The questions of group interviews are separated into two main questions with regards to the research question.The perception of e-menu system for Thai casual dinning restaurants in UKThe perception of e-menu features.Note that that list of questions for group interviews are shown in this appendix
However, additional questions might be asked deeply with regards to the research question.
Group Interview Objective: Qualitative data analysis consists of identifying, coding, and categorizing patterns found in the data. BRYNE, Michelle (2001). Sampling for qualitative research. AORN Journal, 73, 494.3. Researcher is a toolReference pictureshttp://www.dashboardinsight.com/articles/new-concepts-in-business-intelligence/data-analysis-overview.aspx
Importance of presentation and demonstrating e-menu system before interviewsMost restaurant staffs have not background about e-menu system.Need to demonstrate so that they understand what are features of e-menu application.The learner uses quantitative data to analyse basic perceptions
This information informally asked during observation.Reason of choosing iPad to develop the prototype Most staffs are familiar to Apple devices such as iPhone and iPadIt make them be easy to learn the systemAndroid devices have several specifications and screen size. Therefore, they are more difficult to develop than iPad (from literature review)
Note that some above features have not been implemented in the final prototype.Important features should be concerned;Details of food and drinksImages of food and drinksOrdering additional food and drinksChecking order status
The above perceptions received from restaurant staff. However, future research can interview restaurant customers to get obvious opinions directly.
Thai restaurants have a lot of part-time staffs (more than 60%) who are one-year postgraduate students. After they graduate, those restaurants have to find new part-time students.Therefore, the restaurants always hire new part-time staffs who can make a communication mistake e.g. receiving order, saying menu names, communicating with chefs.
Although using e-menu might increase a number of customers. However, increasing revenue is more likely to be considered by restaurant owner.
However, the restaurant manager suggested that it should do investment analysis to estimate return investment period before making a decision.Futher research, should estimate roi
According to users’ perceptions, older people may not want to use e-menu to order, however, creating user guide, using bigger texts are important features to support older people.
However, restaurant manager mentions that adding more features should concern that the customers will spend more time in restaurant. It can reduce turn over rate.
D3 users perceptions_emenu
Created by Traitet Th.Project: E-menu on iPad for Thai restaurant Created Date 16 Aug 2012 Revised Date 7 Sep 2012Topic: Description of research & discussion of outcomes Revision No. 1.0Content: Users’ perceptions on e-menu application Document Name D03-001
CONTENT1. Interview Processes2. Sampling for this case study3. Primary finding4. Findings • Benefits • Issues • Features5. Limitations6. Appendix
1.1) INTERVIEW PROCESSES• Prepare the presentation and demonstration of e-menu system• Prepare the questions for group interviews • Present video presentation of the e-menu system • Demonstrate software prototype on iPad and Website • Test e-menu functionalities with restaurant managers and waiting staffs • Perform group interviews with restaurant manager, waiting staff and chefs
1.2) SAMPLING FOR THIS CASE STUDY Type of sampling: Convenience sampling Case study at: A Thai casual dinning restaurant in UK 10% Interviewees Manager x1 • Restaurant Manager Waiting Staff • Waiting Staff50% 40% x4 Chef x5 • Chefs • Total Interviewers: 10 People (62%) 38% • Total staff: 16 people 62%
SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Have you seen an e-menu before? When? How? 2. Have you used an e-menu before? When? How? 3. Can an e-menu help you understand more details of food and drinks? 4. Do you think that an e-menu makes it easier to order extra food and drinks whilst dinning? 5. Do you think that an e-menu makes it easy to request extra services e.g. call waiter, main course and billing? 6. Do you prefer ordering by e-menu or by waiter in this kind of restaurant? 7. Does an e-menu reduce personal contact between customer and restaurant staff? Interview restaurant staff on 10 Aug 2012 between 18.30 – 23.00
SEMI-STRUCTURED INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 8. What are main benefits of an e-menu in your opinion? 9. What are main issues if implemented in this restaurant? 10. What are the important features that an e-menu that should be provided? 11. Does the demonstrated software have some good points in terms of software features? And if so, what are they? 12. What do you think about the e-menu prototype? Feedback (Easy to return to previous screen) Memorability (Easy to remember how to use it the next time) Learnability (Easy to use and understand without user manual) Efficiency (Easy to perform tasks) Satisfaction (Pleasant to use software)
2) PRIMARY RESULTS The perception of e-menu systemfor Thai Casual dinning restaurants in UK.
DATA ANALYSIS Data Collection Data Analysis Findingat a Thai restaurant in UK Identify – Coding - Categorize Users’ perception on e-menu Semi-Structure Content analysis Convenience – Attraction - Expensive group interviews The middle image copied from EISING (2010)
3.1) USERS REQUIRE PRESENTATION OF E-MENU Proportion of staff who have Proportion of staff how have ever heard about e-menu application used e-menu application 10% Have ever heard Have ever used e- 40% about e-menu menu application x1 application x6 60% Never used e-menu Never heard about application x9 e-menu application 90% x4 Importance of presentation and demonstrating e-menu system before interviews eBackground Group Interviews Demonstrat Lack of Presentation and Most restaurant staffs Group interviews with demonstration are have no background in e- needed to explain the restaurant key concept and features menu application. of e-menu system. manager, waiting staff
3.2) USERS FAMILIAR WITH APPLE DEVICES Proportion of using Tablet Devices Proportion of using Mobile Devices 20% 40% 50% 10% Use iPhone x7 Use iPad x4 70% 10% Use Andriod mobile Use Andriod Tablet phone x1 x1 No Tablet Device x5 Use other mobile phones x2 Why iPad was suitable for this case study?Familiarity learn Easy to Most staff members are familiar It helps them to easily learn & with Apple devices e.g. iPhone understand the e-menu system and iPad
3) FINDINGSThe users’ perceptions of an e-menu system
USERS’ PERCEPTIONSBenefits of e-menuapplication Issues of e-menu application Y MAJORIT • • High cost Y MAJORIT Convenience MINORITY • Improve customer services • Older people MINORITY • Reduce human error • Technical issues • High attraction
3.1) BENEFITSThe users’ perceptions of an e-menu system
1) CONVENIENCE Customer Restaurant Staff 1. Easy to revise menu details1. Easy to order • Images • Details of food & drinks • Description Perceptions • Images • Prices2. Easy to order additional food and drinks 2. Easy to add new promotions3. Easy to check order status 3. Able to sell seasonal dishes without printing new menus Conclusion The above perceptions should be considered when producing an real e-menu application. develop e- Considered Features: Details of dishes, ordering extra food & drinks How to menu and checking order status
2) IMPROVING CUSTOMER SERVICE• Receive their orders faster.• Ease of calling a waiter.• Ease of requesting their main dish when they want it.• Ease of requesting their bill.• Simple to order extra drinks and food.• The customers are not disturbed when asking for extra drinks. Conclusion Improving customers services is a key factor of implementing e-menu application. develop e-menu How to Considered Features: Order management and calling services
3) PREVENTING HUMAN ERROR1. Prevent forgetting orders • Some extra orders, e.g. drinks, can be ignored during a busy time.2. Reduce cooking wrong orders Perceptions • Poor handwriting by waiting staff • Taking a wrong order by new part-time staff • Incorrect communication between waiting staff and chefs, or waiting staff and customer Conclusion E-menu could prevent communication problems and increase customer satisfaction. develop e-menu How to Considered Features: Transferring orders to a kitchen and bar
4) HIGH ATTRACTION1. A new technology for restaurant industry. Perceptions2. E-menu have not been used by any Thai restaurant in the UK.3. E-menu differentiates a restaurant from competitors.4. E-menu enhance dining experience for customers. ConclusionUsing e-menu might increase a number of customers and target groups. develop e-menu How to Considered Features: Elegant User Interfaces & Easy to use
1) HIGH COST Perceptions Reduce Cost Higher cost • Labour cost • Hardware Disadvantages • Printing menu cost • SoftwareAdvantages Increase revenue Maintenance cost • More drinks Damage • More customers Lifetime Conclusion Most users concerned about cost of e-menu, which is much more higher than paper-based menu. Study “investment feasibility” before making a decision on e-menu and develop e-menu How to develop e-menu software, which is compatible with multiple tablet devices. (to be flexible in selection of tablet devices with a reasonable price)
DRAWBACK 2) OLDER PEOPLE • Some elderly people in UK are familiar with iPads e.g. E-reader.S ELDERLY PEOPLE • Some older people might not want to use e-menus because ordering from waiters is more convenient. • Some older people might not be familiar with using new technology. Develop e-menu Elderly people might not be familiar with ordering on Countermeasure Conclusion 1. Create User’s guide How to an electronic device. It could lead them to be 2. Use bigger text size 3. Make it easy to call dissatisfied in terms of service quality. a waiter on e-menu
3. TECHNICAL ISSUES1. Installation position2. Integration with POS (Post of Sales) System3. Damage of iPad because of liquids4. Run out of iPad battery during usage5. Stability of system6. Speed of applicationAbove technical issues are needed to consider when produce a real e-menu system.
REQUIRED FEATURES Users’ perceptions and feedback
E-MENU FEATURES SHOULD BE PROVIDED Clear description of food & Details of dishes drinks • Picture Show ordered items • Price Show total price • Menu description Call waiter Request services Check order status Cancel menuThe important features, which should be provided by e-menu system.
E-MENU FEATURES COULD BE PROVIDED Integrate to a Post of Sale (POS) system Advertise new promotions during meals Register membership Add special seasonal menus Take photos to share on social network Cancel some menus in case of lacking ingredient Show an amounts ingredient or nutrition Show history of particular food or drinks e.g. Wine Monitor orders by restaurant owners and managers from outside Report best seller items. Calculate ingredient requirementsThe above additional requirements should be considered based on particular business requirements
FUTURE OF CASTUAL DINING RESTAURANT E-menu ordered by customers E-menu ordered (Tablet e.g. iPad and by waiting staff Android devices) (Pocket PC and Future smart phones) Paper-based Menu Now & future Now
LIMITATIONS OF THIS RESEARCH With regards to analysis users’ perceptions1. This research did not interview any end-users, namely, restaurant customers.2. This research did not interview older people on their perceptions of ordering meals using iPad.3. This research did not analyse investment feasibility of e-menu system. The future research can additionally study to expand knowledge from this research.
REFERENCESBRYNE, Michelle (2001). Sampling for qualitativeresearch. AORN Journal, 73, 494.EISING, Martin (2010). Data Analysis Overview.[online]. Last accessed 6 September 2012 at:http://www.dashboardinsight.com/articles/new-concepts-in-business-intelligence/data-analysis-overview.aspx.