Lesson 2.1


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Lesson 2.1

  1. 1. Lesson 2.1 Cell structure and functionDisediakan oleh:NUR SUHAIDAH SUKORSMK SANDAKAN, SABAH
  2. 2. IntroductionCell Theory1. All organisms are composed of cells.2. Cells are the smallest living things.3. Cells arise only from pre-existing cells.All cells have certain structures in common.1. genetic material – in a nucleoid or nucleus2. cytoplasm – a semifluid matrix3. plasma membrane – a phospholipid bilayer
  3. 3. Animal Cells 3
  4. 4. Plant Cells 4
  5. 5. Nucleus Spherical stores the genetic material. DNA is organized with proteins to form chromatin. Func: controls all activities of cell.
  6. 6. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) Membranes that create a network of channels throughout the cytoplasm Attachment of ribosomes to the membrane gives a rough appearance. Synthesis of proteins to be secreted, sent to lysosomes or plasma membrane 6
  7. 7. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) Relatively few ribosomes attached. Functions: -synthesis of membrane lipids -detoxification of drugs 7
  8. 8. RER & SER 8
  9. 9. Golgi Apparatus Flattened stacks of interconnected membranes. Packaging and distribution of materials to different parts of the cell. Lysosome are formed through budding of vesicles. 9
  10. 10. Golgi apparatus 10
  11. 11. Lysosomes-membrane bound vesicles-containing digestive enzymes to break downmacromolecules-destroy cells or foreign matter that the cellhas engulfed by phagocytosis 11
  12. 12. Lysosomes 12
  13. 13. Vacuoles spherical or oval shapedfilled with fluid. cell sap contains sugar,salts, amino acid and wastesubstances. bounded by semi-permeable membranecalled tonoplast.There are different typesof vacuoles: -contractile vacuole -food vacuole 13
  14. 14. MitochondriaMitochondria -cylindrical shape -two layers of membrane (inner membrane is folded)Func –site for cellular respiration. -oxidise glucose to release energy in the form of ATP. 14
  15. 15. Mitochondria 15
  16. 16. ChloroplastsChloroplasts -Disc shaped organelle bounded by two membranes. -grana are stacks in the stroma -granum contain chlorophyl 16
  17. 17. Chloroplasts 17
  18. 18. Cell wallStructure -rigid outer layer of plant cell -made of cellulose -permeableFunc –mantains the shape of plant cell -protects the cell from brusting -give support to the cell
  19. 19. CytoplasmaStructure –jelly like mediumFunc –place for biochemical reactionsCentriolesStructure –small cylindrical structuresFunc –form spindle fibers -synthesis cilia and flagella of small organism.
  20. 20. Plasma MembraneStructure -thin, semi permeable membrane. -consists of protein, phospholipids.Function -regulates and control the movement of substances in and out of cell.
  21. 21. The density of certain organelles related to its functionTypes of cells Function Density of certain organellesSperm cell To swim towards Mitochondria need to fallopian tube to fertilise produce energy the ovumFlight muscles For movement Mitochondriainsect and birdCells in meristem For growth, produce new mitochondria cellsPalisade mesophyll cells photosynthesis ChloroplastLiver cells Detoxification of drugs Smooth endoplasmic reticulumPancreatic cells Produce enzymes Rough endoplasmic reticulum, golgi