Crisis Response Plan


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Crisis Response Plan

  1. 1. Crisis Response Plans Why are schools responsible for Crisis Response Planning? What components already exist in your district/school? What parts of this legislation cause you heartburn?
  2. 2. Most Common Crises Schools Experience <ul><li>Student death due to accident or illness </li></ul><ul><li>Student death by suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Student death due to homicide </li></ul><ul><li>Staff death due to accident or illness </li></ul><ul><li>Staff death by suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Catastrophic events involving students or staff </li></ul><ul><li>Natural disasters </li></ul>
  3. 3. Expectations of Training <ul><li>Understand the legislation & essential components of crisis response plan </li></ul><ul><li>Be able to construct a district plan for implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Identify pertinent members of a team </li></ul><ul><li>Provide current research and resources for school districts interested in further information. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Crisis Response Planning Legislation <ul><li>District constructs model </li></ul><ul><li>Schools construct specific plans/teams </li></ul><ul><li>District annually review/update and post </li></ul><ul><li>Training annually for all district employees </li></ul><ul><li>District: July 1, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>School: December 31, 2000 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Each school shall have a crisis response team <ul><li>Minimum Team Membership </li></ul><ul><li>the principal. </li></ul><ul><li>One certified member. </li></ul><ul><li>One classified member </li></ul><ul><li>One parent. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Plan Requirements <ul><li>Identification of person in charge and a substitute </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of team members and specific crisis team job functions </li></ul><ul><li>A communication plan </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis response protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation and lock down plans </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis response policies . </li></ul>
  7. 7. The district and each school within the district shall consult with local social services agencies and local law enforcement authorities when developing the school crisis response plan.
  8. 8. Crisis Definition <ul><li>The legislation defines crisis to include a traumatic event or emergency condition that creates distress, hardship, fear or grief. </li></ul>Changes?
  9. 9. Trauma <ul><li>Working in the Aftermath </li></ul>
  10. 10. Grief and Trauma are Different <ul><li>Trauma is unlike any other psychological response. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional counseling techniques are not helpful. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Grief An emotional response to loss of something loved. A heart centered experience characterized by sadness, anger, guilt and other emotions.
  12. 12. Trauma <ul><li>A reaction to exposure to events beyond the realm of every day experience. </li></ul><ul><li>A brain based biochemical response. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reactions to Trauma <ul><li>Leaves people feeling collectively helpless </li></ul><ul><li>Out of control </li></ul>
  14. 14. Children’s responses are dependent upon that of the adults around them. <ul><ul><li>Trauma survivors need to cope with the trauma before they can begin to grieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The victim of trauma does not need to know the injured or deceased to suffer trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trauma victims are triggered into high anxiety by being too close to those who are highly emotional or are grieving. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The Continuum of Trauma <ul><li>Hyperarousal </li></ul><ul><li>Intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>Constriction </li></ul>
  16. 16. Untreated Trauma may lead to: <ul><li>use of drugs and alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>loss of sleep </li></ul><ul><li>increase in high risk behavior </li></ul><ul><li>increase in violence </li></ul><ul><li>loss of viable and long-term relationships </li></ul><ul><li>withdrawn and isolated behavior </li></ul><ul><li>inability to access their old emotional self </li></ul><ul><li>life no longer feels the same </li></ul>
  17. 17. Factors That Increase the Likelihood of Trauma <ul><li>Incidents within closely knit communities </li></ul><ul><li>Incidents with multiple eye witnesses </li></ul><ul><li>When the victims have a special significance </li></ul><ul><li>When a community is exposed to carnage or misery </li></ul><ul><li>Incidents that call for numerous rescue workers </li></ul><ul><li>Incidents that attract a great deal of media attention </li></ul>
  18. 18. Stages of Crises Planning <ul><li>Pre-Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Post Crisis </li></ul>
  19. 19. Crisis Management is that part of a school’s approach to school safety which focuses more narrowly on a time-limited, problem-focused intervention to identify, confront and resolve the crisis, restore equilibrium and support appropriate adaptive responses.
  20. 20. School-wide Management after the Crisis <ul><li>Calm leadership and consistency in discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Rumor control </li></ul><ul><li>Take positive action </li></ul><ul><li>Create a safe environment </li></ul><ul><li>Predict and prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Normalize the usual reactions to trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Create opportunities to talk </li></ul><ul><li>Allow for personal action </li></ul>
  21. 21. There is a sense of security in knowing we have a plan for crisis intervention. Knowing what to do and when to do it, keeps crisis from becoming chaos.
  22. 22. A Typical Plan May Include: <ul><li>A working definition of crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Team members and team jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Communication plan (includes all phone numbers) </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols and Procedures to follow during crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis policies </li></ul>
  23. 23. What the Plan Makes Clear <ul><li>What each team member will do </li></ul><ul><li>How the chain of command operates </li></ul><ul><li>Who is in charge of what </li></ul><ul><li>How to approach problems that may come up </li></ul>
  24. 24. Why Do You Need A Team? <ul><li>A crisis response team is a collection of representatives from all facets of school life. A team provides collaborative leadership when crisis occurs and assumes an educational role with teachers, staff, parents, other school personnel and students. When crisis occurs, the team shares in decision-making and delegates the tasks of the specific incident. </li></ul>
  25. 25. A Crisis Response Team: <ul><li>Assesses and provides structure </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes Community </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares for the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Responds during the crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluates effectiveness </li></ul>
  26. 26. Possible Team Members <ul><li>Principal </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Principal or designee </li></ul><ul><li>Counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty Member </li></ul><ul><li>Security Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>School Psychologist </li></ul><ul><li>School Nurse </li></ul><ul><li>School Social Worker </li></ul><ul><li>Parent </li></ul><ul><li>Social Service Agency Representative </li></ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Student </li></ul><ul><li>Secretary </li></ul><ul><li>Custodian </li></ul>
  27. 27. Specific Jobs During Crisis <ul><li>Media Liaison </li></ul><ul><li>Agency Liaison </li></ul><ul><li>Law Enforcement Liaison </li></ul><ul><li>Roamers </li></ul><ul><li>Safe Room Attendant </li></ul><ul><li>Keeper of the Ready Bag </li></ul><ul><li>Home Visit Designee </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Log Attendant </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Parent Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Forms Attendant </li></ul>
  28. 28. One of the most important parts of a plan is COMMUNICATION. Who tells what to whom and when… incomplete information only fuels rumors. COMMUNICATION must be ongoing and should be closely followed up. This can build trust and credibility with the school and the community.
  29. 29. The Most Important Thing <ul><li>VERIFY THE FACTS </li></ul>The principal or designee should contact law enforcement, medical authorities or family to verify if indeed a crisis did occur and the magnitude of it.
  30. 30. Rumor Control <ul><li>Identify & notify internal groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Designate staff to answer the phone. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify & notify key communicators in the community. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide accurate & timely information to the media </li></ul><ul><li>After the immediate crisis have a public meeting </li></ul>
  31. 31. Telephone Tree <ul><li>The goal is to give staff time to become emotionally prepared to meet the day. Should include all staff including secretary, custodian, cooks, bus drivers, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Give only the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Give the time and place of a before school meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Request that callers not go into conjecture or surmising </li></ul>
  32. 32. Communication Technology <ul><li>Telephones </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular Phones </li></ul><ul><li>Intercom System </li></ul><ul><li>Bullhorns & megaphones </li></ul><ul><li>Walkie-Talkies </li></ul><ul><li>Fax Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Panic Buttons </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Computer telecommunications </li></ul>
  33. 33. Announcing the Crisis <ul><li>Announce as soon as facts are verified </li></ul><ul><li>Make the announcement for all students at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Make the announcement from a formal written statement </li></ul><ul><li>Make the announcement to small groups of students (in a classroom) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use the PA system. </li></ul>
  34. 34. What the Announcement Will Say <ul><li>Validate feelings </li></ul><ul><li>What happened </li></ul><ul><li>Who was involved </li></ul><ul><li>What is happening now </li></ul><ul><li>What information do I need </li></ul><ul><li>What will happen next </li></ul>
  35. 35. Keep in Mind: A regular day may be too hard for grieving students. Offer choices of activities.
  36. 36. Media Guidelines <ul><li>Assign a media liaison person </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow press on campus </li></ul><ul><li>Call them before they call you </li></ul><ul><li>Identify a time & a neutral place to meet with them </li></ul><ul><li>Have an official statement prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Give honest answers </li></ul>
  37. 37. Scenario <ul><li>A severe earthquake occurs during school hours. There is structural damage to the school building and several students and staff members are hurt. Power has gone out all over town limiting communication. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Protocols <ul><li>A Crisis is in progress on school grounds </li></ul><ul><li>The Crisis has already occurred </li></ul><ul><li>If a criminal activity call 911 </li></ul><ul><li>Implement lock-down or evacuation procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Convene the crisis-response team </li></ul><ul><li>Verify facts </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate the phone tree </li></ul><ul><li>Convene the crisis-response team </li></ul>
  39. 39. Evacuation Procedures <ul><li>Call 911 </li></ul><ul><li>Alert bus system </li></ul><ul><li>Buddy school or alternative location </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Community notification </li></ul><ul><li>Alternate routes </li></ul><ul><li>Practice drills </li></ul><ul><li>Attend to students with special needs </li></ul>
  40. 40. Lock Down Preparation <ul><li>Determine signals and procedures for lockdowns. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct drills. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Lock Downs <ul><li>Detention of students in classrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Checking of hallways by teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Keep students calm </li></ul><ul><li>Close shades & blinds, lock windows & doors </li></ul><ul><li>Wait for the all clear signal </li></ul>
  42. 42. Ready Bag Contents <ul><li>Responsibility checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Phone number list </li></ul><ul><li>School map </li></ul><ul><li>Blueprints </li></ul><ul><li>Keys to all doors </li></ul><ul><li>Student roster including parents phone numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Master schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Name tags </li></ul><ul><li>Pens & magic markers </li></ul><ul><li>Bullhorn </li></ul><ul><li>Batteries </li></ul><ul><li>First Aid Kit </li></ul><ul><li>Sample forms </li></ul><ul><li>Communication electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Pads </li></ul>
  43. 43. Post Crisis <ul><li>Notify Superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>Convene Crisis Team </li></ul><ul><li>Assign team members specific jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare formal statement </li></ul><ul><li>Plan staff meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Identify students & staff most affected </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if additional resources are needed in community </li></ul><ul><li>Call subs </li></ul><ul><li>Provide guidelines to staff </li></ul><ul><li>Setup & staff safe room </li></ul><ul><li>Assign staff to follow deceased students schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Make school announcement </li></ul><ul><li>Remove deceased student from attendance rolls </li></ul>
  44. 44. Crisis Response at Building Level <ul><li>Introduce the crisis team </li></ul><ul><li>Review facts </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Announce safe room </li></ul><ul><li>Designate staff gathering place </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss/validate feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss impact of the event </li></ul><ul><li>Announce press protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Offer coverage of classes for teachers who need a break </li></ul><ul><li>Hand out pertinent forms </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest possible beginning thoughts/phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Give time/place of after school or next meeting </li></ul>
  45. 45. Respecting Cultures <ul><li>Dress appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Greet and say good-bye to survivors in their own language </li></ul><ul><li>Allow survivors to direct you through cultural protocols and follow their direction </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in defined rituals, as allowed or requested </li></ul><ul><li>Apologize when you do something wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Find out, and use, appropriate body language </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of spiritual beliefs in the culture </li></ul>
  46. 46. Safe Rooms <ul><li>A space that is set aside for people to gather in the aftermath of tragedies. Most often this is in the school library or some other comfortable space. </li></ul>
  47. 47. It is not whether the Safe Room is used by a large number of kids that makes it useful. Whether kids go into it or not, they know they can! This builds a bridge to safety for them.
  48. 48. Safe Room Guidelines <ul><li>Listen, observe, validate, reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Sign in and out </li></ul><ul><li>List students who may need follow-up services </li></ul><ul><li>Allow students to choose the length of the Safe Room stay </li></ul><ul><li>Refer students to counselors if needed </li></ul>
  49. 49. Safe Room Checklist <ul><li>Name tags for staff </li></ul><ul><li>Chairs </li></ul><ul><li>Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Big pillows </li></ul><ul><li>Healthy food & drink </li></ul><ul><li>Sign in & out sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Fact sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Kleenex </li></ul><ul><li>Self-care handouts </li></ul><ul><li>Writing materials </li></ul><ul><li>Art materials </li></ul><ul><li>Stuffed animals </li></ul><ul><li>Age appropriate books </li></ul><ul><li>Tape player & relaxing music </li></ul><ul><li>Community Resource List </li></ul>
  50. 50. Safe Room Activities <ul><li>Talking </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Coloring </li></ul><ul><li>Walking </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to music </li></ul><ul><li>Quiet time </li></ul><ul><li>Working on assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking hot chocolate </li></ul><ul><li>Just a time to feel “safe enough to feel” </li></ul>
  51. 51. Give Sorrow words; the grief that does not speak knits up the o’er wrought heart and bids it break-- --Shakespeare’s Macbeth
  52. 52. Safe Room Handouts to Have Ready <ul><li>Helping a grieving friend </li></ul><ul><li>Helping grieving parents </li></ul><ul><li>Helping your child after a disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Funerals & memorial activities </li></ul><ul><li>Post-traumatic stress reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of grief </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines for classroom discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom activities </li></ul><ul><li>Phone tree directions </li></ul><ul><li>Needs of students </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs of suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Stress reducers </li></ul>
  53. 53. Forms or Templates to Have Ready <ul><li>Student checkout </li></ul><ul><li>Letter template for parents </li></ul><ul><li>Initial announcement of crisis event </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation information for team </li></ul><ul><li>Safe room sign in </li></ul><ul><li>Student referral slips </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation forms </li></ul>
  54. 54. Scenario <ul><li>You are notified at 5:30 a.m. that a 12th grade boy who was on the basketball team committed suicide by gunshot during the night. He was out the evening before with his girlfriend and some friends. The friends witnessed a loud fight between him and his girlfriend. He also has a brother in 8th grade and a sister in 4th grade. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Crisis During Non-school Time <ul><li>Institute the phone tree to inform Crisis Response Team members </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate with community agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Identify & make a list of students & staff most likely to be affected </li></ul><ul><li>Notify remaining staff with information by letter or telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule faculty meeting for an update before affected students return to school </li></ul><ul><li>When school reconvenes, monitor students & staff previously identified </li></ul><ul><li>Make referrals </li></ul>
  56. 56. Policy provides both a foundation and a framework for action. The chances of effectively managing a crisis are increased with consistent district policies.
  57. 57. Possible Policies <ul><li>Funeral Attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Absence </li></ul><ul><li>Make-up work </li></ul><ul><li>Memorials </li></ul><ul><li>Evacuation vs. Lockdown </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation for Early Dismissal </li></ul>
  58. 58. Maintaining Preparedness <ul><li>Conducting drills and establishing a procedure for periodically reviewing and updating the Crisis Response Plan are two essential elements of maintaining preparedness. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Drill Activities <ul><li>For team members: respond to hypothetical scenarios. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice drills that involve moving staff & students to a safe location. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice lock down procedures with staff and students. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid using dramatic props. </li></ul>
  60. 60. A coordinated district-wide crisis response is no accident. It reflects prevention, intervention and rehearsed reaction.