Feasibility Of Milling Gluten Flour


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Gluten Free Milling, FDA Study (2005) Nuchia Foods

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Feasibility Of Milling Gluten Flour

  1. 1. Feasibility of Milling Gluten-Free Flours Jane DeMarchi North American Millers’ Association August 19, 2005
  2. 2. North American Millers’ Association <ul><li>96% of the US milling capacity for the wheat, corn and oat milling industry </li></ul><ul><li>More than 160 million pounds daily </li></ul><ul><li>48 corporate members </li></ul><ul><li>Supply products to bakers, cereal makers, packaged food companies, brewers, and directly to retail </li></ul>
  3. 3. Cross Contact Begins at the Farm <ul><ul><li>Producers often rotate wheat, barley, rye and oats on same land - volunteer plants in subsequent years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several crops may be grown in close proximity on one farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great variability from year to year due to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weather, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farms use the same harvesting, transport, and storage equipment without significant clean out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some corn and oats are purchased on a contract basis for greater control but mixture is not eliminated in these cases </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Grain Storage & Transportation <ul><ul><li>Trucks and rail cars used to transport grain are another source of cross contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grain elevators do not thoroughly clean out silos or equipment when switching grains - in part to minimize dust for health and safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevators have basic equipment to clean grain but not specifically to separate mixed grain </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Grain Specifications Allow Other Grains <ul><li>Grain specifications are based on the US Grain Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Oats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically contain 0.5-1.0% cereal grain admix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum of 2-3% allowed depending on the grade </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-4% broken corn and “foreign” material depending on the grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milling quality specifications may be more restrictive </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Milling Process <ul><li>Grain “cleaned” prior to milling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Width grading - sieves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Length grading - rotating drums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density separation - gravity tables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grains that are very different in size and shape (such as wheat and corn) are easier to separate than like-sized grains </li></ul>
  7. 7. Deficiencies of Cleaning Technology <ul><li>Length, width and weight of kernels of different grain can be similar in many circumstances </li></ul>Barley Oats Rye Wheat
  8. 8. New Technology <ul><li>Color or optical sorting machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not reliable - if color differences are small </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Internal Cleaning Procedures <ul><li>Good Manufacturing Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mill equipment is regularly cleaned and inspected. It is critically important to a mill that product dust not be allowed to gather. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal cleaning is dry cleaning, vacuum and wipe out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special procedures are used for changing grains. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HACCP includes analysis of allergen risk. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Testing <ul><li>Corn and wheat mills generally do not conduct tests for cross contamination on finished product. </li></ul><ul><li>ELISA tests are not used for cross contact of grains in mills. Granulation and small test samples cause results to vary dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>In an oat mill, representative samples are hand sorted and visually inspected </li></ul>
  11. 11. Economics of Grain Milling <ul><li>Many mills are dedicated to a single grain or have dedicated lines </li></ul><ul><li>Mills operate as close to 24/7 as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Shut down time is minimized </li></ul><ul><li>Cross contact grains can not be cleaned out 100%. Mills can not lose too much of the desired grain in the separation process </li></ul><ul><li>Testing every bag of product is not feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on prevention </li></ul>
  12. 12. Concentrations of Gluten Bearing Cereal Admix <ul><li>Research has not been done to quantify the levels of cereal admix in oats or corn on an industry wide basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual customers may establish standards but so far it is not common </li></ul><ul><li>Variability from year to year is large </li></ul>
  13. 13. Trace Grains In Finished Products <ul><li>Varies depending on product and portion size. Concentrations of wheat protein in oat flour will be higher than those in oat flakes due to the milling process. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: 28 gram serving of instant oatmeal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7.5 milligrams of wheat and barley protein - approximately 40% (3 milligrams) of which would be gluten. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Assumes a .03% contamination of wheat at 15% protein and barley contamination of .16% at 14% protein content) </li></ul></ul></ul>