Northwest Center for Public Health Practice


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Northwest Center for Public Health Practice

  1. 1. Public Health Preparedness & Leadership Louis Rowitz, PhD, Director Mid-America Regional Public Health Leadership Institute
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>By the end of this session, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the relative importance of crisis management for current public health leaders. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the seven competencies of crisis leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss three measures of success in collaborative leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the seven step crisis communication plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe three lessons of crisis leadership. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>We cannot live in a post-September 11, 2001 world with a pre-September 11, 2001 mind. </li></ul><ul><li>— adapted from Angela Thirkell, 1933 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Traditional and Crisis Leadership <ul><li>What are the differences? </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Fortune favors the prepared mind. </li></ul><ul><li>— Louis Pasteur </li></ul>
  6. 6. Definition of Crisis <ul><li>A crisis is characterized by a high degree of instability and carries the potential for extremely negative results that can endanger the lives of people in a community. </li></ul><ul><li>— Adapted from Klann </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Crises <ul><li>Natural disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Act of war </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic chemical release </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous material spill </li></ul><ul><li>Crash or derailment </li></ul><ul><li>Legal or judicial crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource/reputation incident </li></ul><ul><li>Informational problem </li></ul><ul><li>Strike or boycott </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorist act </li></ul><ul><li>Financial catastrophe </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reality Check <ul><li>Warnings don’t get headlines, crises do. </li></ul><ul><li>— Anderson Cooper </li></ul>
  9. 9. Be Prepared <ul><li>The New Public Health </li></ul><ul><li>Marching Song </li></ul>
  10. 10. Critical Issue <ul><li>How do I keep my family safe? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Question One <ul><li>How prepared is your community to respond to a public health crisis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. Prepared to manage all aspects that can be controlled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Prepared to manage most important aspects of a crisis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Many important aspects of a crisis would not be effectively managed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. We had better avoid a major crisis. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Public Health Response Local Public Health Response (Complexity) Societal pressure Community crisis and priorities National agenda Strategic challenges
  13. 13. Leadership and Preparedness in Crisis Situations
  14. 14. Bioterrorism: Competencies for Leaders (1 of 2) <ul><li>Describe the chain of command and management system. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate public health information/roles/capacities/legal authority accurately to all emergency response partners. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain regular communication with emergency response partners. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Competencies for Leaders (2 of 2) <ul><li>Assure that the agency has an updated written plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Assure that the agency regularly practices all parts of emergency response. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate every emergency response drill. </li></ul><ul><li>Assure that knowledge and skills are transmitted to others. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Who Is in Charge? Bioterrorism or disaster event Incident Command System Collaboration Collaboration No collaboration
  17. 17. New Partnerships <ul><li>Emergency management system </li></ul><ul><li>Police departments </li></ul><ul><li>Fire departments </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency medical system </li></ul><ul><li>Community health centers </li></ul><ul><li>FBI </li></ul><ul><li>Local public health department </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Homeland Security </li></ul>
  18. 18. New Models of Collaboration <ul><li>Share work. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain organizational identities. </li></ul><ul><li>Take advantage of synergy. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Changing Ways to Work <ul><li>Core workers </li></ul><ul><li>Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>General workers </li></ul><ul><li>Community residents </li></ul>
  20. 20. Measures of Success in Collaborative Leadership <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict management </li></ul><ul><li>Trust development </li></ul><ul><li>Decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Management of safety concerns </li></ul>
  21. 21. Question Two <ul><li>Historically, how well have organizations in your community collaborated? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. High level of historical and successful collaboration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Some effective collaboration on simple issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Very little collaboration in the past. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. More competition than collaboration. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Relationship between Risk Communication and Crisis Communication
  23. 23. Risk Communication Skills <ul><li>High concern/high stress situations </li></ul><ul><li>Trust determination and building trust </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies for stressed people who do not listen </li></ul><ul><li>Skills for dealing with negative statements (Covello) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 N = 3 P </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One negative = three positive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Risk perception by the public and skills for dealing with it </li></ul>
  24. 24. Crisis Communication <ul><li>Communities must form a flexible crisis communication team (CCT) that can be activated quickly. This team can implement a communication plan as a part of the total response effort. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Seven Step Communications Response Plan <ul><li>Activate the CCT. </li></ul><ul><li>Gather and verify information. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the gravity of the crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Implement a communications strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop external materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform partners, stakeholders, and media. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Knowledge of the Law <ul><li>Police powers </li></ul><ul><li>Personal rights </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality—HIPAA </li></ul>
  27. 27. Question Three <ul><li>Does your community have a comprehensive crisis communication plan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. No </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Maybe </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. New Leadership Skills for New Times
  29. 29. Major Crisis Leadership Lessons* (1 of 3) <ul><li>Prepare for at least one crisis in each crisis family. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not sufficient to prepare for crises that are normal in community. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare for the simultaneous occurrence of multiple crises. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of definitions are to guide, not predict. </li></ul><ul><li>*(Mitroff) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Major Crisis Leadership Lessons (2 of 3) <ul><li>Every type of crisis can happen to every organization. </li></ul><ul><li>No type of crisis should be taken literally. </li></ul><ul><li>Tampering is the most generic form or type of crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>No crisis ever happens as one plans for it. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional risk analysis is both dangerous and misleading. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Major Crisis Leadership Lessons (3 of 3) <ul><li>Every crisis is capable of being both cause and the effect of any other crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis leadership is systemic. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a systemic crisis audit of your agency and community. </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis leaders not only recognize the validity of all types of crisis, but they also see the interconnections between them. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Communities should make plans now for dealing with any recurrences. The most promising way to deal with a possible recurrence is to sum it up in a single word, “preparedness,” and now is the time to prepare. </li></ul><ul><li> — Rupert Blue </li></ul><ul><li> Civilian Surgeon General, 1919 </li></ul>
  33. 33. Leadership Will Involve Working at All Levels of the System
  34. 34. Summary Question <ul><li>Are you both able and willing to take a leadership role in your community during a future crisis? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Yes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. No </li></ul></ul>