Group Members NUMAN KHAN (09PWMEC2837) IRFAN ULLAH (09PWMEC2863) NAUMAN KHAN (09PWMEC2835) SAQIB NAWAZ (09PWMEC 2871) Department of Mechanical Engineering UET Peshawar
• The modern health and safety team• Due to high diversity and complexity in this era of technology Health and safety management has become a team sport.• The modern health and safety team is headed by a health and safety manager.• The team might include people in following additional positions: safety engineer, industrial hygienist, environmental engineer, health physicist, occupational physician, and occupational health nurse.
Health and safety manager Safety Environmental Industrial Health Occupational Occupationalengineer Engineer Hygienist physicist Health Nurse Physician
• Most important member of health and safety team.• The job of health and safety manger is complex and diverse.• Its duties ranges from hazard analysis to accident reporting to standards/compliance to record keeping to training emergency planning and so on.
• In some companies health • Line authority means the and safety manager might health and safety manager be a person who also has has authority over and other duties such as supervise employees. production manager or • Staff authority means the personnel manager. health and safety manager• In this case other members is the staff person of health and safety team responsible for a certain are not normally company function employees.• Another role determinant is the issue of authority i.e. Line or Staff authority..
Main problems faced by health and safetymanagers are as follows. – Lack of commitment – Production versus safety – Gaining a Commitment to Health and safety
• Lack of Commitment Modern health and safety professionalsshould be prepared to confront a less thanwholehearted commitment in some companies.• Production versus Safety Production and safety are inversely related. If wewant to increase safety, safety related equipmentwill be added to the equipment which results in lowproduction.A common example is the removal of safety devicefrom machines as a way to speed production.
There are many cases where health and safetymanagers have been their own worst enemywhen it comes to gaining a companywidecommitment.Successful are those who understand the goals of improved productivity, quality, cost, image, service, and response time and are able to convey their message.
• The modern health and safety manager must understand the bottom line concerns of management, supervisors, and employees and be able to use these concerns to gain a commitment to health and safety.• Competitiveness comes from continually improving a company’s productivity, quality, cost, image, service, and response time.• If healthy and safe environment is provided continual improvement can easily be achieved.
Productivity, Quality, Cost, and Response time• These four factors are the key to productivity in the age of high technology and global competitiveness.• A company which generates maximum output with least input is said to be Productive.• Quality is a measure of reliability and customer satisfaction.• Response time is the amount of time that elapses between order being placed and the product being delivered.
• In order to compete in global marketplace, industrial companies must continually improve these four factors.
quality cost Essential ingredients of competitiveness ResponseImage time
• These two factors are also important for competitiveness.• Of these two image relates more directly to health and safety.• Companies that establish a solid internal image in terms of health and safety will find it easier to attract and keep the best employees.• Companies that establish a solid external image with regard to environment and product safety issues will find it easier to attract and retain customers.
• Job of health and safety managers is more complex and diverse due to advancement of technology and new rules and regulations.• Due to which the importance of Education and training has been increased.• Formal education is important for providing foundation of related knowledge.• In-service trainings are more effective for this purpose.
• Provide database, training and other professional literature in order to facilitate managers.• Some of them are : – Certification Boards – Professional Societies – Scientific standards/ Testing Organization – Government Agencies – Trade Association
• Engineer has a very important role in health and safety issues and has more effect on health and safety than other persons.• The most careless employee can’t cause a fraction of problems caused by a careless engineer.• Engineers ability of good and bad appears during design process.• Not all but some engineers are design engineers.
• Mechanical engineers are concerned with motion and processes used to convert other form of energy into motion.• They are responsible for designing, manufacturing, testing, and marketing devices.
• It is a plan of action to achieve a goal.• Steps of design process are as follows. – Problem identification – Synthesis – Analysis and evaluation – Document and Communicate – Produce and Deliver
• A vast title in workplace• It implies the person filling the position of degreed engineer because of formal education.• The title also given sometime to safety managers.• For this title, safety related formal education is needed not engineering.• Industrial engineers are best as a safety engineer.
What is Stress?Stress is human reaction to the threatening situationsIt is actually the difference between the level of occupational demand and person’s ability to cope with this demand
Decreased ProductivityHigher absenteeismJob turnovers —Poor morale —Stress related illnesses
Task complexityControlFeeling of responsibilityJob securityWorkload demandsPsychological supportLack of environmental safety
Different categories of human reaction to workplace stressEmotional (anxiety , aggression, guilt)Behavioral (being prone to accidents, trembling )Cognitive(inability to make decisions)
Psychological(increased heart rate and blood pressure)Organizational(absenteeism, poor productivity)
Alarm• Occurs when the stress of a threat is sensed Symptoms: pallor, sweating, increased heartrateResistance • A greater physical response is initiated due to prolonging of stress • In this stage the body develops an adaptation to the stress
Exhaustion• In this stage the body’s failure occurs due to the sustained stress.• Psychosomatic disorder such as gastric ulcer, colitis, rashes, autoimmune disorder may begin during this stage
Subjective ratingsBehavioral time sharingPsychophysiological techniques
Workers surveyed have consistently reported lower job satisfaction with rotating shiftsDay shift workers with the same task definitions report higher job satisfaction then their 2nd or 3rd shift counterpartsShift work reduces safety in terms of weariness, irritability, depression and lack of interest in work
Defining clear and accurate job descriptionsProviding relaxation methodsAllowing employees to talk freely with one another during workAvoiding shift workAppreciating a humor in the workplace
Four conditions that produce among safetymanagersRole overloadCoping with regulatory breakdownCommunication breakdownCompeting loyalties