This presentation will give you an overview of the programs of the Franklin County Emergency Management & Homeland Security.
Most agencies and businesses have a statement that explains their overall goal or reason for existing. This is the Mission Statement for the FCEM&HS.
The Emergency Management Agency for Franklin County grew out of an informal group organized in 1950 by Columbus Mayor James A. Rhodes. Mayor Rhodes established a group of volunteers to assist fire and police departments in rescue operations. In 1952 the agency officially began operation as the Columbus and Franklin County Civil Defense Organization.. In the 1940s large sirens had been installed in the county to call in volunteer firemen. In 1953 these sirens became part of a nationwide organization to warn citizens of an enemy attack. Franklin County was among the first in the country to have an effective operating siren system. In 1958 Congress amended the Civil Defense Act of 1950 to make civil defense a joint Federal, State, and local responsibility During the Cold War of the 60s, fallout shelters became a high priority. The agency took an active role in identifying public fallout shelter sites and stocking those sites with supplies. By the early 70s, there was a de-emphasis of the Civil Defense concept, and more concentration on natural disasters, such as tornadoes, floods, and winter storms. In 1974 the name was also changed to reflect the new focus. The agency became the Columbus and Franklin County Disaster Services Agency. The agency’s responsibilities were shifted to support a network of volunteers and maintain programs to help local communities prepare for disasters. It was decided that the sirens would be used to warn citizens of tornado sightings. In 1979 at the initiation of President Carter, Congress established FEMA to bring fragmented emergency programs into a coordinated structure of “Emergency Management” In the 80s, the agency continued to change and grow. New attention was placed on hazardous chemical spills and the preparation and training involved in responding to these incidents. In 1988 the agency’s name was again changed to Emergency Management Agency for Franklin County. In 1997 the agency’s focus was again changed to planning and training for a new threat – terrorism. This planning and training has continued to expand and currently is the focus of much of our work.
The agency has eight staff positions. The agency is responsible for installation, maintenance, and activation of the outdoor warning siren system. This is one of the most extensive siren systems in the state with 139 sirens. Most have voice message capability, all, part or one can be turned to a particular direction for a message. The agency also writes, distributes, and updates emergency plans for the county. We assist the community in developing and reviewing emergency plans.(schools, health care facilities, businesses, local jurisdictions) We compiled a detailed hazard analysis for the county. The agency provides training for all segments of government and the community, as well as exercises to test emergency plans. Some of the classes we offer, when requested,are Hazmat Awareness, WMD Awareness, EOC course, ICS, and weather spotter training. We coordinate about 12-16 exercises or drills a year, 1 hazmat per year, airport every three years. In 1998 we did a full scale WMD exercise at Cooper Stadium with the Department of Defense. We provide disaster education to individuals, groups, and communities, particularly tornado and family safety. We produce and distribute disaster preparedness brochures an well as a quarterly newsletter and an annual report. The Operations position coordinates community and countywide damage assessment, coordinates donated goods and debris removal during and after a disaster, maintains a resource database and the communications equipment. The duties of the finance position and the director are obvious.
We tend to use the terms “emergency” and “disaster” interchangeably, however, technically there is a difference.
Emergency Management is a dynamic process. Planning, though critical, is not the only component. Training, conducting exercises and drills, and coordinating activities with the community are all important functions.
We practice comprehensive emergency management – that is to plan and prepare for all hazards. Many basic emergency management programs can be used for more than one and perhaps many kinds of emergencies. For example, evacuation programs and temporary shelters can be used for floods, hurricanes, hazardous material incidents, and even terrorist or military attacks. So we can develop one generic evacuation plan that can be adapted for several types of disasters. Emergency management is fundamentally an adaptive process where plans and procedures are adapted to fit the specific circumstances in which responders find themselves.
Increasingly, the four functions are considered to be intertwined because mitigation efforts can lessen the need for response and recovery, preparedness can speed response and recovery, response efforts can help recovery, and recovery efforts can include mitigation and preparedness activities.
Mitigation activities may include conducting a vulnerability analysis, zoning and land use management, resource allocation, and public education. A good example, locally, is the building of the Franklinton Flood Wall.
These activities include, preparedness plans, exercises/training, warning systems, emergency communications systems resource inventories, mutual aid agreements. A recently completed project here in the county is a new communication system call Metro-Alert. Special 800MHz radios have been placed in all dispatch facilities in the county. They are always on, at the same frequency. A message can be sent to all dispatch sites simultaneously. For example, if a child is missing, all dispatch facilities would know at once. Another system that is now operational is the reverse 911 system. This system can be used to notify the general public by telephone, cell phone, pager, etc. of situations in their area.
We have done a hazard analysis for Franklin County. We rated 14 hazards on several factors, such as history, how large an area could each hazard possible affect, could the event be predicted, could you prepare to lessen the impact, (winter storms don’t sneak up on you, we usually have time to prepare by getting in extra food, etc.) and what would be the possible human and economic impact. As you can see, flooding is our number one hazard. We have had more Presidential Declarations for flooding than any other hazard. Next is tornadoes. We have a tornado warning about once every two years. A close third is hazardous material spills. We respond to more hazardous material spills than any other incident – although this is getting better. Companies have improved their safety records. Fourth is terrorism. This study was done in 1996,but the figures are still relevant today. In 1997 Columbus was selected as one of the first 26 cities in the country to receive terrorism training and funding under the Nunn-Lugar-Dominichi Domestic Preparedness Act. That is why you will hear Columbus described as a Nunn-Lugar city, which means we have received about 1.5 million in training and equipment funding from the Federal Government, under the Departments of Defense and Justice.
After the Hazard Analysis is completed, plans are written to guide the response to the hazard. Listed here are some examples of plans prepared by the Agency.
Writing plans does not prepare the first responders to respond to an incident. Training exercises are conducted to provide as near-to-life experiences to prepare the responders for the real event. Classes are also offered to further the education of the first responders. The classes and exercises also provide the opportunity for networking across jurisdictional boundaries. The Agency in cooperation with the National Weather Service offers Weather Spotter training for the amateur radio community and first responders. The trained eye of a Weather Spotter is a valuable resource for the National Weather Service. It is important that the elected officials and other government officials be informed about emergency operations. They have an important role to perform during any disaster.
Preparing the citizens of Franklin County for emergencies or disasters is also a function of the Agency. A variety of educational programs and materials are provided by the Agency.
This is the ”red light and siren” phase. Activities include, activation of public warning systems, notification of public authorities, mobilization of emergency personnel and equipment, emergency medical assistance, activation of EOC’s, disaster declarations, search and rescue.
Most incidents are managed at the scene through the Command Post, however for a large incident and EOC may be activated. The EOC will not conflict or compete with Incident Command at the scene. The EOC supports field operations and coordinates the activities of a large incident or several command posts at different sites. The EOC is the central point for coordination and supervision of all emergency response operations. Depending on the incident, this may be the County EOC or a local jurisdiction EOC, or if several counties are involved the State EOC will be opened.
The county and/or municipal EOCs will be activated upon the threat or occurrence of a major disaster where centralized coordination is needed, and if the incident is expected to last a long time.
Direction refers to policy making and executive authority. Control is guiding and managing the emergency efforts of multiple departments, agencies and individuals. A department head, or person with decision-making capabilities should be in the EOC to represent each organization involved in the incident. Timely, accurate information from the scene must come into the EOC for decision makers. The information will be analyzed for potential problems. The results of any action taken will be posted. When two or more incidents require the same limited resources someone must decide who gets what. Based on information gathered in the EOC and information from the field, authorities can make intelligent decisions as to who will receive limited resources until additional resources can be procured. The purpose of resource management is to provide essential information, personnel and equipment to best respond to and recover from an emergency. We have already discussed the types of resources we may have in our capability assessment. It is important that responders have what they need without duplication. The most important function of the EOC is to establish and maintain communications with emergency response personnel at the incident scene. Communications are also essential between the EOC and other jurisdictions and outside agencies. Accurate damage assessment information is necessary to provide needed assistance and also for requesting assistance from higher levels of government.
The groups required in the EOC is dictated by the size and the complexity of the disaster. Like the Incident Command System, the structure of the EOC flexes to meet the needs of the incident.
The Communications Center is the link between the EOC and the incident. Communications in any disaster is one of the most difficult and critical operations in responding to a disaster. Redundancy of equipment and skilled operators are key factors for the successful operation of the Communications Center. If the Communications Center operates efficiently, the response to the incident will be more effective.
Communications with the hospitals during a disaster is critical. The Agency Communications Center has many redundant methods to insure lines of communications with the hospitals can be maintained. HERCS = Hospital Emergency Radio Communications System
We have all these resource possibilities. How are they coordinated so that all needs are covered without duplicating efforts? If you need one front-end loader, you don’t want 3 to show up. This is where our agency comes into the picture. Resources are coordinated through the local Emergency Operations Center, or through the Command Post at the scene.
Government resources start with our local government departments. What do they do everyday and what would be their role in an emergency. Some departments have a more obvious role in an emergency than others e.b.fire department vs. traffic engineering (equipment), sewers and drains, equipment for debris removal. Governments can’t work alone we need partnerships with both businesses and non-profit organizations as well as our neighboring jurisdictions. We have agreements with industry such as COTA and mutual aid agreements with neighboring jurisdictions. When local resources have been exhausted, officials may have to ask for help from higher levels of government through the disaster declaration and relief processes.
Information related to weather conditions can be critical to the response to many incidents. Again, redundancy is key. The Agency receives weather information via satellite, internet, radio and telephone.
The Franklin County siren system has the primary mission of warning Franklin County Citizens of tornados. The system does have the flexibility and voice capacity to be used selectively to announce information related to other incidents, such as the need to shelter-in-place.
Recovery continues until all systems return to normal or better. Activities include, damage insurance/loans and grants, temporary housing, long-term medical care, disaster unemployment insurance, reconstruction counseling programs, economic impact studies.
The last of the four phases of emergency management is recovery – returning to as near normal condition as possible. Recovery is both a short-term and a long-term process. Short-term recovery operations focus on restoring vital services to the community and providing for the basic needs of the public. Long-term recovery focuses on restoring the community to its normal or improved state. Damage assessment is necessary in requesting State and Federal assistance. Response starts and the local level. Only when local resources are depleted or it becomes obvious that local resources will not be adequate to handle the incident and the resulting aftermath, can higher government resources be requested. We start with a local disaster declaration by local officials to the governor. This releases State resources. If state resources are not adequate, the Governor can make a State Declaration to the White House for Federal assistance. With a Federal Declaration the Federal Response Plan is activated and Federal resources made available.
The Volunteer Program is a cooperative affiliation of several volunteer organizations. FCEM&HS = Franklin County Emergency Management & Homeland Security COARES = Central Ohio Amateur Radio Emergency Service COSWN – Columbus Ohio Severe Weather Net ATV = Amateur Television CORC = Central Ohio Repeater Council CCRA = Central Columbus Repeater Association
SWCRC = South West Columbus Repeater Council COLECT = Central Ohio Law Enforcement Chaplains Team CISM Teams = Critical Incident Stress Management Teams
Diagram of the FCEM&HS volunteer program.
Courses required for a person to become a volunteer with the FCEM&HS. The two “courses” are required for all volunteers. The Introduction course can be taken as a class or independent study. The IS-700 course is a FEMA “on-line” courses and can be completed as the volunteer’s schedule permits. Additional training is supplied by FEMA and the various volunteer groups specifically for their members and geared to their particular type of response to disasters. From time to time, other courses may be made available to the entire group by outside organizations such as local fire departments.
Franklin County Emergency Management and Homeland Security <ul><li>AN INTRODUCTION </li></ul>
Mission Statement <ul><li>The Franklin County Emergency Management and Homeland Security, coordinates county-wide emergency / disaster planning, education, warning, response and recovery to minimize the adverse impact on area residents and property. </li></ul>
History <ul><li>1950s – Agency officially began operation </li></ul><ul><li>1960s – Cold War Era </li></ul><ul><li>1970s – Disaster Services Agency </li></ul><ul><li>1980s – Emergency Management Agency </li></ul><ul><li>1990s – Focus on Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>2004 – Moved to new “state of the art” facility </li></ul><ul><li>2005 – Homeland Security officially added to agency name </li></ul>
Emergency <ul><li>An emergency, while it may have been devastating, is a dangerous event that did not result in a request for State or Federal assistance. </li></ul>
Disaster <ul><li>A disaster is a dangerous event that causes significant human and economic loss and demands a crisis response beyond the scope of any single agency or service. </li></ul>
Emergency Management <ul><li>The organized analysis, planning, decision making, and assignment of available resources to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of all hazards. </li></ul>
Comprehensive Emergency Management <ul><li>Comprehensive emergency management is an all hazards approach to emergency planning, allowing for generic mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery programs that can be used in more than one kind of disaster. </li></ul>
Mitigation <ul><li>Activities which actually eliminate or reduce the probability of occurrence of a disaster, including long-term activities which reduce the effects of unavoidable disasters. </li></ul>
Preparedness <ul><li>Activities which are necessary to the extent that mitigation measures have not, or cannot, prevent disasters. Preparedness measures also seek to enhance disaster response operations. </li></ul>
Franklin County Hazards (possibilities of occurring) drought radiological dam failure earthquake air crash power failure civil disturbance nuclear event winter storm 20 40 60 80 100 thunderstorm terrorism hazmat tornado flood
Planning <ul><li>Emergency Operations Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Hazardous Material Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Animal Care Plan </li></ul><ul><li>WMD Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Radiological Response Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Debris Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Donated Goods Plan </li></ul>
Training and Exercises <ul><li>12-15 Exercises a Year </li></ul><ul><li>Training for First Responders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Works </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weather Spotter Training </li></ul><ul><li>Elected and Government Officials </li></ul>
Public Education <ul><li>Educational Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Web Site (www.emafc.com) </li></ul><ul><li>CERT Training </li></ul><ul><li>Speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Employee and Health Fairs </li></ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Weather Awareness </li></ul>
Response <ul><li>Activities occurring during and immediately following a disaster, designed to provide emergency assistance to victims of the event and reduce the likelihood of secondary damage. </li></ul>
Emergency Operations Center <ul><li>The EOC, in coordination with the Incident Command Post will be the point of contact for all operating or responding departments and agencies, other counties and State agencies. </li></ul>
EOC Activation <ul><li>There exists an imminent threat to the safety/health of the public </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive multi-agency or jurisdictional response is necessary </li></ul><ul><li>Local resources are inadequate or depleted & mutual aid must be utilized </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple political jurisdictions are affected </li></ul>
EOC Primary Functions <ul><li>Centralized Direction and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Information Collection, Evaluation, Display </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Response Prioritization </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Management </li></ul><ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Damage Assessment </li></ul>
Organization of EOC <ul><li>Executive Group </li></ul><ul><li>Communications Group </li></ul><ul><li>Operations Group </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Group </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics Group </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Group </li></ul><ul><li>Liaisons </li></ul>
Communications Center <ul><li>Public Safety Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Public Service Radio </li></ul><ul><li>MARCS </li></ul><ul><li>EAS </li></ul><ul><li>Amateur Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Weather Information </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Abilities (ie. ALERT & HS-4) </li></ul>
Hospital Communications <ul><li>Speed-dial to Emergency Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus Fire Alarm Phone Line </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Phone to Land Line (Digital & Analog) </li></ul><ul><li>800 MHz Radio </li></ul><ul><li>HERCS </li></ul><ul><li>Amateur Radio </li></ul>
Resource Coordination Law Enforcement Red Cross Hospitals Shelters Fire Departments Salvation Army Hazmat Teams Utility Departments Church Organizations Volunteer Organizations Industry Funeral Homes Federal Agencies Amateur Radio Local Businesses State Resources County Government Depts. City Government Depts.
Types of Resources <ul><li>Government emergency capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Private community resources </li></ul><ul><li>Neighboring Jurisdiction Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level government resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal </li></ul></ul>
Weather Information Center <ul><li>Emergency Managers Weather Information Network (EMWIN) </li></ul><ul><li>Davis Vantage Pro Weather Station </li></ul><ul><li>WXMesg </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pages Watches and Warnings to Duty Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Storm Watch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain Gauges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River Gauges </li></ul></ul>
Warning System <ul><li>139 Sirens </li></ul><ul><li>125 Voice Capable, 14 Siren Only </li></ul><ul><li>Activation Points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FCEM&HS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columbus Fire Alarm Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Westerville Communications Center </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wednesday Test (includes radios) </li></ul>
Recovery <ul><li>Short -term recovery: returns vital life support systems to minimum operating standards. </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term recovery: May go on for years until the entire disaster area is completely redeveloped. </li></ul>
Volunteer Program <ul><li>FCEM&HS </li></ul><ul><li>COARES </li></ul><ul><li>COSWN </li></ul><ul><li>ATV </li></ul><ul><li>CORC </li></ul><ul><li>CCRA </li></ul>
Volunteer Program <ul><li>SWCRC </li></ul><ul><li>COLECT </li></ul><ul><li>CISM Teams </li></ul>
Training <ul><li>Introduction to Franklin County EM&HS </li></ul><ul><li>IS-700 National Incident Management System (NIMS) </li></ul><ul><li>http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/is </li></ul><ul><li>Training as required by affiliated organization </li></ul>