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Growing Importance of  Modelling and Simulation:  Professional and Ethical Implications  É cole Polytechnique Universitair...
<ul><li>“ The greater a man the larger his horizon” </li></ul><ul><li>John McLeod </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ We often fail to realize how little we know about a thing until we attempt to simulate it on a computer” </li></...
<ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some  advancement  areas </li></ul><ul><l...
Experimentation <ul><li>is one of the  key concepts   in scientific thinking  since Francis Bacon (1561-1626) who advocate...
Two meanings of “simulation”: “ Not real, imitation, feign ” A nontechnical term   (simulated   pearl,  simulated   leathe...
Two meanings of “simulation”: “ Not real, imitation, feign ” A nontechnical term   (simulated   pearl,  simulated   leathe...
Simulation <ul><li>is  goal-directed   experimentation  with  dynamic models , i.e., models with time-dependent behavior. ...
<ul><li>Modeling and Simulation Terminology: </li></ul><ul><li>A joint project to develop a  </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingua...
<ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some  advancement  areas </li></ul><ul><l...
Simulation and the real system are used together: Yes No purpose : Types of usages of “simulation”: 2 .  On-line  usage of...
Decision making Prediction : ( behavior prediction or performance prediction) of the system of interest within the constra...
Purpose : -  Teaching / enhancing ability of   business leaders,  warfighters ( business gaming,   war gaming )     –  sin...
Purpose : -  Teaching / enhancing  ability to drive  a vehicle  (aircraft simulator, tank simulator,   submarine simulator...
Usages of Simulation: Stand-alone simulation activity :  the simulation program runs independently from the system of inte...
Simulation and the real system are used together: Yes No purpose : Types of usages of “simulation”: 2 .  On-line  usage of...
Purpose : To support operation of the real system by providing  1.  predictive displays 2.  On-line diagnosis  abilities 2...
<ul><li>-  gets the time-varying information about the  environment  of the system, directly through  sensors  and A/D con...
By using a predictive display,  <ul><li>Decision maker/operator can base his/her decision(s) on: </li></ul><ul><li>system ...
On-line diagnosis  abilities can be provided by comparing the outputs of the real system and the simulator working under s...
Purpose : During the operation of the real system,  real  and  virtual entities   - humans, avatars, - equipment, and  - e...
Relat i onsh i p of operator / equ i pment  i n augmented real i ty s i mulat i on : Real operator uses real equipment wit...
Usages of Simulation: Integrated simulation activity :   (An emerging area)  simulation program operates together with the...
<ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some  advancement  areas </li></ul><ul><l...
S ome  promising  advancement  areas for modelling and simulation  in: <ul><li>1.  S cience, methodology, and technology o...
1. S cience, methodology,  &  technology of  M&S  <ul><li>Event-based modelling  (DEVS)  </li></ul><ul><li>& its synergies...
A type of multimodel: metamorphic model -  (e.g., egg, larva, pupa, butterfly) M M 1 M 2 M n There is a predefined  sequen...
Another type of multimodel: multiaspect model - (e.g., ice, water, vapor) M M 1 M 2 M 3 More than one alternate model can ...
Multimodel Formalism: Background  <ul><li>A  multimodel  is a modular model that subsumes multiple submodels that together...
Taxonomy of Multimodels (Submodel Structure)
Taxonomy of Multimodels (Submodel Activation Behavior)
A recent reference on a taxonomy of multimodels: Yilmaz, L. and Ören, T.I. (2004).  Dynamic Model Updating in  Simulation ...
<ul><li>Variable structure models : </li></ul><ul><li>( trajectory simulation  &   structural simulation ) </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Multisimulation :  </li></ul><ul><li>to  experiment with several aspects of reality simultaneously.  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Automation of design of experiments :   </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation environments can be enhanced by having experi...
<ul><li>Holonic agent simulation:   </li></ul><ul><li>A  holonic system  is composed of autonomous entities (called holons...
<ul><li>Specification languages and environments for interoperability :   </li></ul><ul><li>I nteroperability is a very im...
2.  Trustworthiness, reliability,  &  quality in  M&S  <ul><li>Built-in reliability prior to validation and verification :...
<ul><li>Proper documentation of simulation studies : </li></ul><ul><li>Proper documentation of modelling and simulation st...
<ul><li>Reuse libraries :   </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of reuse libraries can be beneficial for organizations which u...
<ul><li>Taming and monitoring software agents :   </li></ul><ul><li>One of the characteristics of agents is autonomy. Howe...
3.  Application areas   <ul><li>Human behavior and societal systems : </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding human behavior is es...
<ul><li>Enhancement of decision making abilities for cooperation :  </li></ul><ul><li>Competitio n : z ero-sum games </li>...
<ul><li>Enhancement of decision making abilities for conflict management :  </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict management, includi...
<ul><li>Enhancement of decision making abilities for peace support / peace assurance :   </li></ul><ul><li>There is a plet...
<ul><li>Training systems with learning abilities :   </li></ul><ul><li>It might be interesting to explore use of explorato...
  4.  Consolidation  &  dissemination of  M&S  knowledge   <ul><li>Systematization of the body of knowledge :  </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Dictionary of terms </li></ul><ul><li>An authoritative  dictionary of modelling and simulation would be very desir...
<ul><li>Electronic textbook :  </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Electronic Statistics Textbook </li><...
<ul><li>Dissemination of knowledge : </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic newsletters of SCS and SCS Europe fulfill very useful fu...
<ul><li>Graduate curriculum development :   </li></ul><ul><li>An  ACM style graduate curriculum  in  M&S  would be very us...
<ul><li>-  Problem specification environments for simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-aided VV&A (and built-in consisten...
<ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some  advancement  areas </li></ul><ul><l...
http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~oren/links-MS.htm  Associations: - International  (16) Associations  – by Country:  (23) Assoc...
Application Area(s) Code of  Professional Ethics Science Technology 3 Aspects of  Profess i onal i sm  i n  M&S: M&S BoK (...
<ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some  advancement  areas </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Responsible : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to fulfil one’s moral obligations;  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is a...
Position Statement: <ul><li>The growing  importance and the scope of application areas  of modelling and simulation oblige...
<ul><li>“ The unexamined life is not worth living.”   Socrates (469-399 BC )   </li></ul>And “life” may well cover profess...
<ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some  advancement  areas </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Ethic  is a  set of principles of right conduct.  </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics  refers to the general nature of morals...
<ul><li>Ethics in simulation   should be raised   to a visible status . </li></ul><ul><li>(Or justifications should be giv...
If  our activities  have no (serious) implications to others,  then it does not matter whether or not  we   should  feel  ...
If  simulation  has no (serious) implications to others,  then it does not matter whether or not   simulationists  should ...
“ What you don’t want done to yourself, don’t do to others.”   Confucius (551-479) BC)
The respect for the rights of others : <ul><li>is the essence of right conduct.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is also a fundamenta...
The origins for the respect for the rights of others :   Respect for the rights of others Self-initiated ( genuine ) Impos...
<ul><li>A site: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~oren/SCS_Ethics/ethics.htm </li></ul><ul><li>And the associa...
<ul><li>Simulation  has thousands of applications;  and ,  simulation studies /products   can affect   people  as well as ...
Responsibilities of simulationists to: simulationist others profession code
<ul><li>Personal development and the profession (7)  </li></ul><ul><li>P rofessional competence  (8) </li></ul><ul><li>T r...
1.  Personal development and the profession : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1.1...
1.  Personal development and the profession : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>1.4  Support  fellow pr...
2. P rofessional competence : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2.1  Assure product...
2. P rofessional competence : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will:   </li></ul><ul><li>2.5  Provide full disclosure of syste...
3. T rustworthiness : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will:   </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3.1  Be honest about any ...
4. P roperty rights and due credit : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>4.1  Give full  acknowledgement ...
5. C ompliance with the code : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>5.1  Adhere to thi...
<ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some  advancement  areas </li></ul><ul><l...
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  1. 1. Growing Importance of Modelling and Simulation: Professional and Ethical Implications É cole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille D é partement de Génie Industriel et Informatique Université de Provence – Aix-Marseille I September 15, 2004 - Marseille, France Tuncer Ören M&SNet (McLeod Modeling and Simulation Network) : OC-MISS (Ottawa Center of the MISS) University of Ottawa Ottawa, ON, Canada http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~oren
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ The greater a man the larger his horizon” </li></ul><ul><li>John McLeod </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“ We often fail to realize how little we know about a thing until we attempt to simulate it on a computer” </li></ul><ul><li>Donald Knuth, 1968 </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some advancement areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Importance and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ethical implications </li></ul>Plan
  5. 5. Experimentation <ul><li>is one of the key concepts in scientific thinking since Francis Bacon (1561-1626) who advocated it in 1620 in his Novum Organum . ( New Instrument ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon’s work was a categorical departure from and reaction to “Organon” (the Instrument) which was the title of logical works of Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) which itself had an “ unparalleled influence on the history of Western thought . ” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Two meanings of “simulation”: “ Not real, imitation, feign ” A nontechnical term (simulated pearl, simulated leather) “ All but war is simulation ” STRICOM (this view is already changed) [ live simulation ] A technical term
  7. 7. Two meanings of “simulation”: “ Not real, imitation, feign ” A nontechnical term (simulated pearl, simulated leather) “ All but war is simulation ” STRICOM [live simulation] s y stem model Goal-directed experimentation with dynamic model s . A technical term Experimental conditions experimentation simulation
  8. 8. Simulation <ul><li>is goal-directed experimentation with dynamic models , i.e., models with time-dependent behavior. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Modeling and Simulation Terminology: </li></ul><ul><li>A joint project to develop a </li></ul><ul><li>Multilingual dictionary of modeling and simulation: English, French, Spanish, Turkish </li></ul><ul><li>With the collaboration of the following member organizations of M&SNet: </li></ul><ul><li>( http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~oren/SCS_MSNet/MSNet-excom.htm ) </li></ul><ul><li>OC-MISS (Canada), LSIS (France), MSDS (Spain) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some advancement areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Importance and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ethical implications </li></ul>Plan
  11. 11. Simulation and the real system are used together: Yes No purpose : Types of usages of “simulation”: 2 . On-line usage of simulation ( Integrated use of simulation) purpose : 1. S tand-alone usage of simulation
  12. 12. Decision making Prediction : ( behavior prediction or performance prediction) of the system of interest within the constraints inherent in the simulation model (e.g., model granularity) Test of hypotheses Evaluation of alternative models, parameters, experimental and/or operating conditions on model behavior or performance Sensitivity analysis Engineering design Prototyping Planning Acquisition Proof of concept
  13. 13. Purpose : - Teaching / enhancing ability of business leaders, warfighters ( business gaming, war gaming ) – single simulation, interoperability of federates) - Teaching / enhancing ability of peace builders / peace keepers (peace keeping simulation, crisis management simulation) Stand-alone usage of simulation To enhance (training) decision making skills: ( constructive sim u la ti on ) Model and experimental conditions are used to enhance decision making skills (training) (Simulation games)
  14. 14. Purpose : - Teaching / enhancing ability to drive a vehicle (aircraft simulator, tank simulator, submarine simulator, ...) - Teaching / enhancing ability to use a hardware (torpedo simulator) Stand-alone usage of simulation To enhance (training) motor skills: ( virtual sim u la ti on ) Model (i.e., a simulator ) is used in emulation mode, i.e., model is not used for experimentation but is used in lieu of the real system (i.e., model acts as a virtual equipment )
  15. 15. Usages of Simulation: Stand-alone simulation activity : the simulation program runs independently from the system of interest . Five categories of purpose: 1. Decision making 2. Training to enhance decision skills (gaming simulation) constructive simulation 3. Training to enhance motor skills (simulators) virtual simulation 4. Understanding and education 5 Entertainment (simulation games, animation of dynamic systems)
  16. 16. Simulation and the real system are used together: Yes No purpose : Types of usages of “simulation”: 2 . On-line usage of simulation ( Integrated use of simulation) purpose : 1. S tand-alone usage of simulation 2.2 enrich Real system and simulation operate alternately simultaneously real system operation 2.1 support
  17. 17. Purpose : To support operation of the real system by providing 1. predictive displays 2. On-line diagnosis abilities 2 . On-line (integrated) usage of simulation 2 .1 to support real-system :
  18. 18. <ul><li>- gets the time-varying information about the environment of the system, directly through sensors and A/D convertors, </li></ul><ul><li>- gets the values of the control variables , from the system through transducers, and </li></ul><ul><li>displays the predicted state (trajectory) of the system. </li></ul>During the operation of a real system, a simulator of the system ,
  19. 19. By using a predictive display, <ul><li>Decision maker/operator can base his/her decision(s) on: </li></ul><ul><li>system characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>(as represented in the model) and </li></ul><ul><li>facts as generated by the simulator; </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of using an undocumented mental model. </li></ul>
  20. 20. On-line diagnosis abilities can be provided by comparing the outputs of the real system and the simulator working under same conditions. A discrepency may indicate a misfunction of the system.
  21. 21. Purpose : During the operation of the real system, real and virtual entities - humans, avatars, - equipment, and - environment can co-exist. Hence, enhanced reality / augmented reality operations. 2 . On-line usage of simulation 2 . 2 to enrich/augment real-system :
  22. 22. Relat i onsh i p of operator / equ i pment i n augmented real i ty s i mulat i on : Real operator uses real equipment with [real and] virtual weapon ( live sim u la ti on ) Real operator uses virtual (simulated) equipment (i.e., simulator) ( virtual simulation ) Virtual operator uses real equipment ( automated (virtual) pilot ) Virtual operator uses virtual equipment ( real operat ors can interact via HMD ; e.g., AI airplane in dogfight ) equipment real virtual ( simulated ) operat o r real virtual
  23. 23. Usages of Simulation: Integrated simulation activity : (An emerging area) simulation program operates together with the system of interest. Two main purposes: to support or to enrich real system operation Support of real system operation : the system of interest and the simulation program operate alternately to provide predictive displays . Enrichment of real system operation , the system of interest and the simulation program operate simultaneously . Goals: - on-line diagnosis - augmented reality (enhanced reality) operation.
  24. 24. <ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some advancement areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Importance and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ethical implications </li></ul>Plan
  25. 25. S ome promising advancement areas for modelling and simulation in: <ul><li>1. S cience, methodology, and technology of M&S </li></ul><ul><li>2. Trustworthiness, reliability, and quality in M&S </li></ul><ul><li>3. Application areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Consolidation and dissemination of M&S knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>5. M&S professionalis m </li></ul>
  26. 26. 1. S cience, methodology, & technology of M&S <ul><li>Event-based modelling (DEVS) </li></ul><ul><li>& its synergies with other modelling formalisms </li></ul><ul><li>Multimodels or multiaspect models (to encapsulate a set of closely related modules of a model ) </li></ul><ul><li>- Normally only one model module can be active at a given time. </li></ul><ul><li>- During simulation, transition conditions can be monitored for switching from a module to another one. </li></ul>
  27. 27. A type of multimodel: metamorphic model - (e.g., egg, larva, pupa, butterfly) M M 1 M 2 M n There is a predefined sequence for the alternate models.
  28. 28. Another type of multimodel: multiaspect model - (e.g., ice, water, vapor) M M 1 M 2 M 3 More than one alternate model can exist at the same time with possible flows of entities (e.g., mass) between submodels
  29. 29. Multimodel Formalism: Background <ul><li>A multimodel is a modular model that subsumes multiple submodels that together represent the behavior of the model. </li></ul><ul><li>Original formulation of multimodeling concept (Ören 1991) inspired the development of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>combined simulation (Praehofer 1992) - integration of continuous and discrete simulations within the same system description. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multimodel formalism for analyzing the qualitative dynamics of systems (Fishwick and Zeigler 1992). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In existing formalisms submodels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>share the same address space, and they are updated based on programmatic switch statements; hence, they are not only inflexible (i.e., hardwired), but also lack applicability to truly distinct arbitrary models. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Taxonomy of Multimodels (Submodel Structure)
  31. 31. Taxonomy of Multimodels (Submodel Activation Behavior)
  32. 32. A recent reference on a taxonomy of multimodels: Yilmaz, L. and Ören, T.I. (2004).  Dynamic Model Updating in Simulation with Multimodels: A Taxonomy and a Generic Agent-Based Architecture, Proceedings of SCSC 2004, Summer Computer Simulation Conference, July 25-29, 2004, San Jose, CA., pp. 3-8.
  33. 33. <ul><li>Variable structure models : </li></ul><ul><li>( trajectory simulation & structural simulation ) </li></ul><ul><li>to study the evolution of the structure of a system, e.g., crystal growth , growth of plants expressed as L-systems , cellular automata , variable-boundary system simulation, etc . </li></ul><ul><li>- In adaptive system simulation , the system may need to change its structure (adopt itself) to satisfy its goal of existence. </li></ul><ul><li>- Evolutionary system studies require mutations of the simulation models. </li></ul>1. S cience, methodology, & technology of M&S
  34. 34. <ul><li>Multisimulation : </li></ul><ul><li>to experiment with several aspects of reality simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Under emerging conditions , one can add emerging successor models to existing models to explore behavior of alternative system models. </li></ul>1. S cience, methodology, & technology of M&S
  35. 35. <ul><li>Automation of design of experiments : </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation environments can be enhanced by having experimental design abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Then a shell can apply the experimental design to activate the simulation with appropriate values of decision parameters and to observe the outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Later an analysis module can perform the statistical analysis to advise the user. </li></ul>1. S cience, methodology, & technology of M&S
  36. 36. <ul><li>Holonic agent simulation: </li></ul><ul><li>A holonic system is composed of autonomous entities (called holons) that can deliberately reduce their autonomy, when need arise, to collectively achieve a goal. </li></ul><ul><li>A holonic agent is a multi-agent system where each agent (called a holon) acts with deliberately reduced autonomy to assure harmony in its cooperation , in order to collectively achieve a common goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Holonic agent simulation can be the basis for application areas involving cooperation, conflict management, and peace support operations. </li></ul>1. S cience, methodology, & technology of M&S
  37. 37. <ul><li>Specification languages and environments for interoperability : </li></ul><ul><li>I nteroperability is a very important and desirable feature to integrate several simulation studies –each called a federate– into a federation.   </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining specifications instead of the code would be much more cost effective; furthermore, it can also allow, symbolic processing of the specifications of models, experiments, and parameters to have computer-aided validation and verification. </li></ul>1. S cience, methodology, & technology of M&S
  38. 38. 2. Trustworthiness, reliability, & quality in M&S <ul><li>Built-in reliability prior to validation and verification : </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to achieve reliability during the specification phase of modelling and simulation would be very beneficial . </li></ul><ul><li>Validation and verification based on specification of simulation studies can be more effective than validation and verification based on simulation programs. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Proper documentation of simulation studies : </li></ul><ul><li>Proper documentation of modelling and simulation studies, including clarification of several assumptions, may be helpful in validation and verification as well as for their proper use and reuse. </li></ul>2. Trustworthiness, reliability, & quality in M&S
  40. 40. <ul><li>Reuse libraries : </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of reuse libraries can be beneficial for organizations which use large number of simulations. They can benefit: </li></ul><ul><li>by cutting cost , </li></ul><ul><li>by saving time (by not reimplementing modules which already exist and by performing validation/verification studies only once), and </li></ul><ul><li>by easing upgrading process (upgrade of a reused module can be shared with all installations using the same software module). </li></ul>2. Trustworthiness, reliability, & quality in M&S
  41. 41. <ul><li>Taming and monitoring software agents : </li></ul><ul><li>One of the characteristics of agents is autonomy. However, full autonomy of agents may not assure their trustworthiness. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>First, built-in trustworthiness which requires the limitation of the autonomy of agents while building them. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, defensive trustworthiness which requires, in an agent-based computation environment, monitoring and even licensing of agents. </li></ul>2. Trustworthiness, reliability, & quality in M&S
  42. 42. 3. Application areas <ul><li>Human behavior and societal systems : </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding human behavior is essential for several studies. </li></ul><ul><li>There are already several human behavior and societal system simulation studies . </li></ul><ul><li>However, many more are warranted. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Enhancement of decision making abilities for cooperation : </li></ul><ul><li>Competitio n : z ero-sum games </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation: n on-zero sum games </li></ul><ul><li>Coopetition ( mixture of competition and cooperation) </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation can be useful in teaching the value and practice of cooperation. </li></ul>3. Application areas
  44. 44. <ul><li>Enhancement of decision making abilities for conflict management : </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict management, including conflict avoidance and conflict resolution is an important ability. </li></ul><ul><li>It might be beneficial to increase use of simulation to enhance the decision making abilities for conflict management. </li></ul>3. Application areas
  45. 45. <ul><li>Enhancement of decision making abilities for peace support / peace assurance : </li></ul><ul><li>There is a plethora of war gaming simulations . </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to them, it would be highly desirable to have peace support / peace assurance simulations to be used for the enhancement of the relevant decision making abilities of the concerned. </li></ul>3. Application areas
  46. 46. <ul><li>Training systems with learning abilities : </li></ul><ul><li>It might be interesting to explore use of exploratory simulation in machine learning, to allow the agents to learn in a richer learning environment. </li></ul>3. Application areas
  47. 47. 4. Consolidation & dissemination of M&S knowledge <ul><li>Systematization of the body of knowledge : </li></ul><ul><li>The need is already been expressed. </li></ul><ul><li>A unified view will be useful </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Dictionary of terms </li></ul><ul><li>An authoritative dictionary of modelling and simulation would be very desirable to provide crisp definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise the following type of definitions may be used: “ Simulation:  An experiment that models a real-life situation .” </li></ul> 4. Consolidation & dissemination of M&S knowledge
  49. 49. <ul><li>Electronic textbook : </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Electronic Statistics Textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O n-line mathematics textbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e-text(s) can display more knowledge then originally stored in them b y exploring knowledge generation features of simulation models . </li></ul> 4. Consolidation & dissemination of M&S knowledge
  50. 50. <ul><li>Dissemination of knowledge : </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic newsletters of SCS and SCS Europe fulfill very useful functions. Conferences page of EUROSIM is a rich list of conferences. </li></ul><ul><li>However, another electronic dissemination mechanism used for software engineering ( SEWORLD ) can be a model for dissemination of modelling and simulation events. </li></ul> 4. Consolidation & dissemination of M&S knowledge
  51. 51. <ul><li>Graduate curriculum development : </li></ul><ul><li>An ACM style graduate curriculum in M&S would be very useful, for individual educational institutions as well as for their cooperation (student exchange and credit transfers can be much simpler). </li></ul><ul><li>Several academic institutions and centers of the McLeod Institute for Simulation Sciences (MISS) can use such a curriculum. </li></ul> 4. Consolidation & dissemination of M&S knowledge
  52. 52. <ul><li>- Problem specification environments for simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-aided VV&A (and built-in consistency and acceptability checks during modelling) </li></ul><ul><li>Computer aided program generation (generative programming) </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Re-usability (at specification level) </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence applications: Knowledge-based simulation, Rule-based systems, qualitative simulation, ... Soft computation and simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Agent-directed simulation </li></ul><ul><li>(agent simulation, agent-based simulation, agent-supported simulation) </li></ul>Other points:
  53. 53. <ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some advancement areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Importance and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ethical implications </li></ul>Plan
  54. 54. http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~oren/links-MS.htm Associations: - International (16) Associations – by Country: (23) Associations – by Region / Language (10) Organizations / Groups
  55. 55. Application Area(s) Code of Professional Ethics Science Technology 3 Aspects of Profess i onal i sm i n M&S: M&S BoK (body of knowledge) Certification of Professionalism Professional and Ethical Conduct Knowledge Generation & Dissemination : (Academia, R&D) Wealth Generation (Products/Services) : (Industry) <ul><li>Kn owledge: </li></ul><ul><li>To solve problems : </li></ul><ul><li>- M&S BoK </li></ul><ul><li>- Science </li></ul><ul><li>- Technology </li></ul><ul><li>A pplication A rea(s) </li></ul><ul><li>How to solve them (behavior) : </li></ul><ul><li>- Code of P rofessional E thics </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><li>K nowledge G eneration and </li></ul><ul><li>D issemination : </li></ul><ul><li>( A cademia, R&D) </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth G eneration </li></ul><ul><li>(Products/Services) : </li></ul><ul><li>( I ndustry) </li></ul><ul><li>  Monitoring : </li></ul><ul><li>Professional and E thical </li></ul><ul><li>C onduct </li></ul><ul><li>Certification of </li></ul><ul><li>Professıonal i sm </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some advancement areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Importance and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ethical implications </li></ul>Plan
  57. 57. <ul><li>Responsible : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to fulfil one’s moral obligations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is an ideal of character, a virtue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only maturity may imply responsibility . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accountable : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being required to answer for one’s actions. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Position Statement: <ul><li>The growing importance and the scope of application areas of modelling and simulation oblige us to re-examine our field and reflect upon whether or not those who are involved in any aspect of it have any responsibility . </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>“ The unexamined life is not worth living.” Socrates (469-399 BC ) </li></ul>And “life” may well cover professional societies and professions as well.
  60. 60. <ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some advancement areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Importance and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ethical implications </li></ul>Plan
  61. 61. <ul><li>Ethic is a set of principles of right conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics refers to the general nature of morals and the specific moral choices to be made by a person. </li></ul><ul><li>P rofessional ethics , </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession. </li></ul><ul><li>The terms medical ethics and business ethics are used similarly . </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Ethics in simulation should be raised to a visible status . </li></ul><ul><li>(Or justifications should be given why while so many </li></ul><ul><li>other professions are subscribing to codes of ethics, </li></ul><ul><li>ethics is not mentioned in simulation studies.) </li></ul>Ethics and simulation – A personal normative view :
  63. 63. If our activities have no (serious) implications to others, then it does not matter whether or not we should feel responsible towards them or we should be held accountable .
  64. 64. If simulation has no (serious) implications to others, then it does not matter whether or not simulationists should feel responsible towards them or should be held accountable .
  65. 65. “ What you don’t want done to yourself, don’t do to others.” Confucius (551-479) BC)
  66. 66. The respect for the rights of others : <ul><li>is the essence of right conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also a fundamental concept in civilized societies, essential for the regulation of the social dynamics in order to sustain the civilization. </li></ul>Also , from a pragmatic view : No business, how lucrative it is, can be sustained if one looses the trust of the stakeholders.
  67. 67. The origins for the respect for the rights of others : Respect for the rights of others Self-initiated ( genuine ) Imposed ( emulated ) behavior responsibility accountability Origin: - personal belief - philosophical (e.g., Zen: altruism) Origin : - state legislation - society customs, peer pressures, regulations, codes of conduct, ethical codes of conduct Self-imposed restriction Origin : - religion
  68. 68. <ul><li>A site: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.site.uottawa.ca/~oren/SCS_Ethics/ethics.htm </li></ul><ul><li>And the associations which adopted Code of Professional Ethics for Simulationists </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>Simulation has thousands of applications; and , simulation studies /products can affect people as well as the environment in many ways . </li></ul>Or, what we do can have important consequences ! As mature members of a mature profession , we can act proactively to assuming our responsability and accountability .
  70. 70. Responsibilities of simulationists to: simulationist others profession code
  71. 71. <ul><li>Personal development and the profession (7) </li></ul><ul><li>P rofessional competence (8) </li></ul><ul><li>T rustworthiness (4) </li></ul><ul><li>P roperty rights and due credit (4) </li></ul><ul><li>C ompliance with the code (4) </li></ul><ul><li> ____ </li></ul><ul><li>27 </li></ul>5 Areas of the Code: simulationist others profession code
  72. 72. 1. Personal development and the profession : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1.1 Acquire and maintain professional competence and attitude . </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 Treat fairly employees, clients, users, colleagues, and employers. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Encourage and support new entrants to the profession. </li></ul>
  73. 73. 1. Personal development and the profession : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 Support fellow practitioners and members of other professions who are engaged in modelling and simulation. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 Assists colleagues to achieve reliable results. </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 Promote the reliable and credible use of modelling and simulatio n. </li></ul><ul><li>1.7 Promote the modelling and simulation profession ; e.g., advance public knowledge and appreciation of modelling and simulation and clarify and counter </li></ul><ul><li>false or misleading statements. </li></ul>
  74. 74. 2. P rofessional competence : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>2.1 Assure product and/or service quality by the use of proper methodologies and technologies. </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 Seek, utilize, and provide critical professional review . </li></ul><ul><li>2.3 Recommend and stipulate proper and achievable goals for any project. </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 Document simulation studies and/or systems comprehensibly and accurately to authorized parties. </li></ul>
  75. 75. 2. P rofessional competence : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 Provide full disclosure of system design assumptions and known limitations and problems to authorized parties. </li></ul><ul><li>2.6 Be explicit and unequivocal about the conditions of applicability of specific models and associated simulation results. </li></ul><ul><li>2.7 Caution against acceptance of modelling and simulation results when there is insufficient evidence of thorough validation and verification . </li></ul><ul><li>2.8 Assure thorough and unbiased interpretations and evaluations of the results of modelling and simulation studies. </li></ul>
  76. 76. 3. T rustworthiness : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 Be honest about any circumstances that might lead to conflict of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>3.2 Honor contracts, agreements, and assigned responsibilities and accountabilities . </li></ul><ul><li>3.3 Help develop an organizational environment that is supportive of ethical behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>3.4 Support studies which will not harm humans (current and </li></ul><ul><li>future generations) as well as environment . </li></ul>
  77. 77. 4. P roperty rights and due credit : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>4.1 Give full acknowledgement to the contributions of others. </li></ul><ul><li>4.2 Give proper credit for intellectual property. </li></ul><ul><li>4. 3    Honor property rights including copyrights and patents. </li></ul><ul><li>4. 4   Honor privacy rights of individuals and organizations as well as confidentiality of the relevant data and knowledge. </li></ul>
  78. 78. 5. C ompliance with the code : <ul><li>As a simulationist I will: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>5.1 Adhere to this code and encourage other simulationists to adhere to it .     </li></ul><ul><li>5.2 Treat violations of this code as inconsistent with being a simulationist. </li></ul><ul><li>5.3 Seek advice from professional colleagues when faced with an ethical dilemma in modelling and simulation activities. </li></ul><ul><li>5.4 Advise any professional society which supports this code of desirable updates. </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>1. Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>2. Types of usages </li></ul><ul><li>3. Some advancement areas </li></ul><ul><li>4. Professionalism </li></ul><ul><li>5. Importance and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>6. Ethical implications </li></ul>We have seen

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