Introduction•What is Reading? “Reading is a receptive language process. It is a psycholinguistic guessing game” (1967). “There is an essential interaction between language and thought in reading. The writer encodes thought as language and the reader decodes language as thought." Kenneth Goodman (1988).• Reading ability will be developed best with in association withwriting, listening, and speaking activities.•We will focus on reading as a component of general secondlanguage proficiency, but reading must be considered only inthe perspective of the whole picture of interactive languageteaching.
Outline◊RESEARCH ON READING A SECOND LANGUAGE Bottom-up and Top-down processing Interactive Reading Approach Schema theory and background knowledge◊MICROSKILLS FOR READING COMPREHENSION◊STRATEGIES FOR READING COMPREHENSION Identify the purpose in reading Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in bottom-up decoding (Especially for beginning learners)◊LINKS
RESEARCH ON READING A SECONDLANGUAGEA. Bottom-up and Top-down processing 1. Bottom-up processing Readers must first recognize a multiplicity of linguistic signals, Then readers must use their linguistic data- processing mechanisms to impose order on these signals. From among all the perceived data, the reader selects the signals that make some sense or that cohere.
2. Top-down processing Processing in which the readers draw on their own intelligence and experience to understand a text The top-down model of reading focuses on what the readers bring to the process (Goodman, 1967; Smith, 1971,1982). The readers sample the text for information and contrast it with their world knowledge, helping to make sense of what is written. The focus here is on the readers as they interact with the text.Interactive Reading ApproachThe combination of both the bottom-up and top-downprocessing. “In practice, a reader continually shifts from one focusto another, now adopting a top-down approach topredict probable meaning, then moving to the bottom-up approach to check whether that is really what thewriter says” (Nuttall 1996: 17)
B. Schema theory and background knowledge• Schema Theory: The hallmark of which is that a text does not by itself carry a meaning.• Schemata (plural form): The reader brings information, knowledge, emotion, experience, and culture to the printed word.
MICROSKILLS FOR READINGCOMPREHENSION1. Discriminate among the distinctive graphemes and orthographic patterns of English.2. Retain chunks of language of different lengths in short-term memory.3. Process writing at an efficient rate of speed to suit the purpose.4. Recognize a core of words, and interpret word order patterns and their significance.5. Recognize grammatical word classes (nouns, verbs, etc.) systems (e.g., tense agreement, pluralization), patterns, rules, and elliptical forms.6. Recognize that a particular meaning may be expressed in different grammatical forms.
7. Recognize cohesive devices in written discourse and their role in signaling the relationship between and among clauses.8. Recognize the rhetorical forms of written discourse and their significance for interpretation.9. Recognize the communicative functions of written texts, according to form and purpose.10. Infer context that is not explicit by using background knowledge.11. Infer links and connections between events, ideas, etc., deduce causes and effects, and detect such relations as main idea, supporting idea, new information, generalization, and exemplification.12. Distinguish between literal and implied meanings.13. Detect cultural specific references and interpret them in a context of the appropriate cultural schemata.14. Develop and use a battery of reading strategies such as scanning and skimming, detecting discourse markers, guessing the meaning of words from context, and activating schemata for the interpretation of texts.
STRATEGIES FOR READINGCOMPREHENSION1. Identify the purpose in reading2. Use graphemic rules and patterns to aid in bottom-up decoding (especially for beginners)• One of the difficulties students encounter in learning to read is making the correspondence between spoken and written English.• Learners have become acquainted with oral language and have some difficulty learning English spelling conventions.• So, they may need hints and explanations about certain English orthographic rules and peculiarities.
How you might provide hints and pointers onsuch patterns as these?•“short” vowel sound in VC patterns(bat, him, leg, wish, etc.)•“long” vowel sound in VCe (final silent e) patterns(late, time, bite, etc.)•“long” vowel sound in VV patterns (seat, coat, etc.)•Distinguishing “hard” c and g from “soft” c and g (cat vs.city, game vs. gem, etc.)These and a multitude of other phonics approaches toreading can prove useful for learners at the beginninglevel and especially useful for teaching children andnon-literate adults.