CONTENTS1. Composition of Air.2. Different types of pollutants in air.3. The effects of amospheric pollutant
COMPOSITION OF DRYAIR…Dry air consits mainly of oxygen and nitrogen.The volumetric composition of the standard dryair is:
POLLUTANTS IN AIR Pollutants are substance which can cause harm and damage to people, animals , vegetation , buildings or machines Pollutant Sources Harmful effects Carbon Monoxide Incomplete combustion Headaches , breathing of carbon-containing difficulties and can cause substances death Methane Bacterial decay of Global Warming vegetation Oxides of Nitrogen Lighting and internal Breathing difficulties , combustion engines cause acid rain and produce ozone Ozone Sunlight acting or Irritates eyes and lungs unburnt hydrocarbons and causes asthma and nitrogen dioxide atshma attacks Sulfur Dioxide Volcanic eruptions and Breathing difficulties combustion of fossil ,causes athsma attack and fuels Acid rain Unburned hydrocarbons Car exhausts Products Ozone
THE EFFECTS OF OZONE..The human health effects of ozone have been studied for over30 years. The respiratory systemic the primary target of thisoxidant pollutant. Respiratory tract responses induced byozoneinclude reduction in lung function, aggravation ofpreexisting respiratory disease (such asasthma), increaseddaily hospital admissions and emergency department visits forrespiratory causes, and excess mortality. The degree ofadverse respiratory effects produced by ozone depends onseveral factors, including concentration and duration ofexposure, climate characteristics, individual sensitivity,preexistent respiratory disease, and socioeconomic statusBoth the level of physical activity and the sensitivity of theindividual are factors in determining the adverse health effectsof ozone. Four groups of people are particularly sensitive toozone when they are active outdoors: children, healthy adultsdoing outdoor exercise, people with preexistent respiratorydisease, and the elderly. Children and healthy adults are moresensitive
PREVENTIVE AND REDUCE AIR POLLUTANTS Example of how pollutant can be removed or reduced- -Installing catalytic converters in motor vehicles to remove nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxides and unburned hydrocarbons.- -It can also be treat acidic gases like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, with calcium hydroxide before releasing them into the atmosphere.- -We can used alternative sources of energy like solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric
EFFECT OF THE ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS- -Human health- -Carbon monoxide- > It is very colourless and odourless but it is very poisonous. It reacts with haemoglobin in the red blood cell to form a compound called carboxy haemoglobin which make the blood unable to absorb oxygen.- -Nitrogen oxides- It can cause respiratory problem, damage to the lungs and react with volatile organic compound to form ground level ozone.- -Ozone- >It causes irritation to the eyes and throats and damage the lungs tissue.
ENVIRONMENT Methane It can cause the greenhouse effect by trapping the sun heat and causing global warming. Sulphur When it rises to the atmospheric , it react with the oxygen and rain water to formed acid rain. Unburned hydrocarbons It react with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight to form ozone which cause lungs irritation and photochemical smog.
ATMOSPHERIC POLUTANTS IN CHINA.. Three billion people in developing nations across the globe rely on biomass in the form of wood, charcoal, dung and crop residue as their domestic cooking fuel. It is because much of the cooking is carried is carried out indoors in environtments that lack proper ventilation , millions of people, primarily poor women and children face serious health risks. Even though the rate dependence on biomass fuel is declining, this dwindling resources will not keep up with population growth which could ultimately put environment at even greater risks.