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Holly Holder: Caring for older people in society


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Holly Holder , Fellow in Health Policy, Nuffield Trust, gives an overview of research conducted by the Nuffield Trust into the care of older people in England. She asks key questions regarding how social care can be funded and the lessons we can learn from Japan’s experience of social care reform.

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Holly Holder: Caring for older people in society

  1. 1. Shifting values: how should we care for older people in society? Holly Holder Fellow in Health Policy Nuffield Trust 6 November 2013 © Nuffield Trust
  2. 2. Caring for an ageing population: our research Key questions: • How should social care be funded? • How should access to social care be decided? • How can health and social care expenditure be contained? • How can health and social care be better coordinated? Research based on a study visit to Japan and literature review Project sponsored by The Great Britain Sasakawa Foundation © Nuffield Trust
  3. 3. Why Japan? • Japan has the oldest population in the world • Similar amount spend on health and social care • By 2025, Japan will need an extra ¥12.1bn to maintain current levels of provision of long-term care, to support the increasing proportion of those over 75 years old • Increasing numbers of older people living alone • A fiscal deficit twice its GDP • Implemented significant reform during a period of slow economic growth © Nuffield Trust
  4. 4. Social care in Japan - Long Term Care Insurance Introduced in 2000 Approximately 14% of people over 65 receive services Eligibility • People over 65 years old and some disabled people over 40 years old • Access based solely on need Costs • Compulsory insurance payments for those over 40 years old - approximately £30 per month • National and local taxation • Co-payment of 10 per cent, to a monthly maximum amount © Nuffield Trust
  5. 5. Financing Long Term Care Insurance 50% through national/local taxation, 50% insurance premiums Premiums paid by 40-64 yr olds 29% Central government 25% Prefectures 12.5% Premiums paid by 65+ yr olds 21% Municipalities 12.5% Premiums paid by those aged 40 and over Users pay an additional copayment when they receive services © Nuffield Trust
  6. 6. Social care goals Japan England • Society as a whole supports • A system for people who need those in need of long-term care. extra care or support - practical or emotional - to lead an active • The relationship between life. benefits and burdens are made clear. • Enable people to retain their independence and dignity. • Allow service users to receive services from a variety of institutions of their choice. • Maintaining dignity and independence of older people. © Nuffield Trust
  7. 7. Social care in England Approximately 12% of older people receive publically-funded social care. There are other cash benefits available to older people who need support. Eligibility is assessed by a needs and means-test • Need – assessment based on national criteria, locally-defined thresholds for access. Not age related. • Means – government support only for those with below £23,250 in assets (approx ¥3,653,412). Those with assets over this amount have to pay the full amount. Options for service users includes cash payments Costs: funded mainly through national taxation with some local taxation © Nuffield Trust
  8. 8. Paying for social care in England (care homes only) State funded 34% State plus "top up" 22% Self-funded 44% Estimates from Institute of Public Care (2010) © Nuffield Trust
  9. 9. Reform in Japan and England Both countries are going through a period of reform Japan • Social security reform • Long-term care insurance • Health insurance • VAT England • Care Bill • Access to and paying for social care © Nuffield Trust
  10. 10. Forthcoming research report © Nuffield Trust