MANAGEMENT RESPONSE TO EVALUATION OF FAO’S EMERGENCY AND
REHABILITATION WORK IN THE HORN OF AFRICA
1. Management accepts with some caution almost all the recommendations of the evaluation of FAO’s
emergency and rehabilitation assistance in the Horn of Africa in response to the drought that took
place in 2005/06 and is pleased to note that some of the recommendations are already being
implemented and others are under discussion with concerned Units for a rapid implementation.
2. The evaluation team notes that the drought of 2005/06 affected all countries of the region. Its
epicentre was in northern Kenya and its impact was exacerbated in Somalia by civil conflict.
Livestock migrations from both countries into Ethiopia strained the already weakened livelihood
systems. The evaluation team also notes that the drought has essentially affected pastoralist
communities in every country of the region. These communities were already plagued by
degradation of natural environment and had little choice but to sustain their livelihood with animal
herding in a nomadic or semi-nomadic way.
3. The evaluation team also rightly points out the complexity of the response and underlines the
necessity of long-term solutions to mitigate the impact of recurrent drought. Management agrees that
short-term response to a complex issue such as the drought in a vast and semi-arid region should be
articulated with a longer-term plan. In this spirit, the Organization largely supported the mission of
the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Drought in the Horn of Africa, Mr Bondevik.
Similar conclusions were reached by Mr Bondevik, who highlighted the essential need to help
pastoralist communities to save their livestock assets and who also stressed the importance of
implementing a large programme of drought prevention in the entire region. The merit of this
strategy led to a multi-country consultation on food security in the Horn of Africa in Nairobi, 25-26
June 2007, chaired by the Special Envoy and facilitated by FAO.
4. Management notes that despite an unprecedented effort to coordinate the response among the UN
Agencies, the financial support received was largely below expectations, although FAO received
more support from the international community and played a more central and leading role than
during the 1999 drought in the same region. FAO has strengthened its knowledge of how to handle
such crises in partnership with other actors and has developed new advocacy tools, such as the Horn
of Africa Plan of Action and the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification system. These tools
will enable FAO to respond better to similar situations, which are likely to take place again in the
5. Among the recommendations, Management can delineate four main findings and recommendations:
better food security information systems; a better coordinated and more consistent approach; greater
involvement at local level since the inception of the emergency operations; and a clearer link
between short-term and medium-term activities. While detailed reactions on each recommendation
are provided in the following table, Management’s overall response to the main recommendations,
as mentioned above, is as follow:
6. Management fully agrees with the need to develop an effective mechanism of information and
information sharing on food security based on institutional coherence and complementarities among
partners, involving governments, UN Agencies, donors and non-governmental organizations
(NGOs). Management appreciates the importance of building credible and harmonized networks of
information. In crisis situations, access to nuanced information is crucial for decision-making, also
for the donor community. Management is pleased to note that FAO has already received support
from three major donors for the roll-out of the Integrated Humanitarian Phase Classification (IPC) in
the Horn of Africa. The IPC is regarded as an innovative tool for improving food security analysis
and decision-making, with a proven track record within the Food Security Analysis Unit (FSAU) in
Somalia, where it was developed in 2004 with a broad range of technical partners. Such a system
developed and led by FAO is being adopted by all UN agencies involved in the Humanitarian arena
in the Great Lakes region. The regional implementation is motivated by the humanitarian imperative
to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of crisis response. The IPC has the potential to allow for
technical consensus, transparency and accountability, as evidenced by the contribution of the IPC to
the 2006 Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) Regional Appeal and the 2007 CAP Appeal for
Somalia. Hopefully, it will become a common language and tool within the international community,
which will enhance prioritisation and allocation of funding resources.
7. Management accepts recommendations to promote better coordination, a more sustainable response
and more consistency between the short and long-term response. Management acknowledges that
most donors have a better understanding of this now and the line between emergency and
development is steadily becoming thinner. Rehabilitation programmes are thus slightly better
supported now than in the past. However, more efforts from all stakeholders are needed to make a
seamless transition from emergency to rehabilitation and development a reality.
8. To conclude, Management largely agrees with the findings and notes that compared with the
previous drought in the Horn of Africa, considerable efforts have been made to mitigate the effects,
not only by FAO, but also by international NGOs. Continued efforts will be necessary to comply
with many of the recommendations. However, it should be recognized that in the response to an
emergency, donors still favour funding immediate impact actions although, as already mentioned,
attitudes are changing in this regard. Management believes that it is important to continue
advocating for strengthened food security information in the region as a tool to restore and improve
the resilience and livelihoods of pastoralist populations in the Horn of Africa and to strive for a
sound transition from emergency interventions to rehabilitation and longer-term development.
Format for Management response to recommendations
Recommendations Further Acceptance by Management Comment on the Recommendation Action to be taken
To economize space, donor Partially Reject Action Timing Unit
the content of each funding Accept Accept Responsible
recommendation has been required
(yes or no)
Recommendation 1 YES X TCE/REOA is already cooperating with all
Develop institutional major humanitarian actors in the HoA
coherence with respect through the Roll-out in the Integrated
to FS information Food Security Phase Classification
systems and take a System (IPC) and the support of the
lead in harmonizing Regional Food Security Working. Three
existing information donors, Canada, EU and UK are already
systems supporting this Food Security Information Speeding up the finalisation of MoU Dec 07 TCEO
Integration Initiative. with UK and UE.
It will be difficult to find a donor who is
willing to finance FAO’s internal search for
coherence. Additional resources could
stem from existing projects. In any case
this requires a consolidated effort not an
initiative by TCE above.
Hold an internal workshop to early 2008
formulate a joint proposal. GEWS ESAF
Recommendation 2 TCE: The IPC is a good example of how
Promote information to integrate different information systems.
systems that are of The IPC is being rolled out in several
value to emergency as countries in the Horn of Africa (Kenya,
well as developmental Uganda, Ethiopia and Djibouti). In
understanding and particular, the Government in Kenya offers
responses a good example of adoption of this tool.
The SIFSIA project in the Sudan is closely Exapand the IPC to all countries in 2008 GEWS ESAF
integrated within the government the subregion. TCE EMPRES
structure. In Somalia, the SWALIM
YES X project is developing liaison offices within
Somalia with GIS capabilities and access
to datasets in Nairobi and ensuring
training of government employees in
information management. The
recommendation requires a corporate
effort, not an initiative by TCE alone.
Recommendation 3 TCE: Point well taken. Already efforts Use of participatory methods for ongoing TCE
Promote greater use of made to increase relevancy for example project/programme formulation.
indigenous knowledge, by FSAU to include translation of products Dissemination of knowledge in a
disseminate clear and into Somali language and wide distribution more accessible manner. TCE/KCT
effective information within the country. It will suppose skilled
products, assess how yes X National Staff and FAO should become a FAO Employment of national
existing systems can be more attractive employer. expertise TCE/AFHO
made more relevant to
Recommendation 4 YES X TCE: A regional IPC roll-out project is Expand the IPC to all countries in 2008 ESAF
Support the IPC rollout underway. the subregion. TCE
Recommendation 5 YES X first ESAF
Develop and improve Participants in the workshop sem. TCE
methodologies for FS Lessons are to be learnt from several (mentioned under recommendation 2008
assessments FAO initiatives on this matter. 1) should formulate the ToR of a
study aiming at proposing a
methodology for FS assessment.
Recommendation 6 YES X X TCE: fully agrees with the first part of the
Promote coordinated recommendation. TCE is fully involved in TCE
response, emergency FAO’s disaster risk management (DRM) FAOR/OCD
preparedness, initiatives. Contingency funding
contingency funding, mechanisms, while desirable, require
and strategic reserves review of the feasibility of such
mechanisms in the FAO environment.
TCE has some serious reservations with
respect to strategic reserves of items such
as veterinary drugs as these have
implications with respect to storage and
keeping up to date which, in turn, have
cost implications. In any case
a project profile on contingency funding is
being included in the Cooperative Action is ongoing. first
Agreement 2008 with OFDA. As far as Further advocacy is required with sem. 2008
emergency preparedness, REOA will be potentially responsive donors.
coordinating ECHO’s Drought
Preparedness Program II in the HoA.
Recommendation 7 YES X This is a continuing effort with some
Advocate for more success in certain countries where TCES
appropriate and is operating (Somalia and Sudan).
sustainable food However, funding mechanisms are not
security and livelihood always appropriate, e.g. in Southern TCE: proposes that TCEO/REOA
interventions Sudan there is a gap between short-term and SFE (Subregional Office for
funding covered by the CHF and longer- Eastern Africa), in cooperation with
term development funding covered by the the FAORs, should formalize joint
MDTF. In certain cases this objective is guidelines for the implementation of
being pursued through the development the PoA.
of the Plan of Action (PoA), in cooperation 2008 TCEO
with FAORs and Sub-regional offices in REOA
Africa (SFE, SFC, SFS). In all cases the SFE
primary humanitarian objectives should
not be missed
Recommendation 8 Willing to contribute to this but in many 2008 TCE
Actively engage in the cases it goes beyond the mandate of SFE
development of medium TCE.
See comments under recommendation 7 See action under recommendation
Recommendation 9 YES X TCE agrees with the mobilization and This activity is ongoing.
Continue to mobilize coordination of financial resources at the TCE
and coordinate regional level, although we have some
resources at regional reservations about strategic
level reserves/stocks mentioned in the
comments on recommendation 6.
Recommendation 10 YES X While we agree with this proposal, it is Contribute to FAO corporate effort ongoing TCI
Study the long-term, not up to TCE to carry out the analysis. to identify the long-term causes of TCA
root causes of food Information generated by FSAU is for food insecurity. ESAF
insecurity example regularly used to inform CAP Seek synergies with FAO OCDO
proposals prepared by FAO Somalia. Representations at field level.
FAO Representations should be involved
in such process and be the basis of the
institutional memory of the Organization
as the studies will be used for several
exercises (NEPAD, UNDAF, ....)
Recommendation 11 YES X We strive to achieve this objective.
Be more proactive in However, donor requirements are not
challenging always conducive to innovation as there
assumptions and the are often limitations on emergency
status quo of funding with respect to duration and type
interventions and of activities that can be funded i.e. a high
ensure that these are percentage to be spent on goods.
based on good practice
and comprehensive NA However, TCE is implementing a pilot Ensure a large diffusion of the First TCEO
initiative to promote FAO good practices preliminary conclusions of the pilot semester TCER
within the Cluster Approach especially the intiative. 2008
Food Security Cluster as created by the
recent UN humanitarian reform.
Recommendation 12 YES X Improve coordination with SFE and Advocacy with donors, develop First TCE
Develop a more country offices on the elaboration of plans more regional activities. semester TCER
diversified approach to of action. 2008
promote LT recovery
and resilience of local
production systems to
Recommendation 13 YES X Although this is desirable, in order to Conduct market research with or ongoing TCE
Distributions of preposition suitable inputs early enough without funding in order to anticipate AFSP
agricultural inputs for timely distribution, it is crucial to secure agricultural season requirements.
should remain an option funding well in advance of the agricultural
when deemed truly season. The current CAP funding cycle
necessary. Inputs (and also that of the CHF in the Sudan)
should be supplied does not allow this for the main
earlier. Distribution agricultural season in the Horn of Africa.
times should be Although efforts are made to source local
decreased seeds, in these food deficit regions, they
are often not readily available in the
quantity required. More delegation of Authority should ongoing TCE
be given to FAORs for local AFSP
FAO Procedures are still too complex, procurements. TCE together with OCD
hence too time-consuming especially OCD is organizing training for field
regarding procurements. Furthermore, officers.
delayed delivery is not always due to
FAO. We do not have evidence of any is already financing the publication
unjustified or not needs-based distribution of a crop calendar
Recommendation 14 YES X In Southern Sudan there is a plan to re- More delegation of authority to TCE
Inputs should be introduce seed-fairs using the voucher FAORs. 2008 AFSP
procured from networks system. However, this intervention is OCD
of local, predictable and likely to be limited in scale owing to
professional producers problems posed by security More training to ERCU staff or training TCE
or stockists, and considerations as well as poor alternative delivery of inputs ongoing AGPS
delivered through input infrastructure and limited (journals, vouchers). AFSP
fairs and voucher manpower/capacity in the FAO ECU.
systems There is a requirement for a diversity of
interventions tailored to meet Keep dialoguing with AFSP
requirements as far as possible given the
Procurement rules may need to be
reviewed and amended. The present level
of delegation of authority to FAO
Representatives is a limiting factor to local
See comments under recommendation 13
Recommendation 15 YES X This would be helpful and should be
Review the various carried out by TCE in conjunction with
CAHWs networks in the AGAH.
Horn of Africa
Action being taken by TCE in 2008 TCE
cooperation with AGAH in selected AGAH
countries to expand to the network
and effectively utilized it (this is part
of recommendation 26).
Recommendation 16 YES X Already strong links have been developed Develop stronger links on livestock TCA
Engage more fully with between TCE and AU-IBAR and an issues between IGAD and FAO.
existing technical Emergency Officer: dedicated to the
capacities at regional livestock sector is being recruited in
level; control/eradicate REOA to strengthen relations between This recommendation is already REOA - FAOR
transboundary livestock institutions. being implemented through the Djibouti
diseases; help open Food Security and Nutrition Working
international market However, it should be noted that such Group (FSNWG) in Nairobi.
access to livestock engagement may help, it is not sufficient
to significantly improve international Activities to be more systematically
market access to livestock and livestock undertaken in cooperation with SFE REOA
products from the HoA which requires SFE
dedicated projects and intervention at the CGIAR
political level. IUCN (World
Recommendation 17 yes X AGAH has worked on and is about to LEGS will be adopted for all 2008 AGAH
Base interventions on release the LEGS (Livestock Emergency livestock emergency interventions TCE
livestock emergency Guidelines and Standards)
Recommendation 18 limited TCE already makes considerable use of First
Adopt a more strategic strategic partnerships with NGOs (e.g. semester TCES
approach to Somalia) and has developed an interim Finalization of the comparaive 2008
partnerships standard partnership agreement to analysis of partnerships.
replace the LoA which has been approved
by ODG. Further work at the strategic
level is being carried out with an informal
working group including members of
TCOM, TCAP, TCE, AUD, LEGA, AFFC,
AFSP, AFDS, ODGS with a view to
developing a more definitive partnership
agreement(s) over the long term.
Currently a comparative analysis of
Partnership. Arrangements of other UN
agencies with Non-Governmental
Organizations are being finalized.
X The Regional Cassava Mosaic project in Training of local partners on FAO ongoing TCE
the Great Lakes Region funded by ECHO procedures and mandate and TCAP
is an excellent example and a lesson training of TCE officers and
learnt case of this approach. In fact it parters’procedures mandate and
gathers together Governments, National partner collaboration.
Research institutions, International and
local NGOs. FAO is Team leader and
Coordinator. In certain instances
partners cannot be easily ‘selected’ as the
choice is limited and sometimes
conditioned by the donor.
Recommendation 19 Limited X Work underway, see answer to
Finalize and introduce a recommendation 18. However, in many
more effective areas as Southern Sudan, and some
partnership agreement parts of Somalia, there is no choice with
with NGO partners respect to selection of an appropriate
partner as only one NGO may operate in
a specific targeted area.
The Regional Food Security and Nutrition Action as above. 2008 TCE
Working group in Nairobi supported by TCAP
FAO may be the right forum to discuss
this issue and find solutions.
Recommendation 20 YES X By definition, a leading coordination role is All actions mentioned above to TCE
FAO should capitalize based on effective information exchange. strengthen effective information ESAF
on its lead coordination This is a pre-condition not a consequence exchange are pertinent. (see
role by….. and recommendation No. 1)
Recommendation 21 YES X Although desirable, reliance on short term Revised criteria for selection of ongoing TCE
Undertake a review of funding means this is often difficult to ERCU staff. AFH
human resources achieve. A Coordinator’s fund-raising
required in each country skills are critical to providing the means to Launch regular vacancy
expand the programme and permit announcement for roster to benefit
recruitment of more diversified human of a rich active roster for different
resources. More attention should be levels of responsibilities.
given to seeking skilled nationals.
YES Diversified composition of ERCU ongoing
Training FAOR and TCE national ongoing TCE
Recommendation 22 YES X Fully agreed. Training cost for nationals Encourage participation of national ongoing TCE
Prioritise the should be better budgeted within each staff in any training activities OCD
development of national project document. organized by FAO. Encourage AFH
staff international assignement for NPP
Throughout the year, TCE/REOA has for borader exposure.
offered national staff courses on
administrative and finance issues, as well
as a language course (ongoing).
National Staff appraisal mechanism May 08 TCEO/ TCES
to be reviewed together with AFHO
TCE/REOA has planned a training First TCEO/
on logical framework both for its quarter REOA
national and international staff 2008
Recommendation 23 YES X Highly desirable, but not up to TCE alone. Common training of ERCU and ongoing TCE
ECUs should be well Note the Somalia programme is FAOR staff. OCD
integrated into the completely integrated as the Senior AFH
structure of the Office of Emergency Coordinator is the FAO
the FAOR. Regular Officer-in-Charge. As a result a holistic
funding must be programme has been developed with both
secured for core short-term emergency and longer-term
functions of “stand rehabilitation and development projects.
alone” ECUs. The only “core”funding available for the
Somalia programme is for one secretary
and one NPO.
X Common training, as organized in 2006 Involvement of ERCU and FAOR TCE
bringing together FAOReps and ECU staff in planning activities AFH
Coordinators, should become regular. OCD
Better understanding between persons
and their respective role and competence
has already led to better integration
between FAOR and ECU
Recommendation 24 YES X Agree with respect to technical support. - Close cooperation and information ongoing TCE
SFE must be mandated Operational support from the SFE is only sharing. OCD
to provide technical for sub-regional projects that are non- - Technical clearance subject to
support and clearance emergency. type of intervention (AVI related
for field operations interventions are still under
Recommendation 25 YES The role and composition of REOA cannot - periodic strategic meeting between ongoing TCE/
REOA should be subject to changes on an annual basis. two entities REOA/SFE. REOA
complement the SFE, X This may affect efficient complementarily SFE
and support ECUs in of REOA and SFE. - joint training. OCD
situation analysis and
strategic planning; - joint field visit.
of strategic reserves;
Recommendation 26 YES X Much remains to be done. Work on - finalization of a beneficiary Dec. TCE
Apply internal monitoring guidelines is proceeding and monitoring guidelines 2007
guidelines, training training of ECU staff should begin soon.
materials and best Monitoring and impact assessment is - implementation of monitoring May TCE
practice; monitor the acknowledged as a critical weakness in system in accordance with 2008
impact; share good current emergency and rehabilitation guidelines in pilot countries.
practice between operations.
countries and actors in The usual timeframe of TCE projects - harmonization of May TCE
the region (twelve months or less) does not facilitate experience/guidelines used by 2008
monitoring exercise, especially on impact. various ERCUs in one internal
Some flexibility on budget use may be guidelines.
- periodical subregional TCE 2008 TCE
REOA: has been playing an active role in meetings with ERCU and FAOR OCD
sharing best practices. Thanks to a staff with dedicated sessions on
secondment from SIDA, REOA will soon sharing of good practices.
implement an M&E unit.
- enhanced role of REOA on good ongoing TCE
practise through information sharing
material on ad hoc sessions.
Advocacy with donors, as more 2008 TCE
resources and flexibility are needed.