PENGENALAN <ul><li>Pembentukan tamadun bukan hanya berdasarkan anutan agama masyarakat semata-mata, tetapi dikenali juga berdasarkan jenis bangsa yang mempelopori tamadun tersebut. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamadun Melayu – tamadun yang dimiliki bangsa Melayu di rantau yang dikenali sebagai Alam Melayu, Kepulauan Melayu, Nusantara ataupun Asia Tenggara. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Tamadun Melayu telah melalui beberapa fasa perkembangan sejarah: </li></ul><ul><li>~ Fasa kedatangan serta pertapakan masyarakat yang dikenali sebagai Melayu </li></ul><ul><li>~ Fasa orang Melayu menerima pengaruh India dalam agama dan kebudayaan </li></ul><ul><li>~ Fasa orang Melayu menerima Islam </li></ul><ul><li>~ Fasa penjajahan </li></ul><ul><li>~ Fasa kewujudan negara-negara merdeka </li></ul>
Ancient Malaysia - Negrito aborigines are considered to be one of the first groups of people to inhabit the Malaysian peninsula. When the Proto-Malays, made up of seafarers and farmers, came to the peninsula they sent the Negritos into the jungles and hills. The Proto-Malays came from China and were technologically advanced, especially in comparison to the Negritos. After the Proto-Malays came the Deutero-Malays, which were made up of many different people - Arabs, Chinese, Indians, Proto-Malays, and Siamese. The Deutero-Malays were proficient in their use of iron and when they united with Indonesians, they combined to make up the people known today as the Malay.
Lelaki dan wanita asli puak Semang The standard photograph of the time: a European between Negritos (fromLord Moyne, Walkabout: A Journey in Lands between the Pacific and Indian Ocean . London 1938).
House of Mentri Saada,Headman,Kuala Gadil,Sungai Jeram,Pahang
"Young Senoi man from Telum Valley, 1932, (c) photo taken by Paul B. Means"
Hindu Kingdom - 100 BC - 1400 AD - During this period, Malaysia's culture changed dramatically with the arrival of Indians. Indians initially went to the Malaysian peninsula in search of a mystical place known as the "Land of Gold." Although the places in Malaysia may not have been what they were looking for, they didn't leave, but continued to arrive in search of gold, spices and aromatic wood. In addition to trade (with goods), the Indians introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the peninsula, thus bringing temples and other cultural traditions from India. As a result, local kings in Malaysia combined what they considered to be the best aspects of India's government with their own structure, thus resulting in "Indianised kingdoms." Today, the Indian influences can best be seen in a traditional Malay wedding ceremony, which is similar to those in India.
Islam and the Golden Age of Malacca - 1400 AD - 1511 AD - Chinese, Indian and Arab records show that Srivijaya to be the best trading area in the region. After seeing its great success, other areas quickly copied it thus causing a decline in Srivijaya's influence. Since the Hindu kingdoms of Malaysia weren't very strong and didn't have a central power, this caused a big problem for the region. Pirates were another problem that needed to be taken care of in order for there to be a safe, secure port. This problem was taken care of with the emergence of Malacca, which was in an ideal location, thus attributing to its great success. It was founded in 1400 and within 50 years it was a major port, actually the most influential in Southeast Asia and with alliances being built with other tribes and ports, Malacca was able to "police" the waters and provide an escort for vessels that needed it. With this success, Malacca quickly became the power in control of all of Malaysia's west coast.
Para pedagang Arab datang ke Melaka dan menyebarkan Islam di sana sehingga menjadi pusat penyebaran Islam di seluruh Nusantara pada abad ke 15 Masehi.
Colonial Malaysia - 1511 AD - 1957 AD - Malacca's power and success was quickly extinguished with the arrival of the Portuguese in 1511. Since the Arabians weren't allowing vessels piloted by non-Muslims into their harbors, the Europeans realized they needed a trading port of their own. Thus bringing about capture of Malacca and it's harbor. After conquering Malacca, the Portuguese built an immense fort which in turn was captured by the Dutch in 1641. In 1785, the British, who needed a port for their ships to dock while in route to China, persuaded the Sultan of Kedah to let them build a fort on Penang. After the French conquered the Netherlands in 1795, the Dutch allowed England to oversee the port of Malacca rather than turn it over the the French. This was the first in a series of "swaps" to and from each country regarding this area. Eventually, although it was finally given to Britain in a trade, the Dutch were the main controllers of the region. With the establishment of a port in Singapore, the British colonies (Malacca, Penang, and Singapore) came to be known as the Straits Settlements.
Fasa Penjajahan Aphonso d’ albuquerqur Penjajah Portugis yang tiba di Melaka dan memulakan era penjajahan bangsa Eropah di Tanah Melayu pada 1511 Masehi
<ul><li>A Trader's Dream: </li></ul><ul><li>Tome Pries, a Portuguese apothecary who visited Malacca in the early 16th century, said that the city was "of such importance and profit that it seems to me it has no equal in the world." Part of this success came from Malice's highly organized municipal government. The port was administered by four syahbandars , or harbor master, each of whom was assigned to a group of nations. Captains of arriving ships would report to their particular syahbandar, whose staff would then provide the him with elephants to carry his cargo to a nearby warehouse specifically allotted to him. Traders paid customs based on the value of the merchandise and their port of origin, and gifts were presented to the ruler, the bendahara (chief minister), the temenggung (customs official), and the syahbandar. Large ships paid a 6 percent flat-rate based on the value of their cargo. </li></ul><ul><li>Once duties were paid, Malay merchants would buy the goods, then sell them in the marketplace or ship them off to other nearby ports. The entire process was fair and fast, and traders were almost always guaranteed to be finished in time to catch the monsoon winds home. </li></ul>
England's monopoly on tin mining was tremendously helped with the Pangkor Agreement in 1874. This Agreement was the result of internal fighting among the Malay kingdoms over control of the Perak throne. The commotion that ensued prompted Britain to basically force the Malay rulers into signing the peace treaty. A result of this treaty was that England had greater control, which greatly helped them in maintaining their monopoly in tin mining. Britain's control continued until the Japanese invasion in 1942, although they tried to regain control after the end of World War II in 1945. This attempt was foiled by Malaya's independence movement under the guidance of Tunku Abdul Rahman. The British flag was lowered for good in 1957 in Merdeka Square (Kuala Lumpur).
Independence to the Present: 1957- Now - Malaya's independence brought about new decisions that needed to be made, the first decision being to ascertain which territories to include in the new state. "Malaysia" was a term brought up in 1961, when Tunku persuaded Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak to combine with Malaya in a federal union. This didn't go over well with Indonesian president, Sukarno, who feared the impact of such a union on his plans to expand. He initiated several unsuccessful attacks against Malaysia. Since Malaysia is comprised of such a diverse mix of people, another problem the country faced with independence was determining their (Malaysia's) national identity. Although the majority of the population was Malay and as such they were given permanent positions in government and other perks, the Chinese were dominate in business and trade. Since most Malaysian's were not doing well economically, the government imposed some quotas that were designed to help the Malays improve their chances economically. The Chinese didn't like this and formed a political party that won a good number of seats in the next election (1969). The Malays protested this political win by erupting into riots throughout Kuala Lumpur, which for the next couple of years put Malaysia in a state of emergency. Malaysia has made tremendous strides in their growth and wealth. Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohammed, who has led Malaysia since 1981, is felt to be responsible for Malaysia's success.
Kemeredekaan Tanah Melayu pada 31 Ogos 1957 menandakan detik permulaan umat Islam di Malaysia terlepas secara rasmi dari cengkaman penjajah British. Apakah ia juga membawa maksud umat Islam di rantau ini merdeka sepenuhnya daripada penjajah tersebut?
1. TEORI KEDATANGAN ISLAM <ul><li>Alam Melayu merangkumi wilayah selatan Thailand, selatan Filipina, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei dan Singapura. </li></ul><ul><li>Sebelum kedatangan Islam, Alam Melayu dipengaruhi fahaman Animisme dan Hindu-Buddha. </li></ul><ul><li>Perkembangan Islam di alam Melayu unik kerana tiada bukti menunjukkan kekerasan atau ekspedisi ketenteraan. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Tarikh sebenar kedatangan Islam masih dipertikaikan. Walau bagaimanapun terdapat beberapa bahagian di alam Melayu yang telah menerima Islam sejak abad ke 7 atau 8 Masehi seperti Sumatera; sementara di Tanah Melayu pula pada abad ke 9 dan 10 Masehi. </li></ul><ul><li>Ada 4 teori kedatangan Islam ke alam Melayu: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Champa </li></ul></ul>
Islam Dari Arab: <ul><li>Hubungan dagang terjalin antara Alam Melayu dengan Tanah Arab sejak pra Islam dan berterusan hingga kemunculan Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Penyebaran Islam di Asia Tenggara diterajui oleh pemerintahan Bani Umayyah. Bagaimanapun Islam telah tiba di rantau ini lebih awal daripada itu. </li></ul>
Islam dari India: <ul><li>Pandangan ini dipelopori oleh Orientalis seperti Snauck Hurgronje dan Brian Harisson. </li></ul><ul><li>Teori ini banyak kelemahannya. Ia bergantung pada abad ke 13 sebagai permulaan kedatangan Islam ke alam Melayu. </li></ul><ul><li>Bercanggah dengan fakta yang mencatatkan Islam telah bertapak di rantau ini sejak abad ke 7 dan 8 lagi. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Kewujudan para pedagang dan pendakwah India dalam usaha mengembangkan Islam ke rantau ini bukanlah bukti Islam di Nusantara ini berasal dari India. </li></ul>Batu Bersurat yang ditemui di Kuala Brang Hulu Terengganu adalah bukti Islam telah bertapak di daerah ini sejak dahulu lagi.
Islam Dari China <ul><li>Islam telah bertapak di China sejak Dinasti Pang sekitar 650 Masehi. </li></ul><ul><li>Tahun 878 Masehi berlaku pemberontakan di Canton menyebabkan 100 000 orang asing terbunuh, menyebabkan ramai pedagang Arab melarikan diri ke Kedah dan Pelambang. </li></ul><ul><li>Catatan Dinasti Sung mengatakan kedatangan Islam ke Alam Melayu melalui pesisir pantai laut Cina Selatan dan di bawa oleh pedagang Islam dari Cina pada awal abad tahun 977 Masehi. </li></ul>
The Id Gah Masjid in Kashgar, China Date Building Started: prior to 700 AD
Nearby the Drum Tower, in the Muslim residential area, there stands a famous Islamic mosque in China - Xi'an Great Mosque. Inscriptions from the stone tablets indicate that the Great Mosque, located at Huajue Lane, five minutes walk from the Drum Tower in the center of Xi'an city was originally set up in 742 AD during the Tang Dynasty.
Islam Dari Champa: <ul><li>R.A Kern berpendapat Islam datang dari Champa [Indocina] atau Kemboja & Vietnam pada abad ke 8 Masehi. </li></ul><ul><li>Seiringan dengan itu ia juga mula bertapak di rantau Nusantara ini. </li></ul>
The mosque in Hanoi is known as 'Indian pagoda'. Its Arabic name is Al-Noor masjid. It was built in 1890 and renovated in 1950 (see pictures). Its address is 12 Hang Luoc street, Kim Ma commune, Hoan Kiem dis., Hanoi.
This mosque was built in 1935 by the Indian Muslim traders who lived there. Masjid Saigon atau Dong Du Masjid
Cambodia's Cham Muslims cling to centuries-old culture November 29, 1997 Web posted at: 5:08 p.m. EST (2208 GMT) UDONG, Cambodia ( CNN) -- Living among the predominantly Buddhist Cambodians is a Muslim sect known as the Cham, whose members are trying to keep a centuries-old way of life. Every year, when they celebrate the birthday of founder Imam San, they also recognize their heritage. A decorated tree
The Cham of Udong decorate trees with ornaments that represent their ancestral beliefs. The religious and spiritual symbols, made from sugar-bread, represents the moon and stars, the Cham temple and calendar, and the Naga, or mythical water serpent. The symbols date back to the Cham empire, known as Champa, that until the late 1400s thrived in what is now southern Vietnam. In 1471, the Vietnamese invaded Champa, and Cham freemen and aristocrats fled to other parts of Southeast Asia. In 1975, about 250,000 Cham lived in Cambodia. But the rise of Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge regime decimated their numbers.
The Cham were forced from their homes, forbidden to speak their native language and forced to raise and eat pork, which violates their religious beliefs. "It was a trying time for us. We were told that Islam was nonsense. But the worst was when they forced us to eat pork and step on the Quran," one Cham leader recalled for The Cambodian Times. "My wife was given a pig to rear ... and when the pig died, they killed her," the man said. It is believed that 100,000 Cham were killed during the Khmer Rouge regime. Today, they trace their line of descent through their women, because more men than women were massacred from 1975 to 1979, creating a skewed sex ratio. Many Cham women now perform duties that once belonged to men.
The Cham practice a unique form of Islam, and have resisted pressure to change. The followers of Imam San call themselves Kaum Juma'at, or the Friday group, because they pray only once every Friday. Most Muslims must pray several times daily. "It is not necessary to pray five times a day or once a week. For prayer, you can pray or worship God whenever you want," said Sos Rahman, a follower of Iman San. Money from many Middle Eastern states has helped rebuild Cham mosques that were destroyed by the Khmer Rouge. But the Cham won't let the money sway their beliefs.
"This particular group of Chamshas faced some discrimination, especially by the Middle Eastern donors who try to force their beneficiaries to adopt a more Middle Eastern style of Islam. These Cham have refused to do so, clinging to their ancestral traditions and beliefs," said William Collins, an anthropologist in Southeast Asia. About 200,000 Cham live in Cambodia, near major cities, including Phnom Penh, and along the Mekong River. They survive by farming, fishing, building boats and light commerce. Their villages are extremely poor, and many homes are made of split bamboo, containing few adornments and domestic utensils. Many speak Khmer, Cambodia's official language, and are considered by some to be Cambodia's most accepted minority. According to Collins, this is because they are a non-confrontational people, and because, like the Cambodians, their land was taken by the Vietnamese.
Islam appears in Champa The mid-tenth century is also when we find the first concrete historical evidence that Muslims were in Champa. Chinese texts speak of several men with Muslim names: Pu Ho San (a Chinese transliteration of Abu al Hasan), who served as the ambassador of the Cham king in 951 AC and again in 960 AC when he wanted to present tribute or conduct some diplomacy with the Chinese emperor, Pu Lo E (Chinese transliteration of Abu Ah), who is said to have led approximately 100 foreigners from Champa (it is not known if these were Muslims or not) at a time of internal trouble; and Hu Xuan (Chinese transliteration of Hussain), who led 300 more northwards the following year.
<ul><li>THE LOCATION OF THE ANCIENT KINGDOM OF CHAMPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- The Cham people were originally Hindu. They converted to Islam later as it swept across South-East Asia. -From 1000AD to 1100AD the Cham people fought regular battles with the Khmer people. In fact many battle scenes depicted on the walls of Angkor Wat represent these battles. </li></ul></ul>The Cham people were terribly persecuted during the Pol Pot years. The Khmer Rouge hated religion and wanted everyone in Cambodia to share the same culture and traditions. They declared: "In Kampuchea there is one nation and one religion. The Cham ment ality (language, costume, habits and religion ) are abolished "
<ul><li>As a result from 1975-1979 the Cham people were forbidden to use their own language or dress in their own distinctive style. Mosques were destroyed and community and religious leaders were executed. Some Cham were forced to eat pork (which is forbidden to Muslims ) and those who refused to do so were executed. Many Cham people resisted when the Khmer Rouge tried to destroy their centuries old culture and traditions. They became enemies of the regime and entire Cham villages were butchered. As for most Cambodians, it was a period of enormous suffering and loss for the Cham people. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cham community is divided into two groups belonging to Cham Brahmanic (estimated 40,000 people) and Cham Muslim (estimated 50,000 people). The later group contains two small schools: Cham Islam/Cham new Islam and Cham Bani/Cham old Islam. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In the southeast Asian nation of Cambodia Islam is the religion of the Cham (also called Khmer Islam) and Malay minorities. According to Po Dharma, there were 150,000 to 200,000 Muslims in Cambodia as late as 1975. Persecution under the Khmer Rouge eroded their numbers, however, and by the late 1980s they probably had not regained their former strength. All of the Cham Muslims are Sunnis of the Shafii school. Po Dharma divides the Muslim Cham in Cambodia into a traditionalist branch and an orthodox branch. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Cham have their own mosques. In 1962 there were about 100 mosques in the country. At the end of the nineteenth century, the Muslims in Cambodia formed a unified community under the authority of four religious dignitaries--mupti, tuk kalih, raja kalik, and tvan pake. A council of notables in Cham villages consisted of one hakem and several katip, bilal, and labi. The four high dignitaries and the hakem were exempt from personal taxes, and they were invited to take part in major national ceremonies at the royal court. </li></ul>
<ul><li>When Cambodia became independent, the Islamic community was placed under the control of a five-member council that represented the community in official functions and in contacts with other Islamic communities. Each Muslim community has a hakem who leads the community and the mosque, an imam who leads the prayers, and a bilal who calls the faithful to the daily prayers. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The peninsula of Chrouy Changvar near Phnom Penh is considered the spiritual center of the Cham, and several high Muslim officials reside there. Each year some of the Cham go to study the Quran at Kelantan in Malaysia, and some go on to study in, or make a pilgrimage to, Mecca. According to figures from the late 1950s, about 7 percent of the Cham had completed the pilgrimage and could wear the fez or turban as a sign of their accomplishment. </li></ul>
<ul><li>According to Cham sources, 132 mosques were destroyed during the Khmer Rouge era, many others were desecrated, and Muslims were not allowed to worship. In the PRK, Islam has been given the same freedom as Buddhism. Vickery believes that about 185,000 Cham lived in Cambodia in the mid-1980s and that the number of mosques was about the same then as it was before 1975. In early 1988, there were six mosques in the Phnom Penh area and a "good number" in the provinces, but Muslim dignitaries were thinly stretched; only 20 of the previous 113 most prominent Cham clergy in Cambodia survived the Khmer Rouge period. </li></ul>
FAKTOR-FAKTOR PENENTU PENGEMBANGAN ISLAM DI ALAM MELAYU <ul><li>PERLUMBAAN PENYEBARAN AGAMA </li></ul><ul><li>PERKAHWINAN </li></ul><ul><li>PERDAGANGAN </li></ul><ul><li>POLITIK </li></ul><ul><li>PERANAN KAUM SUFI </li></ul>
1. Perlumbaan Penyebaran Agama <ul><li>Begitu menonjol sekitar abad ke 16-19. </li></ul><ul><li>Kesan kedatangan penjajah Barat ke Timur </li></ul><ul><li>Rasa permusuhan berterusan antara penganut Islam dan Kristian. </li></ul><ul><li>Abad 15 dan 16 menyaksikan kuasa-kuasa Barat seperti Portugis yang menjelajah dunia Timur bertembung dengan kekuasaan Islam yang telah lama bertapak di rantau ini. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Wujud persaingan dalam menyebarkan Islam dan Kristian. Masing-masing berebut untuk mendapat pengaruh penduduk tempatan. </li></ul><ul><li>Berlaku pertentangan seperti di Kepulauan Maluku, Ternate, Sumatera, Ambon dan lain-lain. </li></ul>
Perkahwinan <ul><li>Merujuk kepada perkahwinan yang berlangsung antara wanita tempatan dengan para pedagang yang terdiri daripada ulama. </li></ul><ul><li>Perkahwinan antara raja Muslim dengan anak raja lain yang akhirnya turut memeluk Islam. </li></ul>
Perdagangan <ul><li>Merupakan antara kaedah penting dalam pengembangan agama Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Hubungan dagang antara bangsa Arab dengan alam Melayu wujud sejak zaman pra Islam dan berterusan hingga ke zaman Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam sebagai agama dakwah sekaligus mempertanggungjawabkan setiap individu sebagai dai dan dipraktikkan dengan baik melalui aktiviti perdagangan. </li></ul>
Politik dan Penaklukan <ul><li>Faktor ini turut menyumbang kepada perkembangan Islam di rantau ini. </li></ul><ul><li>Dapat dibuktikan dengan penguasaan kerajaan Islam Melaka ke atas beberapa kawasan di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu seperti Perak, Pahang dan seumpamanya. </li></ul>
Peranan Ulama <ul><li>Para ulama dengan keilmuan dan ketakwaan mereka dapat mempengaruhi masyarakat tempatan untuk menerima Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Kebanyakan mereka terdiri daripada para pedagang sekaligus ‘sufi’ menjalankan usaha penyebaran Islam di Melaka, Aceh, Demak dan sebagainya. </li></ul>
PUSAT-PUSAT TAMADUN MELAYU ISLAM <ul><li>Kehadiran Islam telah meninggalkan kesan munculnya pusat-pusat penting Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Ia menjadi tumpuan alim ulama, intelektual dan sarjana bagi kegiatan keilmuan dalam tamadun Melayu. Antaranya: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perlak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samudera Pasai </li></ul></ul>
The Great Baiturrahman Mosque is the main feature of Banda Aceh today. Built around 12th century, the mosque was burnt down at the beginning of the Aceh War and was rebuilt in 1875 taking its present shape after a number of renovations and expansions.
<ul><li>Pusat-pusat ini berperanan sebagai: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pusat Pendidikan Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penyebaran Islam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kegiatan penulisan dan keilmuan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selepas kejatuhan Melaka, Aceh bertindak sebagai benteng mempertahan keutuhan Islam daripada kejahatan Portugis. </li></ul><ul><li>Kuasa Aceh dapat membendung kedurjanaan kuasa Barat di rantau Asia Tenggara. </li></ul>