7 17.5 Agree 15 37.5 Strongly agree 3 7.5 Total 40 100.0 TABLE 13: Participation rate for the students. Figure 8: Participation of Students in Class3.4.2 ALERTNESS 42.5% of the students who are eating their breakfast agreed with the statementthat they are more alert in classes after they have taken their breakfast. Only 2% ofthose 28 students are not agreed with that statement. This can be illustrated by thefollowing diagrams. Frequency Percent Not answer 11 27.5 Disagree 2 5.0 Undecided 10 25.0 Agree 11 27.5 Strongly agree 6 15.0 Total 40 100.0
TABLE 14: Alertness of the students in classes Figure 9: Alertness of students in classes 3.4.3 CONCENTRATION 30% of the 28 students that took breakfast agreed with the statement that they hard to concentrate in classes before lunch while the rest disagreed with that statement. They agreed that they easy to concentrate in class before they had their lunch. This is the responses to the Question 2: I find it hard to concentrate in class before I have my lunch and Question 3: I find it easy to concentrate in class before I have my lunch. All these are showed in the tables below Frequency PercentNot answer 11 27.5Strongly 2 5.0disagreeDisagree 7 17.5Undecided 8 20.0Agree TABLE 15: Frequency rate if they think that they hardly to 11 27.5 concentrate in classes.Strongly agree 1 2.5Total 40 100.0
Frequency PercentNot answer 12 30.0Strongly 1 2.5disagreeDisagree 10 25.0Undecided TABLE 16: Frequency rate if they think that they easy to 10 25.0Agree concentrate in classes. 7 17.5 Total 40 100.0 3.4.4 MOOD 42.5% said that their mood is positive in classes before they have lunch. The other 28.5% said that they are not in mood and not know what they felt every day in classes. Frequency Percent Not answer 11 27.5 Disagree 6 15.0 Undecided 6 15.0 Agree 15 37.5 Strongly agree 2 5.0 Total 40 100.0 TABLE 17: Mood of student before they lunch in class. 3.4.5 ATTENTION 17.5% of the students said that they felt distracted in classes before lunch while the other 27.5% said that they can pay 100% attention in class before lunch. This is measured in the Question 6: I always felt distracted in classes before I have my lunch and Question 7: I can pay attention 100% in class before lunch.
Frequency Percent Not answer 11 27.5Strongly disagree 3 7.5 Disagree 5 12.5 Undecided TABLE 18: Distraction in class 14 35.0 Agree 7 17.5 Total 40 100.0 Frequency PercentNot answer 11 27.5 Disagree 8 20.0Undecided 10 TABLE 19: Attention in class 25.0 Agree 11 27.5 Total 40 100.0
3.5 MEMORY TEST < 15 6 words 11 not take breakfast take breakfast > 15 6 words 17 0 10 20 Figure 10 Memory Test Results From the above chart, we can see that 17 of the 28 respondents who took breakfast inthe morning could remember more than 15 words compared to the non-taken breakfast whichhas only six of them that could remember more than 15 words.
4.0 CONCLUSION The present study was done to discover if eating breakfast before class improves theperformance of students in their study. It was hypothesized that there is a positiverelationship between eating breakfast before class and student performance. The results ofthe study supported the hypothesis partially but not completely. The findings indicatedthat there is a positive relationship between eating breakfast and memory. However,breakfast did not seem to impact the other types of school performance (alertness,participation, attention, concentration and mood). These results are similar to those foundin past research (Staub, 2009) and they differ from the finding of other studies (Kleinman,1998) The study conducted by Staub (2009) came up with similar results to the presentstudy. In this study, it was found that breakfast did improve memory because those whoate breakfast before taking the memory tests did receive higher scores than those who arenot taking breakfast.