Lecture Note #1


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Lecture Note #1

  1. 1. PUBLIC RELATIONS OVERVIEW: Other Names 1.Corporate Communications 2.Public Affairs 3.Public Information 4.Communications 5.Corporate Relations 6.Corporate affairs 7.Investor Relations 8.Community Relations 9.Publicity Department 1.Propaganda 2.Spin Control
  2. 2. Definition: Public Relations – Key Terms 1.Deliberate 2.Planned 3.Performance 4.Public Interest 5.Two-Way Communication 6.Management Function
  3. 3. PUBLIC RELATIONS PROCESS RACE Research Action Communication Evaluation
  4. 4. Public Relations vs. Journalism Journalism 1.Main component is writing 2.Doesn’t require managerial skills 3.Provides “objective” information 4.Communicate with mass audience 5.Single channel of media employer PR 1.Many components such as counseling and special events 2.Management skills such as problem solving 3.Provides information as means to other outcomes 4.Communicate with audience segments 5.Variety of channels
  5. 5. Public Relations vs. Advertising Advertising: 1.Paid space/time in media 2.Guaranteed placement 3.Selling goods and services 4.External audiences 5.Function as specialized communication 6.Exclusively mass mediated 7.Used as a tool in public relations Public Relations 1.Free placement 2.No guaranteed placement 3.Generate public understanding 4.Internal and external audiences 5.Management function to create favorable environment 6.Wide range of channels: mass media, small group, etc. 7.Public Relations supports advertising
  6. 6. Public Relations vs. Marketing Marketing 1.Make money for organization 2.Build markets for goods and services 3.Main audience is external market 4.Persuasive in nature 5.Costumer based communication 6.Often limits public relations to product publicity and promotion Public Relations 1.Save money for organization 2. Build relationships/ good will 3.Wide range of internal and external audiences 4.Often accommodative through dialogue with publics 5.Both Customers and non-customers comprise audience 6.Includes many management and communication functions
  7. 7. Manipulation of Information 1.Access and favoritism 2.Pseudo events 3.Controlled release 4.Disinformation 5.
  8. 8. Public Relations Services 1.Publicity 2.Lobbying 3.Political Communication 4.Crisis Management 5.Fund Raising 6.Public Affairs- Government 7.Speech Writing 8.Media Relations- New Technologies 9.Research 10.Production – VNR 11.Media Analysis
  9. 9. MANAGEMENT THEORIES I. Scientific Management (Fredrick W. Taylor) -Develop/implement science to improve speed and quality of work -Train workers -Division of work -Time and motion studies II. Bureaucracy (Max Weber) -Division of Labor and Specialization -Hierarchy -Rules and Procedures -Professional Qualifications -Impersonal Relationships -Structure
  10. 10. Problems with Bureaucracy (Warren Bennis 1965) 1. Does not allow for personal growth 2. Develops Group-think and conformity 3. Does not account for informal networks 4. Inadequate conflict and problem solving 5. Thwarts innovation 6. Promotes mistrust and fear 7. Cannot assimilate new technologies 8. Lacks personality
  11. 11. The Hawthorne Studies (1940’s and 50’s) Elton Mayo (Harvard Business School) Social Environment vs. Physical Environment Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric SOME EXAMPLES (see handout) 1. The Illumination Experiment & The Hawthorne Effect 2. The Relay Assembly Test Room Experiment 3. The Bank Wiring Assembly Observation Room Experiment Hawthorne Studies: demonstrate the importance of informal communication in motivation.
  12. 12. THE HUMAN RESOURCE SCHOOL Douglas McGregor (Also Rensis Likert) Theory X and Theory Y Theory X: 1. The average person dislikes work 2. Most people must be coerced, controlled, threatened, etc. to achieve goals 3. The average person prefers to be directed and wished to avoid responsibility
  13. 13. Theory Y: 1. Expenditure of physical effort is as natural as play and rest 2. People will exercise self-control and self- direction in service of organization objective if they are committed 3. Commitment is associated with the perceived rewards 4. The capacity to exercise a high degree of imagination and creativity in the solution of organization problems is highly distributed in the organization 5. We need to utilize the intellectual potential of the work force
  14. 14. The Systems School (Daniel Katz and Robert Kahn) -Boundaries -Entropy (open vs. closed systems) -Negative Feedback (most common in Organizations) -Homeostasis (the steady state) -Differentiation (organization become more complex) -Equalfinality (more than one right way)
  15. 15. Contingency Theory -Situational and environmental factors are important in any organizational analysis -There is no “one best way” to organize. Depends on environment.
  16. 16. VIEWS OF COMMUNICATION 1. Linear View (The Bull’s Eye) 2. Interaction View (Ping-Pong) 3. Transactional View
  17. 17. A Basic Model of Communication 1. Sender/Receiver 2. Environment/Setting 3. Noise 4. Message 5. Channel 6. Feedback
  18. 18. A Few Communication Principles: 0. MS does not Equal MR 1. You cannot not communicate (Intent/perception) 2. Communication Is Complex… occurs on at least Two levels all of the time- Content & Relationship 3. Communication involves Equals or Nonequals 4. Communication is context based 5. Communication should be viewed as a transactional process 6. Communication is Irreversible 7. Communication involves Task and Social Functions 8. Punctuation is important. 9. Cybernetics is important 10.Noise affects the communication process (Physical, Semantic, Cultural, Physiological, Psychological)
  19. 19. 11.Two way flow takes more time, but decreases error! 12.Communication Norms are learned at an Early Age THE HISTORY OF PUBLIC RELATIONS Press Agentry P.T. Barnum Tom Thumb Swedish Nightingale Publicity Amos Kendall & Jackson’s Kitchen Cabinet Henry Ford
  20. 20. Counseling Ivy Lee & John D. Rockefeller 1. Industry should align with public 2. Deal with top Executives 3. Maintain open communication with media 4. Emphasize community level Creel Committee Office of War Information (OWI)
  21. 21. Edward Bernays & Doris Fleischman “Lights Golden Jubilee” Target Audience
  22. 22. James Grunig and Todd Hunt Four Models of Public Relations 1. Press Agentry/ Publicity (PT BArnum) 2. Public Information (Ivy Lee & Non profits) 3. Two-Way Asymmetric (Edward Bernays) 4. Two-Way Symetric (Bernays and educators)
  23. 23. A FEW REASONS FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS GROWTH: 1. Global Economy 2. Quality of Environment 3. Management role for PR 4. Issues Management 5. Proliferation of publics 6. Demasstification of media channels 7. New Technology 8. Higher Priority of employee communication
  24. 24. Should PR Firms be licensed? FOR: -Define the practice of PR -Establish uniform standards -Set Ethical and professional standards -Provide for de-certification procedure -Protect qualified practitioners from unfair competition -Protect consumers from imposters -Raise credibility of practitioners
  25. 25. AGAINST: - Infringement of First Amendment - Difficult to define public relations - Too Much emphasis on education - Voluntary accreditation is sufficient - Civil and criminal laws already exist - Legislatures show little interest - Would hamper international practice -Licensing only assures minimal competence - Credibility is not assured through licensing - Regulation would be costly
  26. 26. PRSA 1. Five years experience (including internships) 2. Two Sponsors 3. Pass one-day written exam 4. Renewal procedure IABC 1. Portfolio Evaluation 2. Written and Oral Exams
  27. 27. ETHICAL GUIDELINES 1. Be Honest at all times 2. Convey sense of business ethics 3. Respect integrity of profession 4. Develop trust 5. Present all sides of issue 6. Balance loyalty to organization and public ********************************* 7. Don’t sacrifice long term objectives for short term gain *********************************
  28. 28. Firms versus In-House Advantages: -Objectivity -Specialized Skills -Extensive Resources -Special Problem Solving -Credibility Disadvantages -Superficial grasp of problems -Lack of full-time commitment -Need for prolonged briefing and research -Resentment by internal staff -Need for strong direction by top management
  29. 29. Research: -Why Research? -Qualitative vs. Quantitative Methods Methods: 1. Online 2. Content Analysis 3. Interviewing 4. Focus Groups 5. Copy Testing 6. Questionnaires 7. Telephone Surveys
  30. 30. Planning – Why Plan? MBO – Management by Objectives Eight parts of the PR Plan: 1. Situation 2. Objectives 3. Audience 4. Strategy 5. Tactics 6. Timetable 7. Budget 8. Evaluation
  31. 31. The News Release 1. Simple Document offering ready to publish information 2. Competition among them is intense 3. Appearance: -8.5 x 11 -return address upper left -“For immediate release” (or date) -2 spaces -Clear summary lead -wide margins -never split paragraphs -“more” on bottom if continues -page number on following pages -Optional Summary headline 4. Content: -Be concise -Avoid worn phrases -Avoid technical language -Check accuracy -Get approval before release -Be prepared for follow-up calls -Avoid omitting adverse information
  32. 32. THE PRESS KIT 1. Sent or distributed to media (as part of news conference 2. folder containing: -News release -Factsheets -backgrounders (articles) -company materials -Photographs (b/w) -Color slides -Article reprints -Graphic design ob folders/materials -Novelty items
  33. 33. WRITTEN TACTICS: PUBLICATIONS 1. News Release 2. Press Kit 3. Company Magazine 4. Handbooks 5. Brochures 6. Newsletter 7. Annual Report 8. Advertising
  34. 34. SPOKEN TACTICS 1. Face to face interview 2. Calls 3. Speechwriting 4. Visual Aids 5. Press Tours/ Parties 6. TV and Radio Appearances 7. Films 8. Comic Books 9. Slide Shows