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  1. 1. Integrated Drought Management - based on 1999 SSA Drought Conference Eberhard Braune Department of Water Affairs and Forestry South Africa.
  2. 2. 1999 Conference: Integrated Drought Management - Lessons for Sub-Saharan Africa <ul><li>Unique: Highly multi-disciplinary programme and participants </li></ul><ul><li>For sub-Saharan Africa Region at end of International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-2000) </li></ul><ul><li>UNESCO sponsor: Sciences and Education </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Drought Management a development vision </li></ul>
  3. 3. Drought and Desertification - New Policy Response Needed “ Throughout the world there is now a growing recognition that drought and desertification are multi-faceted problems requiring a developmental rather that a crisis management approach. The challenge lies in moving towards the integration of a variety of actions, which can mitigate the crisis, and create opportunities for improving the quality of life, maintaining ecosystems and generating wealth and sustainable development.” 1999 Integrated Drought Management Conference
  4. 4. Why Integrated Drought Management <ul><li>Drought in sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Normal and recurrent feature of climate </li></ul><ul><li>Most complex least understood natural hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Region makes up the core of the global drought and desertification problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects more people than any other hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation has affected dry land areas of Africa most seriously. </li></ul><ul><li>Most vulnerable; small farmers; 70% of agricultural output; most important economic sector </li></ul><ul><li>Highest development priority in Africa: Poverty eradication </li></ul><ul><li>Must move from crisis management to a developmental approach </li></ul>
  5. 5. Drought Risk <ul><li>Drought Risk = Exposure to event </li></ul><ul><li>(frequency and severity) </li></ul><ul><li>X </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability of society to event </li></ul><ul><li>(population, demographics, technology, policy, social behavior, interaction with natural resources) </li></ul><ul><li>Past approach: emphasis on crisis management </li></ul><ul><li>Little if any chance for risk reduction </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cycle of Disaster Management Protection Recovery Preparedness Mitigation Reconstruction Recovery Response Impact Assessment Prediction and Early Warning Disaster Risk management Crisis management Wilhite, 1999
  7. 7. Drought Risk Management <ul><li>Sustained effort to reduce risk and vulnerability through a variety of measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal integration over all sectors impacted by drought, inter alia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resource management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health and population development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rural and urban development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Vertical integration linking policy and planning down to grassroots communal problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the protection of livelihoods and increasing self-reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Particular attention to traditional impediments to drought management in rural communities and to sustainable living in general </li></ul><ul><li>Major focus on community education and capacity-building </li></ul><ul><li>A national policy as focus for integration and resourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement of beneficiaries in the policy-making </li></ul>
  8. 8. Drought Preparedness <ul><li>Drought preparedness bringing together vital elements of </li></ul><ul><li>management in a planned way: </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of state, local, and tribal government actions; </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination with various agencies; </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of vulnerable sectors; </li></ul><ul><li>Information flow within and between government; </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination of requests for assistance; </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency of allocation of natural, financial and human resources; </li></ul><ul><li>Preparedness can also help to identify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerable sectors and populations; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholders who should be involved; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions to reduce vulnerability; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps in data and information; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and institutional needs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational needs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. A Framework for Integrated Drought Management Seely, 1999 Integrated Drought Management Biophysical Socio-Economic Social Aspects Soil Plant and Animal Energy Climate Economical Aspirations Water Sustainable Communities Land Reclamation projects Sustainable Farming or Other Production Systems
  10. 10. A Major International Co-operation Opportunity <ul><li>The many initiatives towards more planned drought management throughout sub-Saharan Africa, both nationally and regionally, since the severe droughts of early nineties </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>New experiences from developed countries towards systematic and integrated implementation of such approaches </li></ul><ul><li>= </li></ul><ul><li>an important opportunity for rapid progress in addressing the mainstreaming of drought in countries, with regional and international co-operation. </li></ul>