1. กริยาวิเศษณ์ (Adverb) หรือสานวน ทีมีความหมายในเชิงของการปฏิเสธ Adverb (ทีมีความหมายเชิงปฏิเสธ)never hardly rarelyscarcely seldom not + Obj. barely nowhere only
Adverb (ทีมีความหมายเชิงปฏิเสธ) + Helping V. + Sub. + V. แท้Ex. - Never does he forget her. - Nowhere can you go without them. - Not a single word did he say. - Scarcely had I arrived home when there was a knock on the door. - Hardly had I got into bed, when there was a knock at the door. = He never forgets her.
สานวน (ทีมีความหมายเชิงปฏิเสธ) At no time No longer Not until On no account Not only Under no circumstancesNo sooner…than Only after/ by
สานวน (ทีมีความหมายเชิงปฏิเสธ) + Helping V. + Sub. + V. แท้Ex. -No sooner had I reached the door than I realized it was locked. - Not until September will John come to my house. - At no time did I say I would accept late work.
Reformulate the following sentences using inversion. Ex. 0. I had never gone to this park. Ans. = Never had I gone to this park.1. I had hardly begun to apologize when the door closed.Ans. Hardly had I begun to apologize when the door closed.______________________________________________________2. I have seldom heard such a talented singer.Ans. Seldom have I heard such a talented singer.______________________________________________________3. If John had known that she liked curry, he would have brought her to an Indian restaurant.Ans. Had John known that she liked curry, he would have brought her to an Indian restaurant____________________________________________________
4. The artist rarely paid any attention to his agents advice.Ans. Rarely did the artist pay any attention to his agent’s advice.______________________________________________________5. He had never felt so depressed.Ans. Never had he felt so depressed.______________________________________________________6. The shop can in no way be held responsible for customers lost property.Ans. In no way can the shop be held responsible for customer’s lost property.______________________________________________________7. The couple had no sooner arrived than the priest started the ceremony.Ans. No sooner had the couple arrived than the priest started the ceremony.______________________________________________________
8. Tom only understood the meaning of the comment when hesaw his wifes face.Ans. Only did Tom understand the meaning of the comment when he saw his wife’s face.____________________________________________________9. She never at any time said that she was allergic to cats.Ans. Never at any time did she say that she was allergic to cats.____________________________________________________10. The restaurant cannot accept animals under anycircumstances.Ans. Under no circumstances can the restaurant accept animals.____________________________________________________
11. I have never before been asked to accept a bribe.Ans. - Never before have I been asked to accept a bribe.___________________________________________________12. He had hardly left the house when the storm broke.Ans. Hardly had he left the house when the storm broke.___________________________________________________
2. กรณีทในประโยคมีคาเหล่ านีวางอยู่ข้างหน้ า เราก็จะใช้ ประโยค ี ้ ให้ อยู่ในรูปของการ Inversion อีกเหมือนกัน few such little so ต้ องไม่ มีคานาม (Noun) ตามหลังEx. -Little does she know about the present he gave her. -Such was the thing he gave us yesterday Few injuries are running for life. ทา inversion ไม่ได้ เพราะมี Noun ตามหลัง
in Preposition บางตัว here up down untilEx. - In walked a woman with a gift in her hand. - Here is the paper you asked for.
บุพบทวลี (Prepositional Phrase) (Intransitive verb) ก็ใช้ การสลับประธานและกริยาได้Ex. -In the doorway appeared two strangers. Verb ทีมีกรรมต่ อท้ ายแล้ วนันจะสลับไม่ ได้ ้ Ex. In the kitchen, he ate an apple.
3. กรณีถ้าเป็ นประโยคแบบ Passive voice (ถูกกระทา) แล้ วมีการใช้ V.3 ขึนต้ นประโยคก็จะใช้ ประโยค เป็ นแบบ ้ Inversion Example: He was bitten by the dog. =-> Bitten by the dog was he.This building has been built in 1987 by the protesters.=-> Built by the protester in 1987 has been this building.
4. กรณีในเรื่อง If-Clause เฉพาะทีมีการใช้ พวก should, were, had มาแทนExample: If I were a bird, I would fly as high as I can. -> Were I a bird, I would fly as high as I can. If I had taken the subway, I would have arrived on time. -> Had I taken the subway, I would have arrived on time.
5. พวกประโยคคาถาม ก็ถือเป็ นการ Inversion Ex. - Is he a doctor? - Did she dance last night?6. การกล่ าวเสริมหรื อแสดงความเห็นด้ วยกับข้ อความข้ างหน้ า Ex. -I can sing a song. So can she. -He can’t bear this situation. Nor can I.
Choose the right answer1. In no circumstances ______________________! a. I would accept this b. would I accept this c. would I accepted this2. Nowhere else ______________________. a. you will find such nice people b. wont you find such nice people c. will you find such nice people
3. Only in the USA ______________________. a. have I seen such high buildings b. I have seen such high buildings c. have I saw such high buildings4. Never in the field of human conflict _____________. a. has so much been owed by so many to so few b. so much has be owed by so many to so few c. has so much be owed by so many to so few
5. Not only ______________________. a. he is handsome but is he also rich b. is he handsome but is he also rich c. is he handsome but he is also rich6. No sooner ______________________.a. had I thrown him out that he tried to come in againb. had I throw him out than he tried to come in againc. had I thrown him out than he tried to come in again7. Rarely ______________________. a. will you see him in a pub b. would you saw him in a pub c. have you see him in a pub
8. Only with the help of everybody _________________. a. we can hope to find her b. could we hoped to find her c. can we hope to find her9. Never in my life ______________________! a. will I talk her again b. will I talk to her again c. will I talked to her again10. On no account ______________________! a. must repeat you this b. do you must repeat this c. must you repeat this
Choose the right answer.1. Rarely (has I seen/have I seen/have I see) such beautiful landscapes!2. My grandmother and grandfather were short of money, as (was/been/were) most people in our country.3. No sooner (had I went/had I gone/had I go) to the cinema than I realized I had forgotten to take the ticket with me.
4. Never (have I hear/has I heard/have I heard) such a stupid decision!5. Little (did I know/did I known/did know me) that Marlon would arrive.6. (Had I know/Have I known/Had I known) geometry better, I wouldnt have failed the exam.7. Only by patience and hard work (will you learnt/ will you learn/will you learning) English.
8. (Had you ask/Had you asked/Has you asked) me earlier, I would have helped you with your English grammar.9. (Be/Were/Is) she rich, she would buy a big house in New York.10. (Should she phoned/Should she phone/ Do she phone) me, I will invite her to my party.