Peace-Building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management


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Peace-Building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management

  1. 1. Division 42 State and Economic Reform, Civil Society Peace-Building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management Technical Cooperation in the Context of Crises, Conflicts and Disasters Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
  2. 2. Division 42 State and Economic Reform, Civil Society Peace-Building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management Technical Cooperation in the Context of Crises, Conflicts and Disasters Eschborn 2002
  3. 3. Author: Dr. Norbert Ropers Dr. Norbert Ropers is Director of the Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management in Berlin. His main areas of work are theory and practice of ethnopolitical conflict management, integration of conflict manage- ment into development cooperation and humanitarian aid, as well as contributions by civil society actors to peace-building with special regional focus on the southern Caucasus, OSCE and Sri Lanka. Contacts in GTZ: Bernd Hoffmann Director of Division 42: State and Economic Reform, Civil Society Telephone: ++49-(0) 61 96-79 16 51 E-Mail: Dr. Uwe Kievelitz Programme Manager Crisis Prevention and Conflict Transformation Telephone: ++49-(0) 61 96-79 13 26 E-Mail: Published by: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH Postfach 5180 · D-65726 Eschborn Federal Republic of Germany Internet: Responsible: Bernd Hoffmann, GTZ Authors: Dr. Norbert Ropers Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management, Berlin Chapter on “Structural Stability“ Dr. Stephan Klingebiel German Development Institute, Bonn Editor: Melanie Seegräf, GTZ Research consultants: Prof. Dr. Lothar Brock Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt-on-Main PD Dr. Brigitte Fahrenhorst Society for International Development, Berlin Translation team: John D. Cochrane, Suzanne George
  4. 4. Foreword After 11 September, a set of conceptual guidelines for Technical Co- operation could barely be any more relevant than the present working paper. In the wake of the debate surrounding the implications and consequences of the terrorist attacks, development policy has assumed a new stature, and gained a fresh dimension. More than ever before, we are being called upon in our work to help improve the living conditions and prospects of people in our partner countries, and increase our efforts to prevent crises and defuse conflicts. The lack of prospects for young people is itself a fertile breeding ground for extremist views, and the will to use violence which they generate. The German Government sees development policy as global peace policy. This is based on a broad understanding of security which goes beyond traditional security policy. Development policy is mandated to fight the root causes of poverty, injustice and the destruction of the vital natural resource base on which people depend, as well as to make direct inputs to the peaceful resolution of crises and conflicts rooted in poor development and social transition. Germany is thus one of many bi- and multilateral donors which increasingly see development cooperation as a contribution to crisis prevention and peaceful conflict management, and which are orienting their work accordingly. The present working paper seeks to conceptually under- pin this new area of work in the specific context of Technical Cooperation. At the same time, it outlines GTZ’s existing services in this sector. It also outlines the prospects for future tasks in this new work domain.TC possesses broad experience in implementing crisis- and conflict-related measures, as reflected in the activity areas and services outlined in the present paper. On the whole, however, individual approaches, instruments and services will need to be further developed on a continuous basis. In this context it will be necessary to continuously review and redefine the concrete potentials and limits of crisis prevention and conflict management. The present working paper was written for a broad audience. First and foremost it is designed for all Technical Cooperation personnel. It is also intended for ministries, international institutions and non-governmental agencies. Finally, we also hope it will meet with keen interest on the part of all our many partners, from the consulting sector to the research institutions cooperating with us. Our thanks are due to the author of the publication, Dr. Norbert Ropers of the Berghof Institute in Berlin, who in his capacity as our staff member in Sri Lanka is making a direct contribution to peace-building in that war-torn country.
  5. 5. Our thanks are also due to the research consultants, Dr. Brigitte Fahren- horst and Professor Dr. Lothar Brock, and to all those whose suggestions and comments were so valuable to us. Dr. Bernd Eisenblätter Bernd Hoffmann Director General Director of Division
  6. 6. List of Contents List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 7 1. Peace-building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management – a Cross-cutting Theme for GTZ 9 2. Fundamentals 11 2.1 Terminology 11 2.2 The Current Development-policy Debate 14 2.3 Peace Policy and Crisis Prevention as Strategic Elements of German Development Policy 19 2.4 Peace-building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management as Activity Areas of Technical Cooperation 22 2.5 The Relationship between Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management, and Development-oriented Emergency Aid (DEA) 24 2.6 Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management – Challenges for Reform of the State, the Economy and Society 25 3. The Initial Context, and Approaches to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management 27 3.1 Crises and Conflicts within the Social Development Process 27 3.2 Markets and Cultures of Violence 29 3.3 Forecasting Crises and Mapping Conflicts 32 3.4 The Phases of a Conflict and Time Frame of Interventions 35 3.5 The Levels of Social Leadership and their Regional Differentiation 41 3.6 The “Partisan Allegiances” of Target Groups and Partner Organisations 42 3.7 Promoting Structural Stability as a Basis for Sustainable Development 43
  7. 7. 4. Strategies for Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management in Technical Cooperation 45 4.1 General Principles of Action for Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management 47 4.2 Promoting Structural Stability to Underpin Crisis Prevention and Sustainable Development 51 4.3 Strengthening the Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management Capacities of Civil Society Groups, and Local and Regional Institutions 55 4.4 Challenges and Dilemmas for the Design of Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management Processes 57 5. GTZ’s Services 60 5.1 Implementation Strategy 60 5.2 Strengthening Civil Society Groups of Strategic Significance for Building a Peace Constituency 62 5.3 Promoting Local Institutions and Mechanisms for Peaceful Conflict Management 64 5.4 Promoting a Media Contribution to Crisis Prevention 65 5.5 Developing Education and Youth Promotion Measures to Provide Education for Peace and Conflict Prevention 67 5.6 Post-War Trauma Healing 68 5.7 Post-Conflict Reconciliation and Coming to Terms with the Past 70 5.8 Training Measures for Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management 73 5.9 Security-Sector Reform 75 6. Bibliography 77
  8. 8. List of Acronyms and Abbreviations BMZ Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development CFSP Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU CPN Conflict Prevention Network CPR Conflict Prevention and Post-Conflict Reconstruction Network CPS Civil Peace Service DAC Development Assistance Committee of the OECD DEA Development-oriented Emergency Aid DFID Department for International Development (UK) EU European Union GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH NGO Non-Governmental Organisation OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OSCE Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe TC Technical Cooperation UN United Nations UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
  9. 9. 1. Peace-building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management – a Cross-cutting Theme for GTZ The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GTZ’s corporate (GTZ) GmbH operates as a federally-owned enterprise with the objectives development-policy goal of helping improve the life opportuni- ties of people in countries of the South and the East,and stabilise the natural resource base on which life depends. Its main client is the Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). Within the framework of the German Government’s development policy guidelines and objectives, GTZ is commissioned to help design, plan and implement pro- grammes and projects in partner countries. Other clients of GTZ include other Federal German Ministries,and institutions such as the European Commission, the World Bank, United Nations Organisations (UNO) (UN) organisations and regional develop- ment banks. Technical Cooperation (TC) makes a key contribution towards strengthening the capabilities of people and organisations in partner countries. And its nature is now changing as a result: Whereas it used to identify solutions to clearly-defined problems, it now delivers complex inputs to help solve complex problem constellations. Having said that, any sustainable improvement in the living conditions of people in partner countries will be crucially dependent on the prevailing political, economic and social conditions in the country concerned. As the 21st century dawns, living conditions are being signifi- Increasing potential cantly determined by the manner in which conflicts within and for conflict between states are being managed. Realistically, it must be assumed that for the foreseeable future,there will be a base of 20 to 40 serious violent conflicts at any given time. Furthermore, the emerging new socio-economic disparities and the global trends towards pluralisation and politicisation will ensure that the potential for conflict is more likely to increase than diminish in the future. Peace-building, crisis prevention and conflict management Peace-building, have therefore become a major cross-cutting theme in Technical crisis prevention and Cooperation during the last few years. The approaches and scope conflict management for action available to TC in this connection are discussed in the present working paper. Section 2 provides an overview of the 9
  10. 10. 1. Peace-building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management – a Theme present development-policy debate, and sheds light on the con- text of TC inputs to peace-building,crisis prevention and conflict management. Section 3 deals with the points of departure, frame- work conditions and key points of orientation for TC in this activity area. Section 4 presents both the principles for action, and the dilemmas associated with involvement. At the same time, the two key strategies are outlined here: the promotion of struc- tural stability, and the creation of human and institutional capacities for the prevention and transformation of the potential for violent conflicts. Section 5 is devoted to the relevant services offered by GTZ. These services embrace both activity areas in which GTZ already has many years of experience, and those where GTZ’s service offering is currently being established and developed. TC for crisis prevention The crisis-preventive orientation of TC is part of a general re- orientation of German development policy towards a broader understanding of “human security”. Having said that, it would be inappropriate to expect too much of TC in this regard. Options for bringing external influence to bear on acutely or latently vio- lent conflicts, or their underlying social structures and processes, are limited. The problems encountered in Germany in seeking to overcome xenophobic tendencies are a good example of how dif- ficult it is even for domestic actors under relatively privileged conditions to respond effectively to social polarisation. TC’s scope to influence such processes is also small, since in most countries it does not make any significant contribution towards the financing of official development activities. The options for exerting pressure or offering incentives which influence decision- making in situations of violent conflict are therefore limited. Finally, it should be pointed out that TC constitutes only a small segment of external relations as a whole. Efficient peace-building and crisis prevention requires the coherence of all policy domains, which includes arms control policy and foreign eco- nomic policy. 10
  11. 11. 2. Fundamentals 2.1 Terminology Conflicts are a phenomenon associated withan inevitable What are “conflicts”? corollary of co-existence in all societies, and to some extent are an inevitable and indeed a necessary corollary of social change. They are an expression of tensions and incompatibilities between different, mutually independent parties with regard to their respective needs, interests and values. These conflicts are liable to lead to crises and destructive escalations affecting whole societies primarily during phases of profound socio- economic change and political transition. In other words, such negative developments become likely in situations where life opportunities and opportunities for participation are being redistributed amongst various groups. The problem is not the conflicts per se, but the way in which they are managed and resolved. The goal of development cooperation must therefore be to help prevent or transform violence as a means of pursuing conflicts, and to support constructive forms of conflict management. If we use the ter- minology of peace in place of the terminology of conflict, then the goal here could be reformulated as the pursuit of a state of “positive peace” in which the absence of violence (“negative peace”) is supplemented by the promotion of social justice, and thus placed on a sustainable and legitimate footing. At the international level, both the terminology of peace and Peace-building and the terminology of conflict are used. A given preference for one conflict management or the other terminology is rather a reflection of the political context than a description of different spheres of action. Having said that, slightly different signals are sent, depending on whether the terms used are taken from the lexicon of peace- building, or from that of conflict management. It is therefore helpful to draw up a synopsis of the major terminological sub- categories (see Diagram 1 “conflict triad”and “peace triad”). Dia- gram 1 “Conflict Triad” and “Peace Triad”). The two terminologies converge in devising a category defining the sphere of politico-diplomatic, objective conflict settle- ment/peace-making at the top level of leadership, also termed “Track 1”. Differences exist with respect to the emphasis placed 11
  12. 12. 2. Fundamentals on “peace-keeping“, meaning the separation of the parties in situations of highly escalated crisis (e. g. involving blue helmets), as opposed to the emphasis placed on“conflict resolution“, which seeks to improve relations and communication between the par- ties (also referred to as “Track 2”).The terms “peace-building”and “conflict transformation” are largely congruent. Both emphasise the need for long-term work, the need to overcome the root causes of conflict, and the need to strengthen elements which link the parties to each other. In addition,conflict transformation also accentuates more the structurally-related measures, and peace-building more the process-related measures. “Track 3” embraces all levels of leadership,although it is increasingly being focused on activities at the grass-roots level (for further details on the “tracks” see sub-section 3.5). The term crisis prevention covers timely, planned, systematic and coherent action taken by governments and civil societies at various levels to prevent violent conflicts. Crisis prevention measures are taken either before, during or after violent conflicts in order to s reduce the potential for violent conflict, and s promote the development of institutions, structures and "cultures" of peaceful conflict management. Conflict management is the attempt to regulate a conflict by acting to help prevent or end violence. It seeks to bring about constructive solutions from which all the parties involved can benefit. Source: GTZ, Development-Oriented Emergency Aid (DEA) Glossary, 2nd Edition, Eschborn 2000. Crisis prevention In the political domain, the term “crisis prevention” has – a key concept emerged as a key term covering both the terminology of conflict and the terminology of peace. It aims to emphasise the desired impact of the respective measures. In the present paper, the terms crisis prevention and conflict management will largely be used. The two terms designate two mutually complementary forms of exerting influence that both differ and overlap with respect to their points of departure and their range. 12
  13. 13. 2.1 Terminology Conflict Triad (based on Reimann) conflict settlement at the politico-diplomatic management level (Track-1) conflict resolution conflict transformation by improving relations and by overcoming the causes of the communication between conflict and strengthening conflict the parties (Track-2) management capacities (Track-3) Peace Triad (based on Galtung) Peace-making through negotiation and settlement of objective disputes (Track-1) Peace-keeping Peace-building by separating the parties and by overcoming the causes of the through “supervision” conflict and strengthening elements linking the parties (Track-2, Track-3) 13
  14. 14. 2. Fundamentals 2.2 The Current Development-Policy Debate Conflicts constrain There is a broad international consensus that the large number development of violent conflicts within states remains one of the key problems faced as the new century dawns. In the course of these conflicts, millions of people have been killed, displaced or robbed of their life opportunities. Almost overnight, violent conflicts have destroyed the fruits of years of development work, and left the afflicted countries with an onerous legacy. Even where cease-fires have been achieved, many conflicts remain deadlocked, and constitute a key constraint to development of any kind. Meightened awareness Since the Brandt report was published in 1980, the inter- of conflicts within the dependence of development and peace has repeatedly been development community acknowledged and underlined. Furthermore, duringsince the early 1990s a heightened sensitivity to conflict-related issues becamehas been evident within the development community. This heightened sensitivity must be seen in the context of the shock generated by the massive escalation in ethno-political conflicts in preferred countries of western development cooper- ation,and especially the genocide which took place in Rwanda in 1994. It also reflects the growing orientation of development policy towards the vision of promoting pluralistic (i.e.potentially conflictual) democracy,which emerged alongside the vision of sus- tainable global development following the end of the East-West conflict. Relationship between Today, the relationship between development and peace is development and peace being debated primarily with respect to two questions: s What contribution can development cooperation make towards the prevention, containment and resolution of violent conflicts? s To what extent do development cooperation and emergency aid measures contribute inadvertently towards the exacerba- tion and/or prolongation of violent conflicts? Current status The kind of answers to these questions delivered to date differ of the debate somewhat, as demonstrated by the GTZ study “Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management in Technical Cooperation. An Overview of the National and International Debate” (Mehler/Ribaux 2000). On the basis of the experiences evaluated to date, more reliable recommendations can be provided for the prevention of undesired impacts that exacerbate conflicts, than for direct measures of peace-building, crisis prevention or conflict management. 14
  15. 15. 2.2 The Current Development-Policy Debate An important role is played here by the community joint pro- “Do no harm” ject launched by several aid organisations under the title “Do no harm“, and implemented by the non-governmental organisation (NGO) ‘Collaborative for Development Action’ (CDA). Through this project it was possible to identify more precisely the direct and indirect impacts of resource transfer in situations of crisis, as well as the “implicit ethical signals” associated with them which often enough at the same time act to exacerbate or prolong a con- flict. In response to this, points of departure for mechanisms to counteract these inadvertently generated negative impacts were developed, which were also integrated into GTZ’s strategy for “development-oriented emergency aid” (DEA). Essentially, these mechanisms are based on the mobilisation of local capacities for peace to contain and overcome destructive attitudes and behav- iours. In order to be able to identify those capacities early on and provide appropriate support, a participatory “ rolling planning” of all measures is required. Also significant were the experiences gained in political development cooperation, and especially the results to date of activities to promote democracy through elections, the formal rule of law, and pluralism in political party systems, civil society and the media. It became clear that these measures were not sufficient or not appropriate to prevent the advancing erosion of statehood, and the increase in the number of failed states. Furthermore, it was also argued that in many cases these measures were promoting the fragmentation rather than the integration of societies. The fact remains that the erosion of states goes hand- in-hand with the escalation of confrontational situations within states, accompanied by an advancing diffusion and privatisation of violence. To be able to counteract such developments, it is necessary to take into account all aspects of the political and social change process in its full complexity. The aim of conflict impact assessment is to determine the Conflict impact impacts of measures on the structure and course of a conflict. assessment Although this branch of research is still in its infancy, the con- ceptual debate surrounding it has already had a significant effect on the ongoing development of this activity area.The cross-sec- tion evaluation of the impacts of German development cooperation in six countries in conflict, commissioned by the BMZ, made a significant contribution to that debate. Other 15
  16. 16. 2. Fundamentals Box 1: Possible positive and negative impacts of development cooperation in conflict situations Possible positive impacts/contributions Possible negative impacts/contributions Eventual removal of causes of conflicts Direct support for and stabilisation of the (regional disparities, employment government (through official development opportunities, defusing of conflicts over cooperation), which is itself a party to the resources etc.) conflict Political and social stabilisation in the Wrong signals sent to the government short and medium term due to and opposition forces through “omission” reconstruction efforts (e. g. failure to seize opportunities during Political openness, participation, the policy dialogue) and “approval“ democratisation and strengthening of Exacerbation of the conflict through the capabilities to peacefully reconcile encouragement given to clientele systems interests and opportunities for corruption Socio-cultural integration of the rule of Freeing-up of public funds for military law, democracy and political participation expenditure at all levels Increased regional disparities caused by Achievement of security and improved the promotion of certain regions to the human rights conditions due to the ruling elite’s liking, which may exacerbate presence of development cooperation or even initiate conflicts personnel Violent countermeasures taken by the Removal of opportunities for self-enrich- regime as a result of pressure for political ment and of clientele systems by means reform (eventually, however, removal of of economic reform programmes/structural potential for violence) adjustment Easing of the pressure exerted by development cooperation for action to deal with the causes of conflicts (“internationalisation” of government tasks”) Other problematic impacts s Possible exacerbation of conflicts caused by closure of project or withdrawal of personnel in acute conflict situations s Increase in competitive behaviour within the public sector generated by economic reform programmes/structural adjustment s Inability to influence measures of multilateral donors which exacerbate conflicts Source: Stephan Klingebiel, Impacts of Development Cooperation in Conflict Situations, DIE Report 6/1999, p.28, with minor adjustments. development agencies have also now begun to systematically evaluate the conflict-related impacts of their projects. 16
  17. 17. 2.2 The Current Development-Policy Debate The picture that is now emerging in this domain contains con- tradictory elements. Both positive and negative impacts have been identified, at both the macro- and at the project level. These conflicting impacts of development cooperation clearly Development cooperation demonstrate that such cooperation cannot be neutral, but will cannot be neutral inevitably impact on structures in partner countries. Conse- quently, Technical Cooperation must also: s first of all take greater account of the socio-political context in project planning and implementation. s Secondly, it should systematically develop further its options for direct crisis prevention and conflict management. The “Guidelines on Conflict, Peace and Development Cooper- DAC – Guidelines on ation” published in 1997 by the Development Assistance Conflict, Peace and Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development and Development (OECD) were an important milestone in devel- opment policy being steered towards these new tasks. The Guidelines emphasise different functions of development co- operation through the course of a conflict,and underline the fact that the comparative advantages of development inputs lie primarily during the phases before and after violent conflicts. At the same time, the Guidelines point out that a rigid approach should be avoided, as the aim is to utilise all possible opportuni- ties to influence events and bring about constructive conflict transformation. According to the Guidelines, the humanitarian assistance phase may also be relevant under certain circum- stances. Key conceptual categories in the DAC Guidelines are the promotion of “good governance” and a “vigorous civil society“, as well as a “civic spirit”embodied in attitudes,values and institu- tions. Another major document in the development-policy debate was the Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the “Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa” (April 1998). Also important were various documents published by the European Union (EU) since 1995, in which a fresh development-policy emphasis on crisis prevention and peace-building was formulated. Characteristic of the debate is the focus on a combination of Structural stability structure-building measures which aim to overcome the under- lying causes of peacelessness on a broad basis, and to strengthen specific conflict management capacities. A key concept in the former approach is that of “structural stability” (see sub-section 17
  18. 18. 2. Fundamentals 3.7). With regard to capacity-building, there is a broad consensus that this is a major task both for NGOs, and for bi- and multilat- eral Technical Cooperation. Restructuring of the EU In its documents, the European Union gradually developed an integrated approach, in order to emphasise the need for a close networking of various instruments of development cooperation and political cooperation (see the Resolution of the European Council adopted in November 1998: “The role of development cooperation in strengthening peace-building, conflict prevention and resolution”). It remains to be seen how this declaration of programmatic intent can be put into practice. The fundamental restructuring of the EU under way since 1999, which has included the creation of the Office of the High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), and the establishment of a newly-designed Directorate-General for External Relations, has not made this task easy. Prioritisation Two further features of the development-policy debate on con- of prevention flict-related issues are the prioritisation of prevention rather than management or resolution, and the focus on the internal pre- conditions for the peaceful management of transformation processes. The first feature contrasts sharply with actual devel- opment cooperation activity in crisis regions, which is clearly focused on post-war situations. This reflects the fact that the development community is still seeking ways to overcome politi- cal, psychological and bureaucratic resistance to greater prevention of violent conflict. The second feature reflects the general trend towards viewing national institutions and elites as the key to all development progress. Operationalisation of As the new century dawns, operationalisation of development development policy for policy for conflict prevention and resolution is now on the conflict prevention agenda. This is reflected by the activities of the Conflict-Preven- tion and Post-Conflict Reconstruction Networks (CPR), and the Practical Guide: Peace-Building and Conflict Prevention in Developing Countries produced by the EU Conflict Prevention Networks (CPN). The CPR network comprises representatives of bi- and multilateral donor organisations that attach importance to a regular exchange of experience and a coordination of future activities in situations of conflict. The CPN is a project of the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (Berlin) which delivers advisory services to EU institutions on crisis prevention issues. Both the 18
  19. 19. 2.3 Peace Policy and Crisis Prevention as Strategic Elements CPR and the CPN initiatives aim to develop viable,practical instru- ments, along with quality criteria for their application. Below the multilateral level, a number of bilateral development agencies are currently seeking to professionalise the crisis- and conflict-related components of their programmes. Scandinavian, Canadian and British institutions have demonstrated a particular commitment to this field (see Mehler/Ribaux 2000). 2.3 Peace Policy and Crisis Prevention as Strategic Elements of German Development Policy The German Government, in office since October 1998, Core domains declared both German foreign and development policy to be of peace policy core domains of policy for peace. At the same time, it under- lined the close link between these domains, indicating that both should be oriented towards the principles of a just reconcilia- tion of interests in the international, regional and national con- texts. Crisis prevention has been one of the expressly emphasised objectives of German development policy since 1997. At that point in time, however, the aim was not to develop new instru- German Foreign Policy is Peace Policy “The new Federal Government will further develop the basic guidelines of existing Ger- man foreign policy: peaceful cooperation in partnership with our neighbours, cultivation of the transatlantic partnership, deepening and widening of the European Union, pan-Eu- ropean cooperation in the OSCE, special responsibility for democracy and stability in Central, Eastern and South East Europe and the promotion of lasting development in all southern countries.the countries of the South. (...) It will do its utmost to develop and apply effective strategies and instruments for crisis prevention and the peaceful settlement of conflicts. (...) The new Federal Government advocates the establishment of infrastructure for crisis pre- vention and civilian conflict management. In addition to the funding of peace and conflict research and the interlinking of existing initiatives, this includes improving the legal, finan- cial and organisational prerequisites for the training and deployment of skilled peace- workers and services (e.g. civilian peace corps).“the Civil Peace Service).“ Source: “Aufbruch und Erneuerung - Deutschlands Weg ins 21. Jahrhundert“: The Coali- tion Agreement between the German Social Democratic Party and Alliance 90/The Greens of 20 October 1998, p.41, 44. 19
  20. 20. 2. Fundamentals ments, but to combine and deploy existing ones on a more tar- geted basis. The new German Government re-affirmed the following two domains as key areas of development policy, as defined by the previous government: reduction of the root causes of conflicts, and the promotion of peaceful conflict resolution mechanisms. The two domains were, however, broadened conceptually and incorporated into a comprehensive crisis pre- vention and civil conflict management programme. It was also decided to systematically professionalise the instruments of development cooperation so as to enhance their potentials to pro- mote peace. The major new aspects of BMZ policy in this domain can be summarised in five points: s It is planned to survey crisis and conflict trends more system- atically on the basis of an existing set of model indicators, set of model indicators, and on the basis of other information to be incorporated into the country concepts strategy papers and country working groups. s It is also planned to use the results of the conflict survey to help select priority countries, and to identify ways of gearing development cooperation with these countries to the removal of the root causes of conflict. "Together with foreign and security policy (…) German development policy is at the core of the German Government's peace policy. (…) It is not the task of development policy to overcome ethno-cultural difference. Its tasks rather include for instance steps to reduce poverty and social inequality, as well as measures to improve the general political and social framework conditions in partner countries. In particular, it should help create structures and mechanisms for peaceful conflict management, and improve the legitimacy and effectivity of state bodies and intitutions. Other constructive measures to help avert the emergence and outbreak of violent conflicts are the strengthening of civil society actors and legal institutions, the media, women and youth, and of election laws and processes, as well as the incorporation of the police and the armed forces into the rule of law, the demobilisation of combatants and the reduction of oversized armed forces, the preservation of the rule of law, and the development of opportunities for participation." Source: Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul: Entwicklungspolitik ist Friedenspolitik. Neue Herausforderungen für Frieden und Entwicklung auf dem Weg ins 21. Jahrhundert, in: Franz Nuscheler (ed.): Entwicklung und Frieden im 21. Jahrhundert. Zur Wirkungsgeschichte des Brandt-Berichts. Bonn 2000, p.158/159. 20
  21. 21. 2.3 Peace Policy and Crisis Prevention as Strategic Elements s Official and non-governmental Technical Cooperation are New aspects required to systematically review and strengthen their instru- of BMZ policy ments with respect to the goals of peace policy. Alongside the existing activities and instruments, a “Civil Peace Service” has been instituted as an instrument in its own right under the aegis of the BMZ. s It is planned to achieve more effective networking and coop- eration among the German development organisations and NGOs operating in this activity area. Furthermore,it is planned in the medium term to integrate German institutions more closely into the international networks operating in this domain,and to help actively improve the corresponding global infrastructures and frameworks. s Finally,in view of the immense interdependence in this activity area, high priority is being attached to improving the coher- ence of all relevant spheres of German policy,and to achieving more effective coordination of German activities in crisis regions with those of other international actors. Within Germany, this coordination involves primarily devel- opment cooperation’s relationship with the Federal Foreign Office. For its part, the latter has recently emphasised a number of aspects of crisis prevention,including the training of personnel for international OSCE and UN missions, and the provision of funds for civil society actors in conflict regions. This has also cre- ated some fresh opportunities for official Technical Cooperation. "The tasks undertaken by the Civil Peace Service (CPS) differ from the traditional tasks of the development services in that they involve targeted measures to promote the non- violent handling of conflicts and potential for conflict. (...) Tasks under the framework of the CPS involve the following areas in particular: s strengthening the potential for peace; confidence-building measures between conflicting parties; the development of structures and programmes for information and education to publicise and explain peace activities and to overcome prejudice and hostile images (e.g. peace education); s mediation in conflicts between members of different interest groups, ethnic groups and religions; collaboration in promoting and monitoring human rights and democracy; s contributions towards reconciliation and reconstruction (including support for administrative tasks at the local-authority level)." Source: BMZ (eds.): Civil Peace Service – A new element of development cooperation. Bonn, 9 June 1999, p. 2-3. 21
  22. 22. 2. Fundamentals In order to further develop German development cooperation's strategies and instruments for crisis prevention and conflict management, and apply them on a pilot basis, BMZ commissioned GTZ in the year 2000 to implement the sector consultancy project "Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management in German Development Cooperation, and especially Technical Cooperation". The project has five key areas of activity: s Adaptation and ongoing development of existing instruments for the planning, implementation and impact analysis of programmes and projects, to take particular account of crisis- and conflict-related issues; s Adaptation of existing development cooperation procedures to situations of crisis and conflict; s Review of selected sector strategies and country-based strategies with respect to crisis prevention and conflict management, and elaboration of recommendations for further development; s Design of an open training strategy for various target groups in the field of crisis prevention and conflict management for development; s Awareness-raising on crisis prevention and conflict management, intensive exchange of information, participation in international networks and professional consultancy. 2.4 Peace-Building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management as Activity Areas of Technical Cooperation Technical Cooperation is actively involved in both crisis pre- vention and conflict management. Technical Cooperation in the area of crisis prevention for instance includes programmes, projects and/or measures and instruments whose intended impacts are expressly designed to support peaceful conflict transformation. Traditional TC and These activities involve on the one hand traditional and proven conflict management areas of TC that are being planned and implemented in conflictual settings. These settings are characterised by a polarisation of the parties to the conflicts,and war economies. The traditional fields of TC create opportunities to influence the conflict such as to promote civilised conflict management through social change, and the creation of conducive frameworks. Examples of tradi- tional TC for conflict transformation include the advisory services delivered to the Ugandan refugee agency, and a water study for the Near East (Israel, Jordan,Palestine,1995 – 1998). In the former case the crisis prevention component comprised the thorough 22
  23. 23. 2.4 Peace-Building, Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management sensitisation of the agency staff to the latent and acute conflict potential falling within the scope of their work. In the latter case the multinational composition of the steering committee,and the strategy for coordinated management of all regional water resources, were conducive to social and intellectual rapproche- ment among the participating experts of all parties. On the other hand, new areas of TC are being established New areas of TC which are designed to help transform conflicts directly. These are dealt with in more detail in Section 5. The same principle applies to both the old and the new fields of TC for crisis prevention: they must be designed such that they do not themselves inadvertently contribute towards the escalation or prolongation of violent con- flicts. The “do no harm” principle mentioned at the outset must therefore also be systematically operationalised for TC. Conflict management in Technical Cooperation comprises Conflict management measures and instruments which, in the context of both violent in TC and non-violent conflict, aim to: s strengthen the capabilities of TC experts and local actors to manage conflicts, and s facilitate processes of constructive conflict management. The drawing of a distinction between crisis prevention and “General prevention” conflict management is designed to clearify the fact that devel- and “Special prevention” opment cooperation in general, and Technical Cooperation in particular, are called upon at several levels to address conflicts more sensitively and more consciously.The distinction is between “general prevention” on the one hand, and “special prevention” denoting specific interventions designed to address concrete con- flicts on the other. Further, a distinction is drawn between the creation and promotion of structures,institutions and procedures which enhance capacities conducive to the peaceful reconcilia- tion of interests (such as the rule of law,democracy or alternative dispute resolution mechanisms), and the support of individuals and/or processes within the framework of the given structures. For practical implementation, this means that action must be taken on at least two levels simultaneously: s At the level of overcoming the root causes of conflicts and Levels of implementation promoting “structural stability” (see sub-section 3.7), the aim must be to generally strengthen the capabilities of states and civil societies to manage social change peacefully. As well as promoting a balance of socio-economic interests, this will involve working towards the reform and strengthening of state 23
  24. 24. 2. Fundamentals and civil society institutions,such that they are enabled to con- structively manage plurality and competing claims on political participation. s At the level of concrete programmes and projects it is neces- sary to broaden the instruments of TC to include approaches that are particularly suited to strengthening conflict manage- ment capacities and capabilities. 2.5 The Relationship between Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management, and Development-oriented Emergency Aid (DEA) The close link with DEA results from the sharp increase in pro- longed crisis and conflict situations such as those in Central Africa, in the Near East and Central Asia, in the Caucasus and in Southeast Europe. These situations are forcing the development community to find fresh responses to the conflicting objectives of short-term aid measures, and development cooperation measures that seek to help bring about structural change. Fur- thermore, emergency aid faces three specific challenges: the unintended counterproductive effects of any aid delivered in pro- longed conflict situations,its role within the framework of peace consolidation, and the simultaneity of post-war reconstruction and rehabilitation, and crisis prevention. Unintended counter- To achieve any positive effects at all, emergency aid must productive effects deliver resources to the crisis region. Inevitably, however, this creates a risk that the conflict situation itself may not remain un- affected by this. Given the shortage of resources everyone, including the parties to the conflict, have a vested interested in utilising this transfer to their own advantage.This is compounded by the fact that general conditions surrounding the aid measures can be problematic (protection by militias, negotiations with war- lords over rights of passage, different treatment of international and national personnel). Consequently, this puts to the test both the neutrality of emergency aid, the effects it generates which might under certain circumstances prolong war, and the knock- on effects that help stabilise the political system. Role within the The process of consolidating peace after a long war creates a framework of peace particularly strong need for DEA. A large number of complex tasks consolidation have to be accomplished: emergency aid, rehabilitation, recon- 24
  25. 25. 2.6 Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management struction, economic revitalisation, transformation from a war to a peace economy, reintegration programmes for refugees and ex- combatants etc.. The “peace consolidation” process is crucially dependent on the political, social and cultural preconditions for lasting peace being created in parallel to the aforementioned meas- ures. This cannot be brought about purely through “top-down” political initiatives. Sustainable peace-building is dependent on a comprehensive strengthening of “bottom-up” capabilities and structures for effective conflict management. Many of the more prolonged conflicts are at risk of becoming Simultaneity of post-war cyclical. Emergency aid in (post-)war situations therefore also reconstruction and helps determine whether and to what extent a renewed escala- rehabilitation, and crisis tion is successfully prevented. Does it help to deal with the prevention traumata caused by acts of violence, the displacements and the shattered social structures? Is it conducive to joint problem- solving by the people affected by that violence? Against this background and with a view to sustainable effi- cacy, it is therefore imperative that DEA systematically integrates aspects of crisis prevention and conflict management. 2.6 Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management – Challenges for Reform of the State, the Economy and Society The tasks of crisis prevention and conflict management raise Politicisation of TC fundamental questions concerning the political content of devel- opment cooperation. Since 1996, the political themes of human rights, the rule of law and political participation have risen in status in the development cooperation context; having once been considered framework conditions (and as such subject to condi- tionalities), they have now become activity areas (involving positive measures) of TC. Generally speaking, the second half of the 1990s witnessed an increased willingness on the part of devel- opment cooperation to take on a more “political” profile. This has created an important precondition enabling the devel- opment community to focus more strongly on the root causes of conflict,and actively pursue more long-term approaches to crisis prevention. At this level, the issue at stake is no less than that of how the structures of the state,the economy and society need to be changed, in order to increase the likelihood that strategies for 25
  26. 26. 2. Fundamentals the appropriation and consolidation of power are peaceful and socially just. At the conceptual level,this issue is debated primarily in terms of “structural stability”(see sub-section 3.7). Within GTZ, key emphasis is placed on the promotion of “political participa- tion” in the broadest sense. A holistic perspective As with DEA, the integration of objectives conducive to peace is required into measures to reform the state, the economy and society calls for a holistic perspective. It requires a systematic, country-based programmatic approach,to permit effective control of the highly ambivalent impacts generated by the broad array of reform mea- sures. The latter will include for instance measures to promote political participation and democratic decentralisation. Both are absolutely essential in order to bring state structures closer to the needs of people at the local and regional levels. At the same time, however,they also create scope for highly particular interests,and therefore need to be complemented by parallel measures to pro- mote a peaceful reconciliation of interests. 26
  27. 27. 3. The Initial Context, and Approaches to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management 3.1 Crises and Conflicts within the Social Development Process Since the 1980s in particular, the number of people facing a desperate struggle for survival has increased world-wide. In by far the majority of cases,the crises and conflicts in question have been generated by political and social factors, and not by the sudden onset of natural disasters. This increase in the number of violent conflicts, or exacerbation of existing conflicts, is attribut- able to a number of developments: As the history of European development demonstrated, any Modernisation increases economic or social modernisation can lead to an increase in the the potential for conflict potential for conflict. Structural destabilisation can result, espe- cially in situations where the benefits of economic development are being distributed on a highly inequitable basis, and the existing political and social institutions are at the same time inca- pable of reconciling the interests of the various (old and new) groups. This tends to bring about polarisation between privileged government elites on the one hand, and marginalised groups on the other. By far the majority of violent conflicts occur in the poor coun- Poverty and inequity – tries of the world, where the livelihood of a large section of the factors which can both population is under constant threat, or may at times be deterio- generate and exacerbate rating dramatically, for instance in the face of economic structural conflicts adjustment measures. Other conditions conducive to conflict that are faced mainly by poor countries are the increased burdens placed on (and competition for) vital natural resources, the loss of farmland, the worsening conflicts over land use, the displace- ment of indigenous peoples as a result of land clearance and migration, water pollution and water scarcity. According to a World Bank study entitled “Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and their Implications for Policy”(2000), a strong dependency on the export of raw materials is a high risk factor. The (self-)definition of parties in dispute on the basis of ethnic or religious commonalities is now a characteristic feature of a good two-thirds of all the violent conflicts in the world. There is disagreement concerning whether and to what extent these alle- giances are the root cause of conflict, or are being deliberately 27
  28. 28. 3. The Initial Context, and Approaches to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management manipulated for political ends. What is undisputed, however, is the fact that many disputes concerning collective identities have turned into protracted conflicts. Lack of appropriate Developing societies are usually characterised by a combina- conflict management tion of traditional, often authoritarian conflict management structures and cultures on the one hand, and a variety of mechanisms of more mechanisms or less poorly regulated political, social and economic competi- tion on the other. Integrating these disparate elements to allow peaceful management of the growing pluralisation and politici- sation is a difficult undertaking. Its success would be dependent on appropriate measures to strengthen the capacities of state institutions and civil societies. The influence of Most of the conflicts in question involve disputes between internationalisation and groups, or between groups and state actors, within a country. globalisation Nevertheless, the regional and international dimensions do play a substantial role,as the coalitions and dynamics of a conflict can be influenced to a considerable extent by transboundary (e.g. ethnic or religious) loyalties and interests, or by interventions car- ried out by neighbouring states, industrialised countries or influential foreign pressure groups. These conflicts are therefore also termed “international social conflicts“. Furthermore, the mas- sive increase in conflicts surrounding issues of greater political participation,minority rights and secessionist aspirations cannot be understood without taking into account the globalisation of the clash between two key principles of international law. In con- flicts within states, there is now a growing tension between the principle of the sovereignty of the state and its territorial integrity, and the right of peoples to self-determination. One such example is the conflict in Sri Lanka. There, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) have been fighting government troops for years to gain an independent homeland for the Tamils of Sri Lanka in the North-East of the country. Both sides are at pains to legitimate their respective positions by appealing to the universal superi- ority of “their” principle. The counter-productive In emergency situations the transfer of resources, and accep- effects of aid inputs tance of the general conditions of conflict by those delivering the aid, can have undesired negative effects which prolong the con- flict. This is most often the case in difficult crisis situations where long-term aid programmes distort local markets, increase mate- rial dependency on external inputs, weaken self-sufficiency, and are abused by the parties to the conflict in order to fuel and pro- 28
  29. 29. 3.1 Crises and Conflicts within the Social Development Process long the conflict. This is also the case where aid and development organisations (have to) accept the general conditions created by violent conflicts: armed escorts for transport runs, the diverting of aid consignments by parties to the conflict, elevation of the status of parties to the conflict by negotiation of these issues,spe- cial treatment and privileged status of expatriate personnel over local population etc. The causal link between the aforementioned trends and the escalation of particular conflicts is, however, a highly complex one. In the development-policy debate, there is a strong tendency Key causes of conflicts to identify structural factors as key causes of conflicts. These fac- tors are without a doubt important, though they should not be overestimated in relation to factors which trigger the outbreak or escalation of conflicts on a more short-term basis. The latter include, for instance, a change of regime, or reform measures impacting negatively on individual sections of the population, politically motivated assassinations (or assassination attempts) and economic crises of a cyclical nature. In the aforementioned EU CPN Guide, four root causes are identified in conjunction with 16 problem areas, to which the majority of factors triggering or escalating conflicts can be assigned (see Box 2). A further category which has a substantial influence on the course of conflicts comprises the strategies and behaviours which the parties and other actors in the conflict adopt. Political elites for instance can pursue a strategy of exploiting ethnic iden- tity as a mobilising factor in order to hold on to their power. To date,the significance of strategies and behaviours has often been underestimated, even though they themselves can in turn gen- erate structures, especially in the case of prolonged violent conflicts. The following section will deal in particular with the strategies of those who profit from war,and the “markets and cul- tures of violence” which emerge as a result. 3.2 Markets and Cultures of Violence The longer a conflict remains violent,the greater is the risk that Emergence “markets” and “cultures” of violence,“war economies” and “war of war constituencies constituencies” will form. This theory builds on the emphasis placed on the economic causes of the “new” conflicts within 29
  30. 30. 30 Box 2: Root causes of violent conflicts and related problem areas Root Cause 1: Root Cause 2: Root Cause 3: Root Cause 4: Imbalance of political, social, Illegitimate, undemocratic and Absence of opportunities for the Absence of an active and economic and cultural inefficient governance peaceful conciliation of group organised civil society opportunities among different interests and for bridging identity groups dividing lines between different identity groups 1: Socio-economic inequalities 6: Legitimacy deficit of 10: Absence of effective dispute 14: Weak institutions / civil government and public resolution mechanisms society 2: Exclusive government elite institutions 11: Absence of 15: Absence of professional and 3: Violation of political group 7: Insufficient or declining public pluralism/diversified debate independent media rights services 12: Distrust among identity 16: Lack of economic “peace 4: Destabilisation by refugees 8: Criminality, social and political groups interests” and internally displaced violence people 13: Weak or detrimental external 9: Biased interpretation and engagement 5: Demographic pressure enforcement of the law by judiciary and security services Source: Michael Lund/Andreas Mehler: Peace-Building and Conflict Prevention in Developing Countries: A Practical Guide. 3. The Initial Context, and Approaches to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management Brussels/Ebenhausen 1999, p.47.
  31. 31. 3.1 Crises and Conflicts within the Social Development Process societies in developing countries and countries in transition,and develops it into a “political economy of war“. A key role is played in this process by fairly easily transportable raw materials (such as diamonds,drugs,tropical timbers),the appropriation and mar- keting of which is a lucrative business in regions where there is no functioning monopoly on the use of force. To “entrepreneurs of violence”, the active escalation of conflicts is an entirely rational strategy which enables them to generate profits and con- solidate their power. If a war is sustained over a prolonged period, or a situation of Violence as an escalated conflict held in “stalemate” by peace-keeping troops, it everyday phenomenon becomes almost inevitable that the attitudes and behaviours of the actors will change. In the long run the forms of organisation, constellations of interests and values within the societies con- cerned will also change in many cases. In many societies afflicted by civil war, the vicious circle of violence and counter-violence generates in the first instance a “surplus of violence”, which later turns into “violence as an everyday phenomenon” (Waldmann 1997). Grey and black markets, smuggling, robbery, kidnapping, extortion, arms dealing etc. also become everyday phenomena. Mafia-like structures infiltrate and determine more and more segments of economic and political life, and generate self-repro- ducing “markets of violence” (Elwert 1997). Even where the use of violence is contained, as in the case of the “stalemated conflicts”, there is a risk that the continued separation of the parties may further exacerbate the “friend-or- foe”mentality. This is compounded by the fact that the privations which for instance refugees or the victims of sanctions are forced to endure may cause their hatred of the other side to escalate – up to the point where they no longer see the enemy as human. In these cases too,de facto lawless spaces emerge in which Mafia- like structures and grey markets thrive. The causes and effects of these developments are not confined Causes and effects to the respective region. The deregulation of the global economy for instance has without a doubt made the emergence of markets of violence and the globalisation of organised crime easier. Once they exist, is a risk that multinational enterprises will adapt to the new circumstances and exploit them in their own interests. An increasingly important role is now also being played by diaspora communities, and especially those which have fled or been dis- placed from their home countries, and now support their 31
  32. 32. 3. The Initial Context, and Approaches to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management compatriots or fellows in faith from a distance, either through political work, or by supplying money and arms. For crisis prevention and conflict management these factors mean that the dead-weight of war-torn societies and economies, of markets of violence and their international links,must be taken seriously,and that international strategies must be developed that expressly relate to these factors. 3.3 Forecasting Crises and Mapping Conflicts Early warning A key precondition for effective crisis prevention and conflict systems as necessary management is the availability of instruments for forecasting instruments crises and mapping conflicts. Academics and consultants now possess a number of early warning systems and analytical models that can be used for this purpose (see Box 3: Approaches for map- ping conflicts and actors). These instruments enable users to anticipate escalations in crisis situations,as well as to identify the causes and plot the trajectories of conflicts in detail. Less well elaborated to date, however, are operationalised and coherent programmes for crisis prevention and conflict management in concrete cases. A need exists here to strengthen the existing ana- lytical instruments and capacities on an objectives-oriented and application-ready basis. First approaches in this direction are con- tained in the BMZ list of indicators (Spelten 1999), and in the “participatory action research” approach, as developed for instance in the war-torn societies project (see Box 4: Hypotheses on the causal relationships between current trends and the like- lihood of future conflict). However, the availability of reliable instruments for prognosis and analysis alone is not enough to be able to orient TC activities effectively towards the goals of crisis prevention and conflict management. Also present must be the will to actually respond to early warnings in the case of bad governance, or when a pro- ject is threatened. This is not always easy, especially in view of the pressure to succeed which all projects experience once they are launched. Without this will, however, there will not be any credible shift towards sustainable, effective crisis prevention. 32
  33. 33. Box 3: Approaches for analysing conflicts and actors Level of Academic Practical Quantitative Qualitative Participatory Intervention Macro Crisis indicators Crisis indicators Root and proximate Participatory expertise Conflict mapping Event data analysis causes Actor mapping Meso Conflict mapping Participatory conflict Event data analysis Participatory conflict Participatory conflict Actor mapping mapping mapping mapping Action oriented Action oriented research Action oriented research Action oriented research research Community development Community development Community development approaches approaches approaches Micro Participatory conflict and Participatory conflict and Participatory conflict and actor mapping actor mapping actor mapping Process oriented Process oriented Process oriented approaches approaches approaches Community development Community development Community development approaches approaches approaches PCM/ZOPP logical PCM/ZOPP logical PCM/ZOPP logical framework framework framework Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder analysis Quelle: Thania Paffenholz: Designing Intervention Processes, Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Website: 33 3.3 Forecasting Crises and Mapping Conflicts
  34. 34. 3. The Initial Context, and Approaches to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management Box 4: Hypotheses on the causal relationships between current trends and the likelihood of future conflict 1. The more a group actually differs or perceives itself to differ from other groups, or feels discriminated against, the more it will be willing to engage in collective action to protect its interests. 2. The weaker the legitimacy of the state and the functionality of state institutions, the stronger the need for groups to organise themselves to protect their own interests. 3. The greater the exteral support for the use of violence, the more likely that groups willing to use violence will actually do so. 4. The more the economic, political or social status of one or several groups may be changed by impending events (e.g. land reforms, elections etc.), the greater the incentive for a group to protect or raise its own status by violent means. 5. The more a current situation that is close to conflict is collectively perceived as resembling an actual conflict situation in the past, the more likely the actors are to fall back on established responses in their choice of conflict management strategy (the self-fulfilling prophecy effect). 6. The more that joint fora (institutions, as well as social events) at which members of competing groups are able to communicate with each other on potentially common interests, are dismantled, the less likely a peaceful solution becomes, and the more likely an escalation in violence becomes (...). 7. The more aggressively the parties to a conflict put forward their demands (and possibly attach threats of violent consequences to them), the more difficult it becomes for them to agree to negotiated solutions that fall short of their maximum demands. Source: Angelika Spelten, Wie erkennt man Krisenpotential? Entwurf eines Indikatorenkataloges, in: E+ Z, 41 (2000), p.71. Key questions The following questions are of key significance in determining more precisely the potentials and limits of external support for crisis prevention and conflict management: s Who are the actors, the winners, the stakeholders and the losers of the conflict,and who are the potential partners when it comes to bringing influence to bear from outside? s What are the root causes of the conflict and what factors triggered the escalation in violence? Which strategies have the actors and other stakeholders adopted in engaging in or avoiding the conflict? What dynamics have emerged within the conflict, and what influence is the outside world having on events? What options exist for bringing about change at these various levels? 34
  35. 35. 3.4 The Phases of a Conflict and the Time Frame of Interventions s What points of departure and experiences are available with existing conflict management efforts on the ground? s Where and how do Technical Cooperation measures influence (positively or negatively) the conflict situation? Can points of departure be identified for targeted interventions to influence the behaviour and attitudes of the parties to the conflict, and the root causes? 3.4 The Phases of a Conflict and the Time Frame of Interventions The schema most frequently used to classify conflict manage- ment measures is based on the phases of the conflict. One argument in favour of this approach is the fact that the willing- ness and ability of the parties to steer their behaviour vis-à-vis the conflict change considerably in the course of escalation processes before,during and after a violent conflict. It must be added,how- ever,that all phase models are based on idealised conflicts. Many actual conflicts involve several stages of escalation simultane- ously, depending on the geographical location and section of the population concerned. In situations of permanent crisis,sporadic outbreaks of violence are not infrequent. Where measures to reg- ulate the conflict prove unsustainable, conflict cycles may arise in which the post-war situation is at the same time a potential pre- war situation. In contrast to the “continuum” model which prevailed in the From “continuum” early 1990s (which saw emergency aid,reconstruction and devel- to “contiguum” opment as separate phases), the prevailing view today is that interventions targeting individual phases should be viewed as ele- ments of an overall strategy embracing both the temporal and the territorial dimensions. This approach, referred to as the “con- tiguum” approach, also applies to crisis prevention and conflict management. It usually needs to take into account several phases simultaneously. In this context the strengthening of groups and structures which play a de-escalating, conciliating or mediating role is of key significance. Notwithstanding the above qualification,the division of a con- Distinguishing the flict into phases does make it easier to identify high-priority phases of a conflict activity areas and key strategies, and sheds light on the issue of 35
  36. 36. 3. The Initial Context, and Approaches to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management which approaches are best combined in which situation. It is helpful to distinguish five phases: s The phase of latent conflict to political crisis, in which com- petition between groups is demonstrable,but is managed at the political level; groups have not yet polarised to the extent that they are raising mutually exclusive claims. s Polarisation is the defining feature of the confrontational phase. The confrontation can still be managed on a non-vio- lent basis, however, either through compromise, or through a state of deadlock, or for fear of the consequences of further escalation. s The third phase is reached once actors begin to use violence to achieve their own objectives on a systematic basis. Although there are many intermediate stages here (ranging from isolated attacks through to organised warfare),the crucial aspect is that the use of violence as such creates an additional dynamic of its own. People become the victims of a spiral of violence and counter-violence. Power shifts from political to military leaders. The longer this process continues,the greater the risk that “markets of violence” and “cultures of violence” will emerge, which proceed to overlay the original conflict. s In many cases the “end of war” must be seen as a phase in its own right, as it may take place over a prolonged period characterised by cease-fires failing to hold and a regionalisation of the use of violence. During this phase, the state should already be initiating measures of post-conflict preparedness. This means measures designed to prepare the state structurally for the post-war period, thus making lasting peace possible. Key elements are the reintegration of refugees and displaced persons, reconciliation and trauma healing work, issues of public safety, food security, infrastructural rebuilding, basic social services,and above all reform of government structures and macro-economic structural adjustment measures. Post- conflict preparedness activities are basically preparatory measures taken by the state which need to be continued during the final post-conflict recovery phase. s Only when an effective and lasting end to violence has been achieved does the fifth phase of post-war conflict manage- ment or peace consolidation begins. 36
  37. 37. Box 5: Conflict phases, strategies and measures Conflict phase Priorities for crisis prevention Measures and partners External actors and conflict management Latent conflict to Twin strategy to overcome the root Structural stability; Bi- and multilateral development political crisis causes of conflict, and create a strengthening of groups within society cooperation; constructive conflict culture legitimated that are strategically significant for the NGOs by the state development of “peace constituencies” Confrontational, Strengthening of communication and Structural stability; Diplomacy; though non-violent interaction between the parties at all promotion of local and regional bi- and multilateral development conflict levels, and creation of elements to institutions and mechanisms for crisis cooperation; counterbalance polarisation prevention and conflict management NGOs; Violent conflict Putting an end to or minimising the use Planning and implementation of Diplomacy; of violence; emergency and refugee aid international mediation missions; crisis management; programmes, designed to shift the humanitarian assistance organisations situation away from destructive conflict monitoring and control of unintended impacts of aid measures that are exacerbating the conflict End of war The often protracted process of cease- Combination of all three of the above Diplomacy; blue helmets; fires that do not hold and attempts measures. humanitarian assistance made by the parties to obtain maximum organisations; advantage: establishment and bi- and multilateral development development of islands of peace cooperation; NGOs; Post-war conflict Peace-keeping; Rehabilitation and reconstruction; Bi- and multilateral development management political reconstruction/creation of new reintegration of refugees; cooperation; “inclusive” political structures; demobilisation of combatants with a NGOs; physical reconstruction; view to promoting “peace diplomacy „civilising” of society; working through constituencies“ and coming to terms with the past. reconciliation and trauma healing 37 3.4 The Phases of a Conflict and the Time Frame of Interventions
  38. 38. 3. The Initial Context, and Approaches to Crisis Prevention and Conflict Management Crisis prevention and conflict management measures must be based on these phases. Their time frame,however,should extend beyond this cyclic phase model. Given the long-term nature of macro-social processes, it is helpful to imagine this prospect in terms of a time frame embracing several stages. Based on the peace-building model developed by John Paul Lederach, at least four such stages can be imagined. Diagram 2: Time frame for crisis prevention and conflict management promoting post-conflict structural stability visions of crisis management preparedness and strengthening the future capacities Immediate Short-term Medium- to long- Social change activities planning term planning across the (2 – 6 months) (1 – 2 years) (3 –10 years) generations (20 + years) Source: after John Paul Lederach, in: Building Peace, Washington, D. C., p. 77. Crisis management, which may also contain elements of con- flict management, delivers an immediate response to situations of escalation or emergency. Though it often has to be imple- mented within a time frame encompassing only a few months, the presence of visions of the future does increase the likelihood that it will be successful. Short-term activities are best realised through person-centred training programmes, and in the form of preparedness and pilot measures for developing and launching crisis prevention and conflict management strategies in cooper- 38
  39. 39. 3.5 The Levels of Social Leadership and their Regional Differentiation ation with local actors. Having said that,programmes in this field will require a longer time frame of three to ten years if they are to generate sustainable impacts. Achieving the goal of structural stability will in any case often only be feasible across the genera- tions. 3.5 The Levels of Social Leadership and their Regional Differentiation A further important aspect of crisis prevention and conflict Distinction between management is the distinction between various levels of social different levels of social leadership: From which level do measures proceed, and who are leadership those measures aimed at? It is helpful to draw a distinction between three levels, i.e. a top, a middle and a lower level. The top or upper level of leadership (encompassing both the state and non-governmental groups) is usually responsible for overall representation of the respective collective concerns, and for official negotiations. The middle level of leadership is com- prised of influential persons in individual sectors and regions. These include religious, traditional and other leaders who enjoy high prestige, as well as important officials in the administration, media, education and the arts. The lower level of leadership includes influential individuals such as local leaders, representa- tives of national NGOs, teachers and other multipliers. Experiences to date with protracted and deep-rooted conflicts Involvement of the demonstrate that the involvement of the middle and lower levels middle and lower levels in crisis prevention and conflict management is an essential pre- requisite to sustainable results. This is the case for instance where an agreement reached at the top level (and especially so where it was reached under foreign pressure) meets with massive imple- mentation problems and resistance. Unless actors at the middle and lower levels are mobilised,political directives are doomed to failure. Experiences with the Dayton Agreement in Bosnia and Herzegovina bear this out. There is also the converse case: the positions of the parties to the conflict at the top level are so polarised that processes of communication can only be generated through steadfast initiatives at the middle and lower levels, and all practical issues of cooperation then need to be addressed at these levels due to the stalemate at the top. 39