NGOs and Disaster Response


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  • The Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance (CDMHA), is a consortium formed by the University of South Florida and Tulane University in partnership with the US SOUTHCOM (the United States Southern Command)
  • The vision of the CDMHA is to undertake and/or co-sponsor research projects that focus on the transfer of new findings and new technology that enhance, primarily military operational readiness and responsiveness to meet diverse humanitarian needs in the Caribbean, Central and South America. The CDMHA has identified three areas where major academic research institutions have a unique capacity to help the military. They are: a)      Applied Operational and Evaluative Research. The two universities provide scientific grounding and infrastructure as well as highly qualified professionals to focus in on resolving specific problems and developing new methodologies important to the military mission of supporting the U.S. government in its humanitarian mission. b)      Technology transfer. Universities have traditionally been a major source of research and development in the United States. The conversion of basic science into tools appropriate for practical application in humanitarian concerns is an important function of specialists from University settings. c)      Short term and long term training. From conferences to degree programs, University forums are organized to quickly access, review, evaluate, synthesize, and communicate information, based on the most appropriate science available. Such capacity is vital to the success of the humanitarian assistance mission of the military. Through these tools, The CDMHA’s mission will be to facilitate civil military cooperation. Development and implementation
  • Historically, in the early 1800s, U.S. and European bodies such as the British and Foreign Anti-slavery Society were driving forces behind government action on the slave trade; by 1900 the Anglo-Oriental Society for the Suppression of the Opium Trade was a leading factor in the anti-drug movement that culminated in the 1912 Hague Opium Convention.
  • 6 Sep 2000—East Timor killings
  • Both are mission driven—each has their own particular badges, training, are proud of what they do, dedicated.
  • It is set up by the JTF Commander and has direct command relations with him and regional CMOCs also set up by the CJTF. Give Hurricane Mitch examples throughout Central America.
  • U.S. Doctrine for past 30 years Lowest level-meeting place where various parties can come together. Wheel +deal+ SHARE information. Say out acronyms. Add local business + religion? Bosnia/Rwanda/Kosovo-does the HN government really represent the population??
  • This is another way of looking at the picture. Very important: Religion - has great cultural influence Local/regional business- why are commercial firms important? Local experience Know local standards Buying locally helps the economy & gives employment Public/private partnerships
  • Not to replace or take over Try to work together
  • NGOs and Disaster Response

    1. 1. NGOs and Disaster Response— Who are These Guys and What Do They Want Anyway ? Melinda Hofstetter Center for Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance Tulane University, Washington D.C.
    2. 2. The CDMHA <ul><li>is a joint program of: </li></ul><ul><li>Tulane University </li></ul><ul><li>and the </li></ul><ul><li>United States Southern Command </li></ul><ul><li>University of South Florida </li></ul><ul><li>in partnership with </li></ul>
    3. 3. Mission of the CDMHA <ul><li>Facilitate civil-military operations and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and implement education and training programs in disaster and crisis management </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate collaborative education, training, research and information and communication services between disaster response and humanitarian assistance agencies (e.g. the military, NGOs, PVOs, etc.) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Make sense of the NGO universe so that you will find it easier to work with them </li></ul><ul><li>Standards of Conduct </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss NGO concerns about working with the military and why </li></ul><ul><li>How NGOs fit into the disaster relief equation </li></ul><ul><li>The civil and military relationship </li></ul>
    5. 5. NGOs and PVOs <ul><li>“ An extraordinarily complex system which makes medieval Europe look centralized and ordered by comparison.” </li></ul><ul><li>John Paul Lederach, director of the Mennonite Central Committee and the Conflict Analysis and Transformation Program of the eastern Mennonite University </li></ul>
    6. 6. Definitions <ul><li>No distinction between NGOs and PVOs </li></ul><ul><li>Does not include professional associations, businesses, and foundations </li></ul>
    7. 7. Who Are They? <ul><li>Working Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-profit organizations or associations of private citizens with any common interest </li></ul><ul><li>The c ommon interest , for our purposes, is international humanitarian assistance activities (development and relief) </li></ul><ul><li>May be international or local </li></ul>
    8. 8. Characteristics <ul><li>NGOs vary greatly </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure is similar to businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-rigid hierarchy; significant flexibility and authority at the field level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International NGOs often team up with local NGOs </li></ul>
    9. 9. What do They Do? <ul><li>Operational vs Advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Grassroots, long-term projects, development work </li></ul><ul><li>Willing to work in high risk areas; not constrained by sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Full integration with local population </li></ul><ul><li>Good positioning for disaster response </li></ul>
    10. 10. Who Pays Them? <ul><li>Funding Sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private Donations (citizens and foundations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Organizations (UN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of Media </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Core Values <ul><li>Neutrality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid will not be used to further a particular political or religious standpoint. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impartiality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid is given regardless of race, creed, or nationality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid is based on need alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aid agencies shall not act as instruments of government foreign policy. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. INCREASED THREAT TO AID WORKERS <ul><li>Increased Range of Conflict since Cold War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil Wars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic conflicts and genocide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex crises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified as symbols of western values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased banditry and crime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ignorance, indifference and indiscriminate violence </li></ul>
    13. 13. Core Values <ul><li>Should offer access and protection from attack; not always true anymore </li></ul><ul><li>Core values will impact NGO willingness to work with the military. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even perception of value violation will be avoided. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTION IS REALITY! </li></ul>
    14. 14. Who Monitors These Guys? <ul><li>Little External Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Control: NGO Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Cross Code of Conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>InterAction PVO Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sphere Minimum Standards in Disaster Response </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Seize the High Ground! is the six inches between the other guy’s ears THE KEY TERRAIN
    18. 18. NGO and Military Cultures: Differences <ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Independent </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralized Authority </li></ul><ul><li>On-The-Job Training </li></ul><ul><li>Few Field Manuals </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Disciplined </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical Command </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive Branch Training </li></ul><ul><li>Doctrinal Pubs </li></ul><ul><li>“ End-State” Approach </li></ul>
    19. 19. NGOs AND THE MILITARY <ul><li>Clear separation of missions and operations </li></ul><ul><li>POW monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Medical aid </li></ul><ul><li>Single neutral agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Overlapping humanitarian missions </li></ul><ul><li>Chaotic complex environments </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Security concerns </li></ul>Humanitarian aid to soldiers and sailors Complex inconsistent “partnership” Tradition Today
    20. 20. NGO and Military Cultures: Similarities <ul><li>Motivation: Adrenaline Junkies and Idealists </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to See the World </li></ul><ul><li>Separation from Family and Friends </li></ul>
    21. 21. Both are mission driven. Both are synergistic. They shouldn’t be antagonistic. But attitudes can cause them to be so. It’s the PERCEPTION !!! LTC M.M. Smith, USA
    22. 22. Humanitarian Emergencies <ul><li>International assistance required </li></ul><ul><li>Donors rely more on NGOs, because of their access to the populations in need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>And again, their access is dependent on their neutrality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most humanitarian emergencies do NOT involve the military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for civ-mil cooperation may be the exception rather than the rule </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Review of Emergency Response <ul><li>Emergency Responders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected Country’s Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Bilateral donors: OFDA, ECHO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Agencies: OCHA, UNHCR, WFP, WHO, UNDP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military Forces (on rare occasions) </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. The Fog of Disaster Relief UN Agencies UNICEF WFP UNDP NGO UNHCR NGO NGO USG Red Cross ICRC Affected Country/ Government NGO Donor Other Governments NGO Donor NGO NGO
    25. 25. Do They Coordinate? <ul><li>US Embassy Country Team </li></ul><ul><li>Other USG Agencies (OFDA &quot;DART&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>UN Coordination Entities [UNHCR, WFP, UNDP, UNICEF, OCHA, Special Humanitarian Coordinator] </li></ul><ul><li>NGO-Only Coordination Bodies/Field-level coordination meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Host Government Ministries / Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Civil-Military Cooperation or Operation Centers </li></ul>
    26. 26. NGO Role in Disaster Response NGOs, as implementing partners of donor organizations, are the legs on which disaster response stands.
    27. 27. NGO Fears About Working With the Military <ul><li>Perceived Violation of Core Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kosovo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chechnya </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Military Domination of Humanitarian Response </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Military Role: Refer to Humanitarian Community </li></ul>
    28. 28. Common Mistakes <ul><li>Assuming Control of Humanitarian Response </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence / Information Exchange </li></ul>
    29. 29. NGO INFORMATION <ul><li>Best source of refugee information </li></ul><ul><li>First hand observation and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Situational/non-threat focus </li></ul><ul><li>Direct access to local leaders and factions </li></ul>Sensitive to association with government/military agencies!
    30. 30. AREAS OF EXPERTISE <ul><li>Local Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Health and Medical Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Clan/tribe relationships & hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Local Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Local Weather and Terrain on Equipment and Personnel </li></ul>
    31. 31. Civ-Mil Services Typically Requested by NGOs <ul><li>Security Services </li></ul><ul><li>Landmine Locations </li></ul><ul><li>Security Briefings </li></ul><ul><li>Convoy Support </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance on Local Security </li></ul><ul><li>Technical Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Remote Areas, Ports, and Airfields </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics Assistance </li></ul>
    32. 32. Avoiding the Common Mistakes in Humanitarian Response <ul><li>Intelligence/information exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Proportionality </li></ul><ul><li>Target populations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Warlord photo ops” </li></ul>
    33. 33. INDIRECT CONTACT <ul><li>Functional military counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>State Department/other agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Other third parties </li></ul><ul><li>“ Virtual contact”- the internet </li></ul><ul><li>Civil Affairs and Intelligence </li></ul>Learn about them before you deploy!
    34. 34. DIRECT CONTACT <ul><li>Basics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>De-mystify information sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be honest and open </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build rapport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What and Why </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Non-intrusive </li></ul><ul><li>Give and Take </li></ul>
    35. 35. Coordination at JTF Level CJTF CMOC OFDA / DART HACC Regional CMOC(s) CINC HOC Agencies at Strat. Theater Level NGOs and IOs UN Relief Agencies Command Coordination
    36. 36. CMOC Military: U.S. + ? NGO IO PVO ICRC US Gov’t Agencies UN Agencies HN/Local Populace
    37. 37. DOD UN/IOs Religion Business Host Nations USG NGOs Zone of Collaboration/Coordination
    39. 39. Cooperation as Vector Analysis:
    40. 40. Cooperation: “Unity of Effort ” Military Efforts IO/NGO Activities
    41. 41. Overview of Intervention Humanitarian Space Complex Emergency International Community Political / Military Response Humanitarian Response
    42. 42. Perception is Reality
    43. 43. GET SMART! The smarter you are, the smarter you are to your commander.
    44. 44. QUESTIONS ?