european school of governance Dr. Thomas R. Henschel


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european school of governance Dr. Thomas R. Henschel

  1. 1. The role of mediation in international relations: „call for peaceful conflict resolutions in globalization“ Dr. Thomas R. Henschel European School of Governance culture meets culture 03.-06. Mail 2006, EUROAPHAUS WIEN
  2. 2. content <ul><li>Trends in Society and international relations </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization </li></ul><ul><li>Global society world and international conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>International conflicts and conflict prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Concepts of multilateral peace keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation: a concept for international peace keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and perspective </li></ul>
  3. 3. Trends in Society <ul><li>Economic development and prosperity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1871: more than 50% in agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000: less than 3.2% in agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GDP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1830: 2000: ~ 130.-€ ~ 25.000.- € </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifetime: doubled </li></ul><ul><li>Better education and access to information </li></ul>People in agriculture GDP
  4. 4. <ul><li>Today’s elite has no longer the monopoly of access to information - in the best case they have a little advantage of time </li></ul><ul><li>The radical change of the social structure , the revolution in the education and information sector has initiated a change in government: democratization </li></ul><ul><li>„ The Democratic Revolution is the most important trend at the end of the 20th century“ </li></ul><ul><li>(Samuel Huntigton) </li></ul>Trends in Society
  5. 5. Democratization <ul><li>Increasing welfare leads to growing demands for democratic participation </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization promotes democratization </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare and development needs the autonomic and innovative citizen, who participates in decision making </li></ul>Number of people in % living in democratic societies
  6. 6. The global society world <ul><li>The emerging of the „society world“ (E.-O. Czempiel) has almost eliminated the classical international war between states </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001 the UN registered 105 violent conflicts and wars, all of them „ new wars“ (intra-state-wars) </li></ul><ul><li>Main issue of those conflicts: political and economic Participation </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge of the 21th century: how to deal with these conflicts in an alternative and non-violent way that answers the demand for participation? </li></ul>
  7. 7. International conflict and conflict prevention <ul><li>1945: United Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multilateralism institutionalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus building as a principle in international politics and peace keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of international law and international government under the control of the United Nations </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. International conflict and conflict prevention crisis of classical crisis-management <ul><li>Collapse of security policy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The crisis in Yugoslavia, Somalia and Rwanda made the collapse of the classical crisis-management obvious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deadly conflicts, failed states, civil war, violence of human rights, genocide – the international community seemed to be almost helpless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A massive conceptional gap in security and peace policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This became even more true after 9/11 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spending of Resources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>millions of Dollar where spent for re-active crisis management (military forces, humanitarian aid, recovery programs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development policy became a repair workshop </li></ul>The international community is in need of a concept for maintaining security in the new emerging world order
  9. 9. <ul><li>Prevention before a deadly conflict and C onsolidation after such a conflict became important, conceptional aspects for new forms of appropriate, effective and cheaper security strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Development policy aspects and security aspects (peace building) merged to the new concept of peace-consolidation (UN/OSCE) </li></ul>International conflict and conflict prevention search for new concepts of constructive conflict management Development Policy Security Policy Peace Consolidation
  10. 10. Concepts of multilateral peace keeping <ul><li>Peace Consolidation (UN / OSCE) A systematic and long-term oriented process to deal with the sources of violent conflicts and to build the framework, the institutions and structures for a society to live in together in peace </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three phases of Peace Consolidation (UN / OSCE) </li></ul></ul></ul>I. II. III. Preventing deadly conflicts Preventing escalation Preventing rebirth of conflict
  11. 11. <ul><li>A change in paradigm in Security Policy stresses the “culture of Prevention” (Carnegie Commission 1997) and pledges for a coherent conflict prevention strategy development (UN 1/2001) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Prevention is the only appropriate security policy.” (Ernst-Otto Czempiel ) </li></ul>International conflict and conflict prevention a change in paradigm
  12. 12. Concepts of multilateral peace keeping <ul><li>The current model of peace Consolidation: </li></ul>Peace Consolidation Experts : Operative Prevention <ul><li>Early warning and intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Economic measures (Sanctions, Benefits) </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement measures </li></ul>Structural prevention <ul><li>Security (in and between states) </li></ul><ul><li>Well-Being (i.e. social justice, political participations, sustainable Development) </li></ul><ul><li>Rule of law and just society (in and between states) </li></ul>short term mid term long term
  13. 13. <ul><li>Current model of UN and OSCE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experts are analyzing the conflict, its structure etc. and developing strategies for peace building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experts are doing the job and they are trying to bring peace to the people </li></ul></ul>Concepts of multilateral peace keeping <ul><ul><li>A good model for de-escalation of deadly conflicts by force, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>also the best model for a sustainable peace building? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Problems of the current concept <ul><li>Peace Consolidation is basically seen as a technological project concerning resources, technical support, capacities, methods of external actors to act most effective according to the operational needs on the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Gap between early warning and early action </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of co-ordination coherent approaches between state and non-state actors </li></ul><ul><li>One track classical diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>Almost non bottom-up information flow and network </li></ul><ul><li>High-tech military warning systems not suited to the prevailing of new wars </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Empowering civic society by empowering the people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation is an approach that empowers the civil society by empowering the people itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>conflict owners and experts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The conflict groups and partners are experts for their problems and conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they could be experts for peace building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mediation: an approved process approach and tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation is an additional approved instrument for sustainable peace building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When people participate, it enhances the acceptance of the result </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability is a result of the process itself </li></ul></ul>Mediation: a concept for international peace keeping
  16. 16. <ul><li>supports the conflict parties in understanding their conflict: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods to stimulate the exchange about differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping the conflict by using visualization techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><li>creates a room for the differences and for the mutual acceptances of those differences </li></ul><ul><li>Helps the conflict parties to find optimal regulations for their situations based on a better understanding of the interests and needs of everybody involved in the conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts the creation of a contract and ensures – if needed - that a third party overlooks and guards the implementation process </li></ul>Mediation: a concept for international peace keeping How mediation could be useful Mediation
  17. 17. Where mediation could make a difference: <ul><li>Phase I: Prevention: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transferring preventive diplomacy into early mediation processes (by professional mediators and not diplomats, only) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support of early mediation approaches by economic measurements (sanctions or benefits) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phase III: Sustainable Peace-building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing sustainable structures for peace keeping through the participations of the conflict parties in the strategy development process </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Mediation: an instrument for all phases and on all political levels in the process of peace building <ul><li>Mediation could help to overcome structural gaps in the current concept of peace building: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of Interest of the conflict parties, politicians etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>activation of resources (from non-action to effective action) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence building of actors in all fields of politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better coherence and co-operation in foreign policy, security and development policy in an complex and multilevel environment (regional and national governments, international organizations, NGO`s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better co-operation of government and private sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective support oriented at the needs and interests of the people on the ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humanitarian assistance and development local capacities for peace could be forstered and their capacity could be strengthened </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Challenges for Mediation <ul><li>In new wars the conflict parties are not so easy to identify </li></ul><ul><li>Each intervention has its own advantages and risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of impact assessment tools and methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Organizations such as EU, UN or states such as the US or India have their own agenda and interests </li></ul><ul><li>Working without a concept could be after all not such a bad concept (process more import than concepts) </li></ul><ul><li>Demands long term stay on the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a new self-consciousness of Mediation </li></ul><ul><li>Needs conflict sensibility (Ursula König) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mediation <ul><li>UN and OSCE should promote the integration of Mediation as a complementary instrument and approach for conflict prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation supports the parties, the responsibility for the content stays with the conflict parties </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation fosters the civic society by empowering the people itself and giving them back the responsibility for their conflicts and conflict-resolution strategies </li></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Most important trend: democratization </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization demands participation of the citizin and a strong civic society </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization and the growing global society has ended the classical international war between states </li></ul><ul><li>Today deadly conflicts are civil wars and terrorist acts </li></ul><ul><li>The UN / OSCE model is an approved - however imperfect it may be - instrument to de-escalate deadly conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Peace building would profit from mediation in three aspects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early prevention (preventive mediation etc.)I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous prevention (developing sustainable structures and regulations for peace building and keeping) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation is a key resource for all aspects of peace building </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Perspective <ul><li>In a more and more complex and dynamic world, in which one men could destroy the whole world, we need mediation as a sufficient approach and tool to deal in a peaceful and participative way with international conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>An approach that empowers the civil society by empowering participation and the citizens itself. </li></ul><ul><li>An approach that is dialog and process orientated and leaves the responsibility with the people. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the states and between the states. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Contact <ul><li>Dr. Thomas R. Henschel European School of Governance, Berlin Im Palais am Festungsgraben Am Festungsgraben 1 10117 Berlin Tel.: +49 (0)30 20 61 62 57 FAX: +49 (0)30 20 61 62 92 Email: [email_address] </li></ul>