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Haemotology S1.pdf

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Haemotology S1.pdf

  1. 1. COURSE INTRODUCTION HAEMATOLOGY Elizabeth Sidhartha, MSc. elizabeth.sidhartha@i3l.ac.id BM2108
  2. 2. Course Learning Outcomes By the end of this course, students will be able to :  Understand the blood system and its contribution to homeostasis, health and human welfare  Explain the basic components of blood and their function in human health and disease  Explain the method of laboratory analysis for the blood system  Explain the pathological conditions that arise from diseases related to the blood system  Understand the management of pathological conditions related to the blood system
  3. 3. Main Topics 1. Introduction to the human blood 2. Haematopoiesis 3. The Red Blood Cell 4. The White Blood Cell 5. Platelets and Haemostasis 6. Blood barriers 7. Blood Analysis and Techniques 8. RBC Disorders 9. WBC Disorders 10. Platelet and Haemostasis Disorders 11. Blood Transfusion
  4. 4. Learning Methods Assessments • Lecture • __________ lecture notes • Quiz • Class discussions • Presentation (group work) Item Session Weight Quizzes 2-10 10% Mid Term Exam 8 35% Assignment 12-14 20% Final Exam 16 35%
  5. 5. SESSION 1 INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN BLOOD Elizabeth Sidhartha, MSc. elizabeth.sidhartha@i3l.ac.id BM2108
  6. 6. Related Learning Outcomes CLO-1 :Understand the blood system and its contribution to homeostasis, health and human welfare Session Learning Outcomes 1. Describe blood components 2. Explain the function of each blood component
  7. 7. What is blood?
  8. 8. • Vehicle for long-distance, ______________________ between the cells and external environment or between the cells • Adults have 4-6 L of blood • Main components of blood: – Plasma – Erythrocytes (RBC) – Leukocytes (WBC) – Platelets (thrombocytes) Blood mass transport of materials
  9. 9. Blood Functions • Transportation – transports dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones and metabolic wastes • Regulation – regulates the pH and electrolyte composition of the interstitial fluids – regulates body temperature • Protection – restricts fluid losses through damaged vessels
  10. 10. Blood Components
  11. 11. Blood Plasma • Largest portion of blood – 58% in women – 55% in men • Medium for materials carried in the blood • Dissolves large numbers of __________________________ • Functions : – Membrane excitability – Osmotic distribution – Buffering of pH changes Organic and unorganic compounds A protein that transport oxygen
  12. 12. • Albumins (60%) – Most abundant plasma proteins – Oncotic (colloid osmotic) pressure – Non-specifically bind poorly soluble substances • Globulins (35%) – Alpha and beta globulins: transport of many water-insoluble substances – Gamma globulins: antibodies or immunoglobulins • Fibrinogen (4%) – Blood clotting Plasma Proteins
  13. 13. Non-Protein Components of Blood Plasma • Nitrogenous compounds – Free amino acids – NH3, Urea • Nutrients – Glucose – Vitamins, minerals – Fats, cholesterol • Dissolved gases – O2 – CO2 – Nitrogen • Electrolytes – Na – K – Cl – Mg – P – Ca
  14. 14. Formed Elements of Blood Erythrocyte Eosinophil Monocyte Neutrophil Basophil Neutrophil Platelets Monocyte Small lymphocyte Neutrophil Young (band) neutrophil Small lymphocyte Large lymphocyte
  15. 15. Erythrocytes • 5 million cells/mm3 blood • Flat, disc-shaped indented in the middle on both sides • _______________: large surface for O2 diffusion • Flexible membrane • Contain 250 million of haemoglobin molecules • No nucleus • Short life span (~120 days) Biconcave shape
  16. 16. Erythrocyte Enzymes • Glycolytic enzymes – Generating the energy needed to fuel the active- transport mechanism • Carbonic anhydrase – Catalyze key reactions that leads to conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate ion (HCO3)
  17. 17. Hemoglobin (Hb) • each Hb molecule consists of: – four protein chains – globins – four heme groups • heme groups – Non-protein moiety that binds O2 to ferrous ion (Fe2+) at its center • globins - four protein chains – two alpha and two beta chains (a) (b) C C C C C C N N N N C CH CH C 3 C CH3 CH2 CH2 COOH CH CH2 HC C C C CH2 CH3 CH2 COOH C CH C HC C Fe2+ CH3 CH CH2 C Beta Alpha Alpha Beta Heme groups Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproductionor display.
  18. 18. Hemoglobin (Hb) • Normal Hb level: 14-15g/dl of blood • Functions of Hb: – Carrying O2 – Contribute to CO2 transport – Regulate blood pH buffering capacity
  19. 19. Leukocytes • The least numerous cells in the blood • Total number of 4,500-11,000 cells/mm3 blood • Mobile units of body’s immune defense • Primarily function as defense agents outside the blood • Able to exit the blood and reach the infected areas (___________) • Lifespan of 12 hours to several days Diapedesis
  20. 20. Types of Leukocytes (60-70%) (2-4%) (<1%) (3-8%) (25-33%)
  21. 21. Platelets • 150,000-350,000 cells/mm3 • Small cell fragments shed from the outer edges of megakaryocytes • Important in hemostasis Platelets RBC WBC Megakaryocyte (a) Bloodflow Proplatelets Endothelium 2µm Pseudopod Granules Open canalicular system Mitochondria Sinusoid of bone marrow (b) a: NIBSC/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  22. 22. Platelet Functions • Secrete vasoconstrictors that help reduce blood loss • Form _____________ to seal small breaks • Secrete pro-coagulants or clotting factors that promote clotting • Initiate formation of ___________________ • Chemically attract neutrophils and monocytes to sites of inflammation • Phagocytize and destroy bacteria • Secrete growth factors that stimulate mitosis to repair blood vessels platelet plugs clot dissolving enzyme
  23. 23. Overview of Hemostasis
  24. 24. Summary Blood function: • Transportation – dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes • Regulation – pH, electrolyte composition, body temperature • Protection – restricts fluid losses through damaged vessels, protects against infection Components of blood: • Liquid elements • Blood plasma • Protein & Non-protein components • Formed elements • RBC • WBC • Basophil, eosinophil, neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte • Platelets
  25. 25. Main Reference

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