Management Response


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Management Response

  1. 1. MANAGEMENT RESPONSE TO EVALUATION OF FAO’S EMERGENCY AND REHABILITATION WORK IN THE HORN OF AFRICA 1. Management accepts with some caution almost all the recommendations of the evaluation of FAO’s emergency and rehabilitation assistance in the Horn of Africa in response to the drought that took place in 2005/06 and is pleased to note that some of the recommendations are already being implemented and others are under discussion with concerned Units for a rapid implementation. 2. The evaluation team notes that the drought of 2005/06 affected all countries of the region. Its epicentre was in northern Kenya and its impact was exacerbated in Somalia by civil conflict. Livestock migrations from both countries into Ethiopia strained the already weakened livelihood systems. The evaluation team also notes that the drought has essentially affected pastoralist communities in every country of the region. These communities were already plagued by degradation of natural environment and had little choice but to sustain their livelihood with animal herding in a nomadic or semi-nomadic way. 3. The evaluation team also rightly points out the complexity of the response and underlines the necessity of long-term solutions to mitigate the impact of recurrent drought. Management agrees that short-term response to a complex issue such as the drought in a vast and semi-arid region should be articulated with a longer-term plan. In this spirit, the Organization largely supported the mission of the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General for the Drought in the Horn of Africa, Mr Bondevik. Similar conclusions were reached by Mr Bondevik, who highlighted the essential need to help pastoralist communities to save their livestock assets and who also stressed the importance of implementing a large programme of drought prevention in the entire region. The merit of this strategy led to a multi-country consultation on food security in the Horn of Africa in Nairobi, 25-26 June 2007, chaired by the Special Envoy and facilitated by FAO. 4. Management notes that despite an unprecedented effort to coordinate the response among the UN Agencies, the financial support received was largely below expectations, although FAO received more support from the international community and played a more central and leading role than during the 1999 drought in the same region. FAO has strengthened its knowledge of how to handle such crises in partnership with other actors and has developed new advocacy tools, such as the Horn of Africa Plan of Action and the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification system. These tools will enable FAO to respond better to similar situations, which are likely to take place again in the near future. 5. Among the recommendations, Management can delineate four main findings and recommendations: better food security information systems; a better coordinated and more consistent approach; greater involvement at local level since the inception of the emergency operations; and a clearer link between short-term and medium-term activities. While detailed reactions on each recommendation are provided in the following table, Management’s overall response to the main recommendations, as mentioned above, is as follow: 6. Management fully agrees with the need to develop an effective mechanism of information and information sharing on food security based on institutional coherence and complementarities among partners, involving governments, UN Agencies, donors and non-governmental organizations
  2. 2. (NGOs). Management appreciates the importance of building credible and harmonized networks of information. In crisis situations, access to nuanced information is crucial for decision-making, also for the donor community. Management is pleased to note that FAO has already received support from three major donors for the roll-out of the Integrated Humanitarian Phase Classification (IPC) in the Horn of Africa. The IPC is regarded as an innovative tool for improving food security analysis and decision-making, with a proven track record within the Food Security Analysis Unit (FSAU) in Somalia, where it was developed in 2004 with a broad range of technical partners. Such a system developed and led by FAO is being adopted by all UN agencies involved in the Humanitarian arena in the Great Lakes region. The regional implementation is motivated by the humanitarian imperative to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of crisis response. The IPC has the potential to allow for technical consensus, transparency and accountability, as evidenced by the contribution of the IPC to the 2006 Consolidated Appeals Process (CAP) Regional Appeal and the 2007 CAP Appeal for Somalia. Hopefully, it will become a common language and tool within the international community, which will enhance prioritisation and allocation of funding resources. 7. Management accepts recommendations to promote better coordination, a more sustainable response and more consistency between the short and long-term response. Management acknowledges that most donors have a better understanding of this now and the line between emergency and development is steadily becoming thinner. Rehabilitation programmes are thus slightly better supported now than in the past. However, more efforts from all stakeholders are needed to make a seamless transition from emergency to rehabilitation and development a reality. 8. To conclude, Management largely agrees with the findings and notes that compared with the previous drought in the Horn of Africa, considerable efforts have been made to mitigate the effects, not only by FAO, but also by international NGOs. Continued efforts will be necessary to comply with many of the recommendations. However, it should be recognized that in the response to an emergency, donors still favour funding immediate impact actions although, as already mentioned, attitudes are changing in this regard. Management believes that it is important to continue advocating for strengthened food security information in the region as a tool to restore and improve the resilience and livelihoods of pastoralist populations in the Horn of Africa and to strive for a sound transition from emergency interventions to rehabilitation and longer-term development.
  3. 3. Format for Management response to recommendations Recommendations Further Acceptance by Management Comment on the Recommendation Action to be taken To economize space, donor Partially Reject Action Timing Unit the content of each funding Accept Accept Responsible recommendation has been required summarized (yes or no) Recommendation 1 YES X TCE/REOA is already cooperating with all Develop institutional major humanitarian actors in the HoA coherence with respect through the Roll-out in the Integrated to FS information Food Security Phase Classification systems and take a System (IPC) and the support of the lead in harmonizing Regional Food Security Working. Three existing information donors, Canada, EU and UK are already systems supporting this Food Security Information Speeding up the finalisation of MoU Dec 07 TCEO Integration Initiative. with UK and UE. It will be difficult to find a donor who is willing to finance FAO’s internal search for coherence. Additional resources could stem from existing projects. In any case this requires a consolidated effort not an initiative by TCE above. Hold an internal workshop to early 2008 formulate a joint proposal. GEWS ESAF TCE EMPRES Recommendation 2 TCE: The IPC is a good example of how Promote information to integrate different information systems. systems that are of The IPC is being rolled out in several value to emergency as countries in the Horn of Africa (Kenya, well as developmental Uganda, Ethiopia and Djibouti). In understanding and particular, the Government in Kenya offers responses a good example of adoption of this tool. The SIFSIA project in the Sudan is closely Exapand the IPC to all countries in 2008 GEWS ESAF integrated within the government the subregion. TCE EMPRES structure. In Somalia, the SWALIM YES X project is developing liaison offices within Somalia with GIS capabilities and access to datasets in Nairobi and ensuring training of government employees in information management. The recommendation requires a corporate effort, not an initiative by TCE alone. Recommendation 3 TCE: Point well taken. Already efforts Use of participatory methods for ongoing TCE Promote greater use of made to increase relevancy for example project/programme formulation. indigenous knowledge, by FSAU to include translation of products Dissemination of knowledge in a disseminate clear and into Somali language and wide distribution more accessible manner. TCE/KCT effective information within the country. It will suppose skilled products, assess how yes X National Staff and FAO should become a FAO Employment of national existing systems can be more attractive employer. expertise TCE/AFHO made more relevant to
  4. 4. local decision-making Recommendation 4 YES X TCE: A regional IPC roll-out project is Expand the IPC to all countries in 2008 ESAF Support the IPC rollout underway. the subregion. TCE Recommendation 5 YES X first ESAF Develop and improve Participants in the workshop sem. TCE methodologies for FS Lessons are to be learnt from several (mentioned under recommendation 2008 assessments FAO initiatives on this matter. 1) should formulate the ToR of a study aiming at proposing a methodology for FS assessment. Recommendation 6 YES X X TCE: fully agrees with the first part of the Promote coordinated recommendation. TCE is fully involved in TCE response, emergency FAO’s disaster risk management (DRM) FAOR/OCD preparedness, initiatives. Contingency funding contingency funding, mechanisms, while desirable, require and strategic reserves review of the feasibility of such mechanisms in the FAO environment. TCE has some serious reservations with respect to strategic reserves of items such as veterinary drugs as these have implications with respect to storage and keeping up to date which, in turn, have cost implications. In any case a project profile on contingency funding is being included in the Cooperative Action is ongoing. first Agreement 2008 with OFDA. As far as Further advocacy is required with sem. 2008 emergency preparedness, REOA will be potentially responsive donors. coordinating ECHO’s Drought Preparedness Program II in the HoA. Recommendation 7 YES X This is a continuing effort with some Advocate for more success in certain countries where TCES appropriate and is operating (Somalia and Sudan). sustainable food However, funding mechanisms are not security and livelihood always appropriate, e.g. in Southern TCE: proposes that TCEO/REOA interventions Sudan there is a gap between short-term and SFE (Subregional Office for funding covered by the CHF and longer- Eastern Africa), in cooperation with term development funding covered by the the FAORs, should formalize joint MDTF. In certain cases this objective is guidelines for the implementation of being pursued through the development the PoA. of the Plan of Action (PoA), in cooperation 2008 TCEO with FAORs and Sub-regional offices in REOA Africa (SFE, SFC, SFS). In all cases the SFE primary humanitarian objectives should not be missed Recommendation 8 Willing to contribute to this but in many 2008 TCE Actively engage in the cases it goes beyond the mandate of SFE development of medium TCE. term strategies See comments under recommendation 7 See action under recommendation 7 Recommendation 9 YES X TCE agrees with the mobilization and This activity is ongoing. Continue to mobilize coordination of financial resources at the TCE
  5. 5. and coordinate regional level, although we have some resources at regional reservations about strategic level reserves/stocks mentioned in the comments on recommendation 6. Recommendation 10 YES X While we agree with this proposal, it is Contribute to FAO corporate effort ongoing TCI Study the long-term, not up to TCE to carry out the analysis. to identify the long-term causes of TCA root causes of food Information generated by FSAU is for food insecurity. ESAF insecurity example regularly used to inform CAP Seek synergies with FAO OCDO proposals prepared by FAO Somalia. Representations at field level. FAO Representations should be involved in such process and be the basis of the institutional memory of the Organization as the studies will be used for several exercises (NEPAD, UNDAF, ....) Recommendation 11 YES X We strive to achieve this objective. Be more proactive in However, donor requirements are not challenging always conducive to innovation as there assumptions and the are often limitations on emergency status quo of funding with respect to duration and type interventions and of activities that can be funded i.e. a high ensure that these are percentage to be spent on goods. based on good practice and comprehensive NA However, TCE is implementing a pilot Ensure a large diffusion of the First TCEO initiative to promote FAO good practices preliminary conclusions of the pilot semester TCER within the Cluster Approach especially the intiative. 2008 Food Security Cluster as created by the recent UN humanitarian reform. Recommendation 12 YES X Improve coordination with SFE and Advocacy with donors, develop First TCE Develop a more country offices on the elaboration of plans more regional activities. semester TCER diversified approach to of action. 2008 promote LT recovery and resilience of local production systems to climatic shocks Recommendation 13 YES X Although this is desirable, in order to Conduct market research with or ongoing TCE Distributions of preposition suitable inputs early enough without funding in order to anticipate AFSP agricultural inputs for timely distribution, it is crucial to secure agricultural season requirements. should remain an option funding well in advance of the agricultural when deemed truly season. The current CAP funding cycle necessary. Inputs (and also that of the CHF in the Sudan) should be supplied does not allow this for the main earlier. Distribution agricultural season in the Horn of Africa. times should be Although efforts are made to source local decreased seeds, in these food deficit regions, they are often not readily available in the quantity required. More delegation of Authority should ongoing TCE be given to FAORs for local AFSP FAO Procedures are still too complex, procurements. TCE together with OCD hence too time-consuming especially OCD is organizing training for field regarding procurements. Furthermore, officers. delayed delivery is not always due to
  6. 6. FAO. We do not have evidence of any is already financing the publication unjustified or not needs-based distribution of a crop calendar Recommendation 14 YES X In Southern Sudan there is a plan to re- More delegation of authority to TCE Inputs should be introduce seed-fairs using the voucher FAORs. 2008 AFSP procured from networks system. However, this intervention is OCD of local, predictable and likely to be limited in scale owing to professional producers problems posed by security More training to ERCU staff or training TCE or stockists, and considerations as well as poor alternative delivery of inputs ongoing AGPS delivered through input infrastructure and limited (journals, vouchers). AFSP fairs and voucher manpower/capacity in the FAO ECU. systems There is a requirement for a diversity of interventions tailored to meet Keep dialoguing with AFSP requirements as far as possible given the constraints. Procurement rules may need to be reviewed and amended. The present level of delegation of authority to FAO Representatives is a limiting factor to local procurement. See comments under recommendation 13 Recommendation 15 YES X This would be helpful and should be Review the various carried out by TCE in conjunction with CAHWs networks in the AGAH. Horn of Africa Action being taken by TCE in 2008 TCE cooperation with AGAH in selected AGAH countries to expand to the network and effectively utilized it (this is part of recommendation 26). Recommendation 16 YES X Already strong links have been developed Develop stronger links on livestock TCA Engage more fully with between TCE and AU-IBAR and an issues between IGAD and FAO. existing technical Emergency Officer: dedicated to the capacities at regional livestock sector is being recruited in level; control/eradicate REOA to strengthen relations between This recommendation is already REOA - FAOR transboundary livestock institutions. being implemented through the Djibouti diseases; help open Food Security and Nutrition Working international market However, it should be noted that such Group (FSNWG) in Nairobi. access to livestock engagement may help, it is not sufficient to significantly improve international Activities to be more systematically market access to livestock and livestock undertaken in cooperation with SFE REOA products from the HoA which requires SFE dedicated projects and intervention at the CGIAR political level. IUCN (World Conservation Union) Recommendation 17 yes X AGAH has worked on and is about to LEGS will be adopted for all 2008 AGAH Base interventions on release the LEGS (Livestock Emergency livestock emergency interventions TCE livestock emergency Guidelines and Standards) guidelines and standards Recommendation 18 limited TCE already makes considerable use of First Adopt a more strategic strategic partnerships with NGOs (e.g. semester TCES
  7. 7. approach to Somalia) and has developed an interim Finalization of the comparaive 2008 partnerships standard partnership agreement to analysis of partnerships. replace the LoA which has been approved by ODG. Further work at the strategic level is being carried out with an informal working group including members of TCOM, TCAP, TCE, AUD, LEGA, AFFC, AFSP, AFDS, ODGS with a view to developing a more definitive partnership agreement(s) over the long term. Currently a comparative analysis of Partnership. Arrangements of other UN agencies with Non-Governmental Organizations are being finalized. X The Regional Cassava Mosaic project in Training of local partners on FAO ongoing TCE the Great Lakes Region funded by ECHO procedures and mandate and TCAP is an excellent example and a lesson training of TCE officers and learnt case of this approach. In fact it parters’procedures mandate and gathers together Governments, National partner collaboration. Research institutions, International and local NGOs. FAO is Team leader and Coordinator. In certain instances partners cannot be easily ‘selected’ as the choice is limited and sometimes conditioned by the donor. Recommendation 19 Limited X Work underway, see answer to Finalize and introduce a recommendation 18. However, in many more effective areas as Southern Sudan, and some partnership agreement parts of Somalia, there is no choice with with NGO partners respect to selection of an appropriate partner as only one NGO may operate in a specific targeted area. The Regional Food Security and Nutrition Action as above. 2008 TCE Working group in Nairobi supported by TCAP FAO may be the right forum to discuss this issue and find solutions. Recommendation 20 YES X By definition, a leading coordination role is All actions mentioned above to TCE FAO should capitalize based on effective information exchange. strengthen effective information ESAF on its lead coordination This is a pre-condition not a consequence exchange are pertinent. (see role by….. and recommendation No. 1) effectively linking humanitarian and development agendas. Recommendation 21 YES X Although desirable, reliance on short term Revised criteria for selection of ongoing TCE Undertake a review of funding means this is often difficult to ERCU staff. AFH human resources achieve. A Coordinator’s fund-raising required in each country skills are critical to providing the means to Launch regular vacancy expand the programme and permit announcement for roster to benefit recruitment of more diversified human of a rich active roster for different resources. More attention should be levels of responsibilities. given to seeking skilled nationals.
  8. 8. YES Diversified composition of ERCU ongoing X staff. Training FAOR and TCE national ongoing TCE staff. AFH OCD Recommendation 22 YES X Fully agreed. Training cost for nationals Encourage participation of national ongoing TCE Prioritise the should be better budgeted within each staff in any training activities OCD development of national project document. organized by FAO. Encourage AFH staff international assignement for NPP Throughout the year, TCE/REOA has for borader exposure. offered national staff courses on administrative and finance issues, as well as a language course (ongoing). National Staff appraisal mechanism May 08 TCEO/ TCES to be reviewed together with AFHO AFH TCE/REOA has planned a training First TCEO/ on logical framework both for its quarter REOA national and international staff 2008 Recommendation 23 YES X Highly desirable, but not up to TCE alone. Common training of ERCU and ongoing TCE ECUs should be well Note the Somalia programme is FAOR staff. OCD integrated into the completely integrated as the Senior AFH structure of the Office of Emergency Coordinator is the FAO the FAOR. Regular Officer-in-Charge. As a result a holistic funding must be programme has been developed with both secured for core short-term emergency and longer-term functions of “stand rehabilitation and development projects. alone” ECUs. The only “core”funding available for the Somalia programme is for one secretary and one NPO. X Common training, as organized in 2006 Involvement of ERCU and FAOR TCE bringing together FAOReps and ECU staff in planning activities AFH Coordinators, should become regular. OCD Better understanding between persons and their respective role and competence has already led to better integration between FAOR and ECU Recommendation 24 YES X Agree with respect to technical support. - Close cooperation and information ongoing TCE SFE must be mandated Operational support from the SFE is only sharing. OCD to provide technical for sub-regional projects that are non- - Technical clearance subject to support and clearance emergency. type of intervention (AVI related for field operations interventions are still under CVO/AGAH/HQ clearance).
  9. 9. Recommendation 25 YES The role and composition of REOA cannot - periodic strategic meeting between ongoing TCE/ REOA should be subject to changes on an annual basis. two entities REOA/SFE. REOA complement the SFE, X This may affect efficient complementarily SFE and support ECUs in of REOA and SFE. - joint training. OCD situation analysis and strategic planning; - joint field visit. PCM; institutional learning; coordination of strategic reserves; resource mobilization Recommendation 26 YES X Much remains to be done. Work on - finalization of a beneficiary Dec. TCE Apply internal monitoring guidelines is proceeding and monitoring guidelines 2007 guidelines, training training of ECU staff should begin soon. materials and best Monitoring and impact assessment is - implementation of monitoring May TCE practice; monitor the acknowledged as a critical weakness in system in accordance with 2008 impact; share good current emergency and rehabilitation guidelines in pilot countries. practice between operations. countries and actors in The usual timeframe of TCE projects - harmonization of May TCE the region (twelve months or less) does not facilitate experience/guidelines used by 2008 monitoring exercise, especially on impact. various ERCUs in one internal Some flexibility on budget use may be guidelines. needed. - periodical subregional TCE 2008 TCE REOA: has been playing an active role in meetings with ERCU and FAOR OCD sharing best practices. Thanks to a staff with dedicated sessions on secondment from SIDA, REOA will soon sharing of good practices. implement an M&E unit. - enhanced role of REOA on good ongoing TCE practise through information sharing material on ad hoc sessions. Advocacy with donors, as more 2008 TCE resources and flexibility are needed.