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: To understand the scope of circulation system in tall buildings.
Specific Objectives :
At the end of this unit you should be able to:
Explain the concept of maintenance.
Describe maintenance and the need for maintenance.
Explain and identify the types of building maintenance.
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Building maintenance has until recently been a neglected field or technology,
being regarded by many as a µCinderella¶ activity. It possesses little glamour, is unlikely
to attract very much attention and frequently regarded as unproductive, although many of
the managerial and technical problems are more demanding of ingenuity and skills than
those of new works. A Government µCommittee on Building Maintenance¶ described
how this class of work is accorded little or no merit and that while it remains a neglected
backwater, the morale of those involved in its management and execution must suffer and
productivity will remain low.
Property owners all too frequently endeavour to keep maintenance expenditure to
a minimum, ignoring or misunderstanding the adverse long-term effects of such a policy.
Neglect of maintenance has accumulative results with rapidly increasing deterioration of
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the fabric and finishes of a building accompanied by harmful effects on the contents and
occupants. Buildings are too valuable assets to be neglected in this way. In excess of onethird of the total output of the construction industry is devoted to this activity, inadequate
though it is to keep the nation's buildings in a satisfactory condition.
3.1 Concept of Building Maintenance
It is highly desirable but hardly feasible to produce buildings that are
maintenance-free, although much can be done at the design stage to reduce the amount of
subsequent maintenance work. All elements of buildings deteriorate at a greater or lesser
rate depending on materials and methods of construction, environmental conditions and
the use of the building.
3.1.1 Definition of Maintenance
BS 3811 define 'maintenance' as: "The combination of all technical and associated
administrative actions intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can
perform its required function." The requirements for maintenance must not be less than
those necessary to meet the relevant statutory requirements, and 'maintained' is defined in
the Factories Act 1961 as: ³maintained in an efficient state, in efficient working order and
in good repair.´
The Committee on Building Maintenance defined µacceptable standard¶, as quoted
in the first edition of BS 3811, as ³one which sustains the utility and value of the facility´
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and this is found to include some degree of improvement over the life of a building as
acceptable comfort and amenity standard rise. Cleaning will also constitute part of
building maintenance activities.
BS 3811 categories building maintenance by means of the following terms and
Planned maintenance: ³The maintenance organized and carried out
forethought, control and the use of records to a predetermined plan.´
Preventive maintenance: ³The maintenance carried out at predetermined
interval or corresponding to prescribed criteria and intended to reduce the
probability of failure or the performance degradation of an item.´
Corrective maintenance: ³The maintenance carried out after a failure has
occurred and intended to restore an item to a state in which it can perform
its required function.´
Emergency maintenance: ³The maintenance which it is necessary to put
in hand immediately to avoid serious consequences.´ This is sometimes
referred to as day-to-day maintenance, resulting from such incidents as gas
leaks and gale damage.
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initiated as a result of knowledge of the condition of an item from routine
or continuous monitoring.´
Scheduled maintenance: ³The preventive maintenance carried out to a
predetermined interval of time, number of operations, mileage, etc."
Another approach to maintenance classification has been adopted by Speight, who
sub-divided maintenance into three broad categories:
Major repair or restoration: such as re-roofing or rebuilding defective
walls and often incorporating an element of improvement.
Periodic maintenance: a typical example being annual contracts for
decorations and the like.
Routine or day-to-day maintenance: which is largely of the preventive
type, such as checking rainwater gutters and servicing mechanical and
Maintenance work has also been categorised as µpredictable¶ and µavoidable¶
Predictable maintenance is regular periodic work that may be necessary to retain the
performance characteristic of a product, as well as that required to replace or repair the
product after it has achieved a useful life span. Avoidable maintenance is the work
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required to rectify failures caused by poor design, incorrect installation or the use of
With building services, minimal neglect can result in potential danger.
'Appropriate condition' could be interpreted as the maintenance of buildings in a state
which allows them to be used for the purpose for which they were provided for the
minimum capital expenditure. The main problem is to determine the standards to be
applied in a particular situation, and these are more readily assessed for services and
finishing than for the fabric. The appropriate condition will be influenced by many
factors, including the function of the building, its public image, or even national prestige.
Building maintenance is characterised not only by the diversity of activities but
also of the interests involved. A prime aim should be to obtain good value for the money
spent on maintenance but there are conflicting views on this² public/private; long/short
term; and landlord/tenant.
A system which is based on planned inspections and maintenance will have
higher overhead costs than one that is not, but the planning should lead to lower
maintenance expenditure. A fully planned system is not always the most appropriate and
care is needed in devising the best system for the particular estate. Figure 3.1 shows the
cost relationship of planned and unplanned systems.
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Figure 3.1: Cost relationship between planned and unplanned system
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3.2 Maintenance Needs
A prime aim of maintenance is to preserve a building in its initial state, as far as
practicable, so that it effectively serves its purpose. Some of the main purposes of
maintaining buildings are:
Retaining value of investment;
Maintaining the building in a condition in which it continues to fulfill its function;
Presenting a good appearance.
The amount of necessary building maintenance work could be reduced by
improved methods of design, specification, construction and feedback of maintenance
data to designers. In addition, effective maintenance management embraces many skills.
These include the technical knowledge and experience necessary to identify maintenance
needs and to specify the right remedies; an understanding of modern management
techniques; a knowledge of property and contract law; and an appreciation of the relevant
sociological and economic aspects.
The Building Conservation Trust has described how its permanent exhibition at
Hampton Court Palace shows quite dramatically how through neglect and deterioration
every building faces certain death from progressive decay. The process can be
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accelerated by neglect or delayed by proper care. Proper maintenance is cheaper, quicker
and easier than major repairs.
Chudley has identified the principal criteria which could influence the decision to
carry out maintenance work, such as cost, age and condition of property, availability of
adequate resources, urgency, future use and possibly sociological considerations.
3.2.1 Assessing Maintenance Priorities
It is difficult to formulate a precise order of priorities of maintenance activities as
they are so diverse and any assessment is likely to be a subjective evaluation. Some of the
principal functions of maintenance are: to ensure the safety of occupants, visitors and the
general public; to maintain services, such as heating, lighting, escalators and fire alarm
systems; to maintain decorative surfaces and carry out adequate cleaning; and to prevent
or diminish significantly deterioration of the fabric.
Some organisations have formulated maintenance priority guidelines which, in
times of financial stringency, dictate how monies are to be spent. Typical is the following
approach, adopted by one county council.
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Work required for health and safety, such as emergency exits and fire precautions.
Work required to preserve the structure, such as essential roof repairs and external
Work required for occupational efficiency, such as increased lighting.
Amenity work, mainly internal, such as interior decorations.
The Local Government Operational Research Unit identified three separate
categories of building maintenance work²fabric maintenance; day-to-day repairs; and
improvements and modernisation. The Unit endeavoured to establish techniques for
determining whether a particular job should be done immediately or deferred.
For instance to draw up a long-term maintenance programme for the fabric of
buildings, a maintenance manager must make many decisions. First, he must decide
which of the various elements of the building, such as walls, floors, roof, windows and
doors, merit detailed inspection. Upon inspection he needs some criteria for ranking them
in order of priority coupled with a technique for assessing their condition. Finally, he
must decide in each case whether work is necessary, and if so whether patching or
replacement is more appropriate. To make these decisions he must not only know the cost
implications of the various alternatives but must also know the minimum acceptable
conditions of the elements, appearance being an important factor in deciding what type of
repairs should be undertaken. Adhoc maintenance with an open-ended budget may seem
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attractive but it is unlikely to obtain full value for monies spent or an efficient
There is a need to improve the method of managing and executing building
maintenance. Maintenance budgets should be clear and well reasoned and supported by
full information on the consequence of neglecting maintenance. Decision making in
building maintenance could be assisted by the application of operational research and
computer aided techniques. A prime aim should be to improve efficiency and
productivity. There is a backlog of several years in the maintenance of many buildings
and more effective use of resources will help to reduce these arrears and assist the
Feedback from occupier to designer should be improved in order to assemble
information on both the preference of the user, and the performance of materials,
components and constructional methods. There is a general lack of essential basic data
and appropriate recording systems. Design teams all too frequently neglect consideration
of maintenance aspects and there is a great need to reduce the gulf between design and
maintenance. Occupiers of new building should ideally be provided with maintenance
manuals listing the materials and equipment used in building.
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3.3 Type of Maintenance
This area represents a comprehensive program that includes long-term
maintenance and repair of buildings as well as the daily requests received from the
community. Maintenance categories include: HVAC, electrical, carpentry, painting,
plumbing, emergency maintenance, and sign production. We have some of the finest
skilled craftsman in the industry working in Facilities Management.
Maintenance will repair a component that was originally furnished and/or built
with the initial construction, or was added later as part of an approved previous capital
expenditure. Equipment will be serviced by maintenance if it was installed with the
building and/or renovation, and if it would stay with the building in the event that the
using department moved.
Most corrective maintenance is requested by the user of the facility to solve an immediate
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3.3.1 Emergency Service Requests (Emergency Maintenance)
Emergency Maintenance is a 24-hour per day operation and can be accessed by calling
Work Control. A worker will respond immediately to resolve any problem, which
threatens life safety. Examples of emergency situations are major electrical power
failures, water main breaks, and serious structural problems.
3.3.2 Routine Service Request (Current maintenance)
A work order will be computer generated for the scheduling of routine/non-emergency
situations such as wall patching, room painting, replacing damaged ceiling or floor tiles,
repairing leaky faucets and hanging pictures.
3.3.3 Preventive Maintenance (Schedule maintenance)
Preventive Maintenance (P.M.) is the scheduled work performed on the mechanical,
electrical, and structural portions of our facilities. This work is performed on a systematic
basis to maintain the integrity and reliability of these components. Our P.M. program
includes daily, weekly, monthly, semi-annually and annually scheduled services.
Other types of maintenance are:
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3.3.4 Urgent Service Requests
Prompt attention will be given to such problems such as leaks, broken windows or other
security problems, out of service elevators, defective electrical fixtures or localized
power outages, heating/air conditioning problems, and plumbing problems such as
3.3.5 Mechanical Maintenance
Mechanical components of our buildings include environmental control (i.e., heating,
ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration), and plumbing. Utility Systems provide for the
distribution of water, heating and cooling up to the building, whereas Mechanical
Maintenance is responsible for the distribution and maintenance of all utilities (except
electrical) within the buildings. Window air conditioning units are also serviced by
Figure 3.2 Mechanical Maintenance
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3.3.6 Structural Maintenance
The Structural Maintenance Department's provide carpenters, painters, and plasterers to
perform interior and exterior painting, plastering, glazing, lock repair, carpentry (e.g.,
repair of hardware, doors and windows) and many other duties. They also maintain
handicapped door access and furniture such as seating, desks, and etc.
Figure 3.3 : Structural Maintenance
System Operation Maintenance
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Complete the sentences below by the
providing the correct answers.
1. BS 3811 defines 'maintenance' as
2. List two of categories of µbuilding
maintenance¶ based on BS 3811
1. "The combination of all technical and associated
administrative actions intended to retain an item in, or
restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required
2. i.Planned maintenance: ³The maintenance organized
and carried out forethought, control and the use of
records to a predetermined plan.´
ii.Unplanned maintenance: ³The maintenance carried
out to no predetermined plan.´
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1. What are the concepts of maintenance?
2. List down one activity of Mechanical Maintenance.
3. List and describe two types of building maintenance.
If you have problems in
refer your notes«
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1. It is highly desirable but hardly feasible to produce buildings that are
maintenance-free, although much can be done at the design stage to reduce the
amount of subsequent maintenance work. All elements of buildings deteriorate at
a greater or lesser rate depending on materials and methods of construction,
environmental conditions and the use of the building.
2. An activity mechanical maintenance is
Environmental control (i.e., heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration)
3. Emergency maintenance and Schedule maintenance
Emergency Maintenance is a 24-hour per day operation and can be
accessed by calling Work Control. A worker will respond immediately to
resolve any problem, which threatens life safety. Examples of emergency
situations are major electrical power failures, water main breaks, and
serious structural problems
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Preventive Maintenance (P.M.) is the scheduled work performed on the
mechanical, electrical, and structural portions of our facilities. This work
is performed on a systematic basis to maintain the integrity and reliability
of these components. Our P.M. program includes daily, weekly, monthly,
semi-annually and annually scheduled services bad wear and tear on the