A TECHNICAL PUBLICATION OF ASSE’S
PUBLIC SECTOR PRACTICE SPECIALTY
Perspectives VOLUME 9 • NUMBER 1
Crisis Management D
Plan Workbook PAGE 22
A crisis management plan begins with determining Work-Related
the detail needed. A management plan organization- Fatalities
al workbook can be used as a companion to the more
detailed corporate or local crisis management plans.
BY LARRY G. HOLLOWAY, CSP, MEP
risis management began On Dec. 29, 1970, the OSH Act
in the U.S. when the was signed into law to protect work- For a complete
Department of Labor was ers and workplace safety. OSHA was Table of Contents,
established on March 4, A crisis manage-
formed as part of this act on the see page 3
1913. The department’s ment plan orga- same day. Since its inception, many
stated purpose was “to foster, promote nizational positive changes have taken place
workbook can be
and develop the welfare of working adapted to a
under the mandated regulations.
people, to improve their working con- wide variety of On Feb. 24, 1992, OSHA promul-
ditions and to enhance their opportu- industrial/ gated the process safety management
nity for profitable employment.” Since (PSM) regulation to prevent disasters
this beginning, many boards, organi- such as the 1984 Bhopal disaster.
zations and acts have been formed to This regulation is intended to prevent
help fulfill this purpose. continued on page 28
ADMINISTRATOR’S MESSAGE Perspectives
PUBLIC SECTOR PRACTICE SPECIALTY
GREETINGS TO ALL! OFFICERS
t is my pleasure to serve as Public Sector Practice Specialty (PSPS)
STEPHEN M. DIMOND
administrator for the next 2 years. As a career safety professional with (256) 450-9330
several years’ experience in the public sector, I look forward to working email@example.com
with each of you to make this the best practice specialty among ASSE’s
Council on Practice and Standards. Along the way, we will get to know each Assistant Administrator
other and will achieve success for our public sector safety colleagues to (202) 482-1200
carry on into the future. firstname.lastname@example.org
The publication editor position is open for the 2009-11 term. PSPS
Assistant Administrator Fred Fanning has volunteered to act as editor Publication Editor
until a replacement is found. Do not be surprised if you hear from him, OPEN
as he will contact many of you for articles. Whatever you can do to
support Perspectives will benefit PSPS and will be greatly appreciated. COMMITTEES
I want to thank Fred for his outstanding leadership as PSPS admin- Awards & Honors
istrator these last 2 years. Through his professional leadership and
vision, a standard operating procedure and strategic plan were devel-
oped that have helped PSPS grow and have brought in a variety of Conference & Seminars
expertise and members. Additionally, he has left a thriving member- DANIEL DELLA-GIUSTINA
ship for the next administrator. email@example.com
We are drafting a new strategic plan for Fred to review before sub-
mitting it to the PSPS Advisory Committee for approval. This will MARY BETH O’CONNELL
STEPHEN M. DIMOND pave the way for our activities in the coming year. Please send any firstname.lastname@example.org
suggestions you may have to Fred (email@example.com) or me
I anticipate an educational, exciting and demanding ride these next JAMES MASON
2 years. I hope you will come with us. I need to hear from you throughout firstname.lastname@example.org
this whole process. What are your priorities and what can we do to support Website Development
them? What can we do better and what should we stop doing? Two years ERIKE YOUNG
from now, we will look back with pride at what we have accomplished and email@example.com
know that by making public sector safety professionals stronger, smarter and
more adaptable, accidents can and will be prevented. As we say in the Army, ASSE STAFF
hooah! Staff Liaison
Perspectives is a publication of ASSE’s Public
Sector Practice Specialty, 1800 East Oakton St.,
Des Plaines, IL 60018, and is distributed free
of charge to members of the Public Sector
Practice Specialty. The opinions expressed in
articles herein are those of the author(s) and
are not necessarily those of ASSE. Technical
accuracy is the responsibility of the author(s).
Send address changes to he address above;
fax (847) 768-3434; or send via e-mail to
C O N T E N T S
VOLUME 9 • NUMBER 1
PAGE 4 PLENTY IN THE PLENARY D
OSHA’s Jordan Barab participated in the plenary session at Safety
PAGE 7 CONTINUITY OF OPERATIONS EMERGENCIES
PLANNING FOR PUBLIC IN SCHOOLS
ORGANIZATIONS By Daniel Mahoney
By Fred Fanning Developing an emergency response plan
to address life-threatening medical emer-
A COOP plan will allow a public organization to continue its gencies is of utmost importance.
work with little or no disruption in service.
PAGE 9 BEE AWARE: COMING SOON D PAGE 21
TO A LOCATION NEAR YOU
By Chris Bradshaw
Africanized bees are migrating into the U.S.
PAGE 11 Should the Public Sector The Public Sector Practice Specialty held
a roundtable discussion during Safety
Participate in VPP? 2009 to address school safety.
By Robert “Bob” Sander
This article outlines basic information about VPP.
D PAGE 22
PAGE 13 ICE: In Case of Emergency WORK-RELATED
By Amy Stewart
Using ICE will help emergency responders reach your emer-
FATALITIES IN TREE
gency contact person. CARE OPERATIONS
IN THE U.S.:
PAGE 14 LIQUOR LIABILITY 1992-2007
& SPECIAL EVENTS NIOSH reports on tree care operations.
By Rob Roscoe
Understanding the liability emergency service organizations face
when serving alcoholic beverages at events.
D PAGE 25
PAGE 16 TRANSPORTING STUDENTS SAFELY GAO REPORT ON
By Gayle T. Carson
This article addresses the requirements for safety in public
school loading and offloading zones. PLANNING: AN
PAGE 18 CHAPERONES CAN Influenza pandemic poses a serious
AFFECT SAFETY ON TRIPS threat to global public health and leader-
ship focus on pandemic preparedness
By Joann Robertson is vital.
Chaperones serve a vital role in the supervision of students.
Click on these icons for immediate access or bonus information
V Video W Website P PDF L Hot Link AD Ad Link D Direct Link
Plenty in the Plenary
Editor’s Note: Jordan Barab, deputy assistant secretary and friends with hardly a word said about how well you did
acting assistant secretary for OSHA, presented this speech during your job today.
a plenary session at Safety 2009. Well, I know what you do, and so does Labor
Secretary Hilda Solis, and on behalf of the Department
know that you are eager to hear about the future of
OSHA, the new leadership in the Department of Labor of Labor and OSHA, from the bottom of our hearts, we
and how this will affect you in your workplaces. thank you for your invaluable daily contribution to work-
We will get to that in a moment, but here and now, I place safety and health.
want to focus on an important but possi- It is not every organization that gets both the
bly underappreciated factor in work- Secretary of Labor and the (acting) head of OSHA in the
place safety. Leadership in Washington same day. But we so much appreciate your work that we
and in state labor departments is neces- both came here to join you in San Antonio to tell you in
sary, standards and guidance documents person. Thank you. Great job. Well done!
are essential and enforcement is critical, We also came here to ASSE’s Safety 2009
but I want to recognize the other factor Conference to tell you that you are not alone. We have
in the safety equation. got your back. Your fight is our fight.
What makes workplace safety a real- I hope you all heard Labor Secretary Hilda Solis at
ity in the offices and factories, hospitals this morning’s opening general session. I was so pleased
and schools, warehouses and shipping when President Obama appointed this great Secretary of
docks, at the top of electrical towers and Labor. She is the proud daughter of union members, a
in the trenches of construction sites is woman who understands workplace health and a former
the quiet hero on the ground, the onsite Congresswoman with constituents who suffered from
safety and health professional who suits popcorn lung. She understands the hopes and dreams of
Jordan Barab at Safety 2009. up, shows up and speaks up every day workers, she understands the struggles they face every
to help protect fellow workers. day on the job and she understands that every worker has
Many of your employers and fellow workers may a right to a safe workplace.
appreciate what you do, but many others do not complete- On Workers Memorial Day, I traveled with her to the
ly understand how grateful they should be when you call a National Labor College in Silver Spring, MD where she
safety meeting, pass around OSHA QuickCards and other announced that OSHA is back in the enforcement busi-
information, respond to close calls and complaints and talk ness and back in the standard-setting business.
to upper-level management about steps that must be taken Secretary Solis asked me to fill in as head of OSHA
to increase workplace safety. until we have a confirmed Assistant Secretary who will
Your employers have shown admirable foresight and carry this fight forward. It was an honor to say to her,
responsible management by hiring you—granted. Giving “Yes, I will,” and I am here to tell you that it is a new
you a position of responsibility to protect the workers day at the Department of Labor.
around you as well as the integrity of their business On this day, health and safety professionals like you
makes sound business sense; so, good for them and good will have a voice, workers will have a voice and their
for you. I just wonder whether your job titles truly cap- unions will have a seat at the table because this adminis-
ture the enormous benefit you provide. tration understands that workers know plenty about mak-
You are the guardians at the gate of tragedy and disas- ing workplaces safe.
ter, yet you rarely get the recognition you deserve for On this day, employers can no longer blame workers
performing your job perfectly. You get no credit when who get hurt on the job. The law says that employers are
your worksite has a normal day—when nothing blows responsible for workplace safety and health, and there is
up or burns down, when no one on your watch gets hurt a new sheriff in town to enforce the law.
or killed. While your vigilance and expertise ensure that On this day, business owners can no longer excuse
your co-workers go home at the end of the workday with themselves from training their workers or providing pro-
all their fingers, toes and limbs intact, you probably get tective equipment by complaining that it takes too long
no mention in the prayers at their dinner tables. As the or costs too much to save a life.
family breadwinner, safe and sound, doles out the Understand this. OSHA offers a helping hand to those
dessert, you almost never see a slice of that cake or pie, companies and associations that will commit to working
but you should. with us constructively. Together, we can transform work-
Heroes that you are, you take silent pride at the end of places for the benefit of everyone on the job. However,
the workday and return home to your own families and to those whose only response to every OSHA regulatory
or enforcement initiative is no, I also have a message. would trigger additional mandatory inspections to ensure
Take off the blinders, take on some responsibility and compliance with workplace safety and health standards.
stop wasting our time and the people’s tax dollars. And we are not waiting any longer to address a criti-
Secretary Solis has said that we will turn our energies cal problem with construction injuries and fatalities right
from voluntary programs to enforcement. However, we here in Texas.
are not eliminating the Voluntary Protection Programs. Under the new OSHA, we will react swiftly and
We are not saying companies that truly excel in health decidedly when we see a problemat-
and safety do not deserve recognition. They do. Nor are ic trend. This is why this morning
we saying that strong partnerships with employers can- Secretary Solis announced that in We are in this
not benefit workers, companies and OSHA. They can. just one week, OSHA will launch a fight together,
But the days of signing companies into VPP programs major new construction safety focus
or alliances just to fill arbitrary goals and the days of throughout the state of Texas. For and together
promoting alliances as a replacement for standards are the next several weeks, a “SWAT we can make
over. And the days of delaying rulemaking are over. And team” of OSHA compliance officers
the days of starving OSHA’s budget are over. from around the country will fan out our workplaces
President Obama has just asked for the biggest across the state to inspect construc-
increase in OSHA’s budget in anyone’s memory—more tion sites. We will use computer safer and more
than 10%. That will allow us to hire 200+ new staff, analyses of industry data to target healthful for our
including 130 new inspectors. It will not be easy to hire the most likely cities and worksites
all of those people, but the Secretary has challenged us that need our immediate attention to family members,
to succeed and to improve OSHA’s diversity so that
OSHA in the 21st century looks like, speaks like and
prevent construction injuries and
understands the U.S. in the 21st century. In addition, in the next few friends. That is
There is no doubt about where the Department of Labor weeks, we will announce details of a
and OSHA are going. Secretary Solis and I believe in vig- new national emphasis program a lasting legacy
orous enforcement of laws that protect the safety and (NEP) to address hazards in chemi- that we can work
health of workers. We are committed to a strong federal cal plants.
role in protecting workplace safety and health, as mandat- We are also preparing an NEP to on every day—
ed in the OSH Act that created the agency.
To underscore this point, OSHA recently formed a
confront recordkeeping problems.
Congressional hearings, studies and
and every day
taskforce to design a new enforcement initiative. Under media reports have all described seri- take pride in our
the Severe Violators Enforcement Program, OSHA will ous accounts of underreporting
conduct an intensive examination of an employer’s injuries and illnesses, as well as poli- accomplishments.
inspection history. Any systematic problems that we cies that discourage workers from
identify with an employer’s safety and health program reporting when they are sick or hurt. To address this prob-
lem, OSHA received $1 million for Fiscal Year 2009,
which we are putting to work. Ensuring the accuracy of
injury and illness numbers is critically important to
Jordan Barab Biography OSHA’s ability to accurately target enforcement and to
evaluate our effectiveness.
Jordan Barab joined OSHA as Deputy Assistant We will also take a close look at programs that have the
Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and effect of discouraging workers from reporting injuries and
Health as well as Acting Assistant Secretary on illnesses. These include programs that discipline workers
April 13, 2009. He previously served as special who are injured or safety competitions that penalize indi-
assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Labor for vidual workers or groups of workers when someone
OSHA from 1998 to 2001, when he helped the reports an injury or illness.
agency to promulgate the ergonomics workplace Getting the OSHA regulatory process moving again
safety and health standard that was repealed by after 8 years will not be easy. A long list of difficult but
Congress in March 2001. critical issues must be addressed. The good news is we
Barab worked on workplace safety issues for the are moving ahead.
U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation In the last few months, we announced new rulemak-
Board from 2002 to 2007. ing for combustible dust and a new round of 2-year
He holds a master's degree from The Johns Susan Harwood training grants, and we moved forward
Hopkins University and an undergraduate degree on standards addressing diacetyl, silica, cranes and
from Claremont McKenna College. derricks, confined spaces in construction and the
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and
Labeling of Chemicals.
In the last few weeks, we issued several new fact ASSE Supports Approach
sheets and other informational documents to supplement
our guidance on how to prepare every workplace for a to Standard in Health Care
flu pandemic. Ergonomics Legislation
In response to a Government Accountability Office
report, we will conduct a thorough review of OSHA’s
cooperative programs, assessing where the program
A SSE in a letter to Representative John Conyers
supported the general approach of a standard
proposed in his legislation (HR 2381) requiring lifting
belongs in the context of OSHA’s resources and mission, equipment to protect direct care nurses and health-
to ensure that these programs are effective in pursuing care workers from ergonomic risks. ASSE said it sup-
OSHA’s mission. ported this specific approach because it is the same
And we are telling our state partners who operate approach to ergonomics its members used in protect-
their own occupational safety and health plans to be sure ing health care workers. But ASSE urged various
that federal and state OSHA offices speak with one changes to the bill to ensure the best patient care,
voice. We will strengthen our oversight of state plans to including allowing manual lifting if needed, ensuring
ensure better program performance and consistency. continuity of care when employees refuse assign-
With all of this, we also need to confront the 60,000- ment. ASSE also urged caution in including home
pound elephant in the room: ergonomics. Let’s acknowl- health care without resolving issues of reimburse-
edge some obvious things about “ergo.” First, it is a huge ment and OSHA oversight of work in the home.
health and safety problem recognized by reliable science.
Second, it is a huge political football that some very big ASSE Urges Coverage
players do not want to see on the field. Well, we will
pick up that football, and we will look to team up with of Public Sector Workers
people who genuinely want to move beyond destructive in OSHA Reform
politics and focus on the goal of worker safety and
health. People are getting hurt by unnecessary muscle
strains, repetitive motion injuries and backbreaking
In a letter to Representative Lynn Woolsey, sponsor of
the Protecting America’s Workers Act (HR 2067), the
key OSHA reform bill in Congress, ASSE urged inclusion
behavior that can be reduced or eliminated with proven of provisions to provide coverage to the more than 8
remedies. We can fix this. million state and municipal workers now without feder-
This is why I want to encourage everyone here to al-level safety and health protections. Such coverage is
become more active in workplace safety and health in two required only in states with federally-approved state
particular ways. First, you are the safety and health author- OSH plans.
ity in your workplaces, so I want you to talk to your man-
agers and CEOs. As bills are introduced in Congress that New Virtual Symposium–
may affect workplace safety and health, your CEOs and
their professional associations will deliberate on whether Solutions in Safety Training
to take a position. Ensure that you weigh in on the debates January 26-28, 2010 • Everytown
within your organization with your unique authority and
experience. Whatever side you take in these debates, do
not cede your leadership position to outside organizations
A s safety professionals, we know, it’s one of the
most powerful tools we have to engage our
workforce. But how can we turn it into something
that act only on ideological preconceptions rather than on our employees want to
what actually makes workplaces safer. engage in? Once we grab
Second, in the weeks and months ahead, as OSHA their attention, how do we
moves forward with proposed rulemaking, you must par- sustain it with training that
ticipate. Take part in regulatory hearings, send us your that will stick with them
thoughts during comment periods, voice your concerns back on the floor? And, per-
and share your experience and expertise. haps most importantly, where
First and foremost, we need strong standards that pro- can we learn to do all of this in an
tect workers, but we also need standards that make sense environment of limited resources?
At ASSE’s all new Virtual Symposium–Solutions in
in the workplace. This is where you can make a differ-
Safety Training! Hear from experts in the field of
ence: When OSHA does something right, support us by
safety training and explore real-world solutions for
speaking up. When we miss the mark, I know you will
developing training that delivers results. All in a col-
be there to say so, too.
laborative networking environment and all without
We are in this fight together, and together we can ever having to leave your desk. View sessions live or
make our workplaces safer and more healthful for our take up to 30 days to watch the recordings of ses-
family members, neighbors and friends. That is a lasting sions online. Click here for more information.
legacy that we can work on every day—and every day
take pride in our accomplishments.
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS BY FRED FANNING, M.ED., CSP
Continuity of Operations
Planning for Public Organizations
very public organization should have a compre- Planning will also be required with private sector
hensive, effective program in place to ensure organizations “because the private sector owns the vast
continuity of essential functions under all cir- majority of the nation’s infrastructure. We have a nation
cumstances. As a baseline of preparedness for that is a ‘system of systems’ that is incredibly integrated”
the full range of potential emergencies, all public sector (GCN, 2008). With respect to information technology,
organizations shall have in place a viable continuity of “Networks must connect. Applications must be streamed.
operations (COOP) capability, which ensures the per- Computer screens must look familiar. Security must be
formance of their essential functions during any emer- maintained at all costs. Government business must con-
gency or situation that may disrupt normal operations. tinue” (GCN).
Given such an overarching challenge, COOP planning Guidance from the federal government can be used in
is a must for public sector organizations to ensure that the planning process. Federal Protection Circular Number
they can provide needed services for the citizens who 65 (FPC65) “includes plans and procedures that delineate
depend on them in an emergency. COOP plan objectives essential functions; specify succession
include: of office and an emergency delegation Security concerns are
1) Test the alert, notification and activation systems. of authority; provide for the safe
2) Initiate operations to perform selected essential keeping of vital records and databas- always involved in
functions from an alternate site. es; identify alternate operating facili-
3) Access vital files and databases necessary to ties; provide for interoperable responding to an
respond to tasks.
4) Communicate effectively from alternate sites to
communications and validate the emergency by mov-
capability through tests, training and
accomplish mission. exercise” (GCN, 2008). This requires ing an organization
5) Receive, process, analyze and disseminate
the following: to an alternate site.
1) Identify succession for senior
6) Validate support systems to ensure 24-hour opera- members of organization. Public administrators
tions capability. 2) Ensure that full authority is
delegated in order of succession.
are concerned about
Government Computer News (GCN, 2008) states that 3) Identify alternate facility or the security of infor-
“COOP planning is the disciplined planning you do in facilities for critical personnel.
advance to respond to a natural or manmade emergency. 4) Employees demonstrate a gen- mation technology
If your agency/office needs to relocate, your COOP is eral level of understanding of the equipment and
your coordinated, efficient action to keep operating.” COOP process.
Some tasks that public sector organizations will need to 5) Employees are trained in the transmissions.
provide to allow them to operate and assist the public role(s) of the organization and their
include: individual roles (if any) regardless of the organization’s
1) providing for the safety and well-being of employees; level of involvement during a COOP activity.
2) providing administrative, facilities management 6) Employees will, as directed, involve themselves
and support services; and support COOP activities to the fullest extent possi-
3) providing travel and transportation services; ble, to even include training scenarios.
4) identifying all affected real and personal property; 7) Vital records and databases required to meet opera-
5) providing mail and courier delivery services; tional responsibilities following the activation of a
6) coordinating facility repair and operations; COOP are maintained in electronic form at a backup
7) acquiring space and facilities. location.
This plan allows a public organization to continue its Federal Continuity Directive Number 1 (FCD1) “pro-
work with little or no disruption in service; however, it vides direction to the federal executive branch for devel-
takes much work to do well. For example, at the national oping continuity plans and programs. What FCD1 says
level, “continuity planning also requires coordination is that it is just not good practice to plan to have continu-
with state, local, tribal and territorial governments as ity planning; it is mandatory practice” (GCN, 2008).
well as with the private sector” (GCN, 2008). Federal Continuity Directive Number 2 (FCD2)
“implements the requirements of FDC 1 and provides work access controllers to vet remote machines, two-fac-
guidance and direction for identification of their mission tor authentications for access, data encryption technolo-
essential functions and potential primary mission essen- gies and virtual private networks.”
tial functions (PMEFs). It includes guidance and check- In addition to information security, planners must con-
lists to assist department and agencies in assessing their sider the physical security of any alter-
essential functions through a risk management process nate site. Planners should conduct
and in identifying potential primary mission essential risk assessments of possible
functions that support the national essential func- alternate sites so that risks can
tions” (GCN, 2008). be considered along with
other criteria to determine
TELEWORKING the best fit. These risk
Teleworking (employees work from an alter- assessments should identify
nate site or home using a telephone and computer) a facility’s potential security
must be considered in planning. Teleworking can weaknesses. Effort can then be
allow public sector employees to work from home put forth to offset some of the
when a public sector facility is damaged, cannot be risks for selected facilities.
reached or is in the path of an impending disaster. For example, many public buildings
To do this, standards and guidance must be in place now use standoff to reduce a blast’s impact on the build-
before any emergency to ensure that employees have the ing. A second example is the installation of blast win-
equipment necessary to perform their work. This means dows that can withstand the shock wave of an explosive
that “to support the technology components critical for blast. When selecting an alternate site, planning officials
telework translates into spending precious dollars in areas must ensure that any alternate facility includes standoff
such as web-based applications, BlackBerry devices, lap- and blast protective windows.
tops and remote email access, which allow for increased
telework at low incremental cost” (GCN, 2008). CONCLUSION
Walker (2008) notes that telework “for the most part To ensure that public organizations can respond in
means creating the capability for employees to work an emergency, all aspects of the response must be
from home or other remote locations and having an planned for. Without this planning, it will be difficult, if
information technology infrastructure that is robust not impossible, for a public organization to respond. If
enough to support remote access to vital agency comput- the response is weak, voters can and should bring new
er systems. Walker also notes that “the nexus between public servants in to do a better job. This means that
COOP and telework has become increasingly important career public servants can be affected as can political
in recent years, underscored and reinforced by high-mag- appointees.
nitude events such as the 2001 terrorist attacks and
Hurricane Katrina.” REFERENCES
The office of personnel management is the proponent Government Computer News. (2008, Mar. 31).
for policy for the federal government. In its publication National continuity. Falls Church, VA: Author.
Federal Manager’s/Decision Makers Emergency Guide, Government Computer News. (2008, Mar. 31).
key steps to facilitate telework include: Telework is taking off. Falls Church, VA: Author.
1) Develop a cadre of regularly scheduled “core” Joch, A. (2008, June 23). How secure is your COOP?
teleworkers. Federal Computer Week.
2) Permit teleworkers to experience working offsite Walker, R.W. (2008, June 16). COOP: The telework
and learn to communicate electronically with colleagues connection. Federal Computer Week.
and clients by doing it regularly. Walker, R.W. (2008, June 16). OPM’s best practices
3) Permit supervisors and managers to experience for COOP. Federal Computer Week.
managing employees without face to face contact.
Fred Fanning, M.Ed., CSP, a veteran safety professional, is the
SECURITY author of Basic Safety Administration: A Handbook for the New
Safety Specialist published by ASSE. His chapter “Safety Training
Security concerns are always involved in responding
and Documentation Principles” was published in The Safety
to an emergency by moving an organization to an alter- Professionals Handbook. His article “Public Sector Safety
nate site. Public administrators are concerned about the Professionals: Focused on Activity or Results?” received the ASSE
security of information technology equipment and trans- Council on Practices and Standards’ Best Newsletter Article
missions. Joch (2008) says that “The right mix is not Award for 2006-07. Fanning is profiled in Marquis Who’s Who in
Science and Engineering and in the International Biographical
purely technical. With the right selection of hardware
Centre’s 2000 Outstanding Intellectuals of the 21st Century. A
and software, agencies can ensure that established secu- professional member of ASSE, Fanning is Assistant Administrator
rity policies remain in effect during an emergency. He of the Public Sector Practice Specialty and a member of ASSE’s
recommends using a class of technology known as net- Finance Committee.
WORKER SAFETY BY CHRIS W. BRADSHAW, M.S., MT
(ASCP), CEA, CPEA
Bee Aware: Coming Soon
to a Location NearYou!
or outdoor workers, risks and hazards due to AHBs were
stinging insects are often overlooked and underes- imported in an
timated. Many opportunities exist for outdoor effort to improve
workers to experience the unexpected exposure of honey production
the newest pest that is migrating into the U.S. and the viability
of honeybees in
STATISTICS the tropical
Injuries and fatalities caused by stinging insects have forests of South
been recorded and reported by various newspapers America. In
nationwide. Reported fatalities and attacks include the 1956, Warwick
following: Kerr, a Brazilian
•Mexico (1988 to 1995)—175 fatalities reported. geneticist,
Harlingen, TX (July 1993)—first fatality reported in imported AHBs
Texas and U.S. to crossbreed
•Apache Junction, AZ (October 1995)—first fatality with existing
reported in Arizona. European honey-
•Beasley, TX (1997)—Two road workers attacked and bees (Apis m. mellifera). Originally, 48 AHB queens were Be aware of the
stung more than 200 times. imported, but after one year and natural attrition, only 29 environment.
•Mesa, AZ (1999)—Construction worker stung more queens remained. In October 1957, 26 of the remaining listen for the hum
than 100 times. queens were accidentally released with small swarms. It created by bees
•Long Beach, CA (September 1999)—first fatality was thought that the released AHBs would either perish or when flying, which
is louder closer to
reported in California. mate with other European honeybees thereby losing the the hive.
•Tucson, AZ (2000)—Seven workers attacked and characteristics associated with AHBs (Oklahoma State
stung. University, 2007).
•Galveston, TX (2003)—Farmer plowing field However, a few years later, AHBs were discovered
attacked and stung about 150 times. throughout Brazil and Argentina and into Central
•Sierra Vista, AZ (2007)—Border patrol and illegal America. The expansion is a result of AHBs’ ability to
immigrants attacked and stung. travel 60 miles or more when swarming as compared to
•Graham County, AZ (2007)—Railroad workers European bees that only travel a few miles. By 2002,
attacked with one fatality reported. AHBs had spread into the West Indies, Mexico, Texas,
•Niland, CA (2008)—Two firefighters hospitalized New Mexico, Arizona, Southern California and Florida.
and one dead after being stung. By 2005, they were reported in Arkansas, Oklahoma and
•Roscoe, TX (2008)—Backhoe operator stung 280 Louisiana.
•Okeechobee County, FL (April 2008)—first fatality AHBS VS. EUROPEAN BEES
reported in Florida. While AHBs and European bees are similar pheno-
•Sealy, TX (2009)—City worker stung more than typically, defend their nests by stinging and sting only
100 times. once, AHBs are 6 to 10 times more defensive of their
•Irvine, CA (2009)—Landscaper stung more than nests with more bees responding (e.g., 500 to 1,000 or
100 times. more bees responding to a threat, compared to their
•Tivoli, TX (September 2009)—one fatality reported. European counterparts of less than 100) (Mulder, 2005).
Additionally, AHBs tend to respond about four times
AFRICANIZED HONEYBEES faster to a threat compared to European honeybees
What caused these attacks and fatalities? These inci- (3 seconds as compared to 19 seconds).
dents are the result of Africanized honeybees (AHBs) From their nest, AHBs can detect threats from
(Apis mellifera scutellata). Since their introduction into the humans or animals up to 50 ft away. AHBs can also
Americas, approximately 1,000 deaths have occurred with detect vibrations from operating equipment from more
26 fatalities in the U.S. alone. AHBs may also impact the than 100 ft away. Once agitated, AHBs can pursue for
$140 million honey industry (Smithsonian, 2007). longer than 1 hour while following a victim between
one-quarter to one-half mile in distance. European hon- behavior before attacking by flying in the face or around
eybees usually cool off in 2 or 3 minutes and only pur- the head of an intruder and even thumbing several times
sue a victim for approximately 80 ft. when the intruder comes to close to the hive. Do not
AHBs build nests in unexpected areas, such as pots, bird panic but calmly head away from the nesting area quietly
houses, tires and in the ground. European honeybees prefer and quickly. Workers should be especially careful near
clean, dry, aboveground locations. AHBs will also leave if public parks, golf courses, swimming facilities, forest
their nest is threatened, which is uncommon among preserves/woods, etc., or while mowing, trimming or
European bees (Oklahoma State Entomology, 2007). maintaining these properties.
STINGS WHEN AN ATTACK OCCURS
The LD50 (lethal dose for 50%) for bee stings is If attacked:
approximately 8 to 10 stings per pound of body weight •Cover head and face and run for cover as fast as pos-
(Mulder, 2005). For a 150-lb person that would be about sible. AHBs have been known to follow intruders for
1,200 to 1,500 stings. More than likely for European, more than a quarter of a mile so get away from the nest.
although probably not obtainable, but very possible if they •Take shelter as soon as possible. A sealed enclosure,
were Africanized. such as a vehicle, tent, house or any other area can afford
For example, if 150 European honeybees responded some protection.
to a threat by a 150-lb person and each bee stung the vic- •Do not jump into water. AHBs will hover and wait
tim, that would be equal to one bee sting per pound of for a victim to surface for air.
body weight. However, since AHBs can be 10 times •After escaping, evaluate the situation and take stock
more defensive, it could be as many as 1,500 bees or of the number of stings. Fifteen or more stings or a feel-
10 stings per pound of body weight and possibly death. ing of not being able to catch one’s breath (possible ana-
phylactic shock) requires medical attention. Localized
GROUPS AT RISK pain and swelling are normal.
Who might be exposed to AHBs and what should •Remove stingers by scraping stingers off with a blunt
they know? Anyone involved in outdoor activities is a object, such as a dull knife blade or plastic credit card.
potential victim. AHBs do not discriminate toward Removing the stinger with fingers or tweezers can push
intruders, humans or animals. Therefore, employees, more venom into the body.
coworkers, friends, family and children must be aware of •If others are in danger and/or being stung, call 9-1-1
AHBs and must be prepared for an encounter. AHBs are (Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food & Forestry,
most prevalent where public sector employees are more 2005).
likely to encounter them throughout the year.
PROTECTING AGAINST BEE ATTACKS Mulder, P. (2005). Living with the africanized honey-
Since foraging bees gather food, they are docile and bee. Defensive Bee Management.
not a threat. Getting too close to the nest can trigger a Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food and
defensive reaction by bees. To reduce the chance of that, Forestry. (2005, Mar.). Africanized honeybees in
wear light-colored clothing. Dark-colored clothing and Oklahoma. Retrieved Aug. 15, 2006, from http://www
hair seem to incite more attacks than light colors. Do not .oda.state.ok.us.
to wear floral and/or citrus deodorants, perfumes or Oklahoma State University. (2007). Entomology and
aftershave. plant pathology. Oklahoma State Department of Ento-
Bee-proof property by sealing holes in buildings, trees mology and Plan Pathology. Retrieved May 1, 2007,
and the ground. Remove junk piles, old appliances, tires from http://www.ento.okstate.edu/ahb.
and any other debris to reduce potential nesting sites. Smithsonian Institution. (2007). Killer bees. Encyclo-
Sanitation workers should be especially careful. Inspect pedia Smithsonian. Washington, DC: Smithsonian
property monthly for signs of bees. Ensure that sanitation Institution.
garages, public recycling or compost locations are inspect- U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research
ed. AHBs like to nest, not only in debris, but also in cul- Service (2007, Feb. 6). Honeybee research. Retrieved
verts, water meter boxes, drainage pipes, bird houses, May 1, 2007, from http://www.ars.usda.gov/Research/
barns, sheds, playground equipment, barbecue cookers and docs.htm?docid=11059&page=5.
woodpiles. If a hive is located, do not attempt to remove it.
Contact a beekeeper or pest control company for removal Chris W. Bradshaw, M.S., MT(ASCP), CEA, CPEA, is an
(Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, 2005). assistant professor at Southeastern Oklahoma State University in
Be aware of the environment. When outdoors, listen Durant. In 1998, he joined the department of occupational safety
and health as an instructor in industrial hygiene, hazardous mate-
for the hum created by bees when flying, which is louder rials management, noise control and outdoor safety. He also runs
closer to the hive. Watch for bees coming and going and C&C Pest Control and Inspection Services LLC, which serves the
for other flying insects as well. Bees exhibit a defensive southern region of Oklahoma and north Texas.
SAFETY MANAGEMENT BY ROBERT “BOB” SANDER
Should the Public Sector
Participate in VPP?
emember the public sector implementation of and health committees. Such committees are also often
total quality management, results-oriented required in collective bargaining agreements. These com-
management, management by objective and mittees are designed to promote safety and health in fed-
the one-minute manager? These management eral workplaces through the cooperative efforts of its
fads came and went and, at least in the public members. Maintaining a cooperative relationship
sector, were never fully embraced or found to be suc- requires continuous open communi-
cessful. A voluntary protection program (VPP) is like so cation and action. Once a committee
many of those management programs except that it sees and/or feels that safety has Investing in the
focuses on accident prevention. Even though it has exist- become an integral part of the busi-
ed for a while, many in the public sector still consider it ness at hand, then it is time to move program has value
a fad. Others have taken a wait-and-see approach before to another dimension of ensuring a for any employer,
committing. This article outlines basic information about safe and healthy workplace.
VPP and the author’s experience using it within the U.S. This dimension or second step public or private.
Postal Service. brings about improvements to stan- Even if an employer
dard operating procedures, which
THE CHALLENGE include creating new procedures to hesitates to invite
Public sector safety standards and programs constant- support these new ideas. This is fol-
ly change. However, this does not always mean that new lowed by a six-step process to aid in OSHA to its work-
procedures or programs must be created. Often, just creating a safer, healthier workplace. site to perform an
tweaking an established standard or program to fit a This process consists of:
changing environment is all that is needed. Unfortu- •increased time spent reviewing inspection, applying
nately, SH&E professionals typically face the challenge accident and incident trends;
of not having the sole authority to make the needed •use of that data to support the
the program’s prin-
changes and must work with others within the organiza- need for improvements; ciples to daily
tion to bring about changes. Each agency has a protocol •increased inspections of the
or chain of command that must be followed to obtain workplace to ensure overall coverage operations will, in
approval for changes.
Proactive SH&E professionals should look at the
of the work areas on a quarterly turn, create a safer
basis, at a minimum;
challenge of making a change as an opportunity. One •review of written programs after workplace.
opportunity in particular is to convince management to they have been implemented, at least
buy into creating and sustaining a safe, healthful work- annually;
place. This can be difficult in today’s economy, but it can •providing topic-specific employee training on each
be done. hazard found;
•use of near-hit reporting to train employees on what
THE OPPORTUNITY it means, but also to encourage the use of this method to
Taking an existing standard or program in a new and combat the knowns and unknowns of existing hazard
improved direction requires a partnership. This partner- inventory.
ship must consist of those who do the work, those who
supervise the work, those who support the work and VOLUNTARY PROTECTION PROGRAMS
those who manage the work. Supervision, support and The VPP process need not be purchased from a local
management of work are normally under the manage- vendor. A hired expert does not come in and teach it. It is
ment umbrella. This combined group creates the work to available at no cost to employers or employees. VPP pro-
be done, finances the means, controls the support and motes effective worksite-based safety and health. In VPP,
supervises daily operations. Those who physically per- management, labor and OSHA establish cooperative
form the work are more commonly known as labor. relationships at workplaces that have implemented a
Evidence shows that these partnerships work. comprehensive safety and health management system.
Through 29 CFR Part 1960 (29 Code) and the Postal Workplaces may participate in VPP in three ways: site-
Employees Safety Enhancement Act, federal sector based, mobile workforce and corporate. VPP approval is
employers are required to have labor/management safety OSHA’s official recognition of the outstanding efforts of
Fact Sheet EPA Names Two Northern
California Schools as
employers and employees who have achieved exemplary
occupational safety and health. Top 20 Green-Powered
Investing in the program has value for any employer,
public or private. Even if an employer hesitates to invite
OSHA to its worksite to perform an inspection, applying
the program’s principles to daily operations will in turn
F or the first time, EPA’s Green Power Partnership
announced the 20 primary and secondary schools
nationwide using the most power from renewable
create a safer workplace. Being in VPP provides the ben- energy sources, including two in Northern California,
efit of reaching out and having a volunteer network of Kentfield School District and Santa Clara University.
other VPP sites and OSHA assistance. The top Green Power Partner schools are buy-
Sell VPP to management on the basis of improved ing nearly 113 million kilowatt-hours (kWh) of
productivity, decreased costs and improved employee green power annually, equivalent to carbon diox-
moral because all of those benefits will be realized. ide emissions produced from the electricity use of
According to 2007 National Safety Council data, an inci- 11,000 American homes for one year.
dent costs approximately $39,000 on average, so each “Our green-powered schools are giving kids a
accident prevented has the potential of saving that much. brighter future in more ways than one. They are
Ask management to contact other public sector agencies leading the way in protecting our health and
that have taken on the challenge and ask them to explain environment and moving the country into the
the benefits of implementing VPP. clean energy economy of the 21st century,” says
The Department of Energy has created a successful EPA administrator Lisa P. Jackson. “This is a great
VPP program. The U.S. Postal Service made VPP part of lesson on how we reduce harmful pollution in our
its long-range business plan and became the first federal skies and get America running on clean energy.”
entity to become a corporate member. The Air Force, Kentfield School District, ranked No. 16 on
Army and other agencies have also applied VPP in some EPA’s Top 20 K-12 Schools List, generates nearly
fashion within their organizations. If one life is saved, 600,000 kWh of solar power annually, which is
then value exists in a structured partnership such as this. enough green power to meet 95% of the school’s
SH&E professionals can encourage employers to do the purchased electricity use.
right thing by implementing VPP in the workplace. The district’s onsite green power generation of
nearly 600,000 kWh is equivalent to avoiding the
REFERENCES carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of more than 80
Government Accountability Office. (2009, May 20). passenger vehicles per year, or the equivalent
OSHA’s voluntary protection programs: Improved over- amount of electricity needed to power more than
sight and controls would better ensure program quality 60 average American homes annually.
(GAO-09-395). Washington, DC: Author. Santa Clara University increased its ranking to
OSHA. Basic program elements for federal employee No. 16 on EPA’s Top 20 College and University list
occupational safety and health programs (29 CFR, Part of green power purchasers by doubling its green
1960. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, power usage to nearly 23 million kWh annually,
Author. Retrieved Sept. 2, 2009, from http://www.osha which is enough green power to meet 74% of the
.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=FE school’s electricity use. Santa Clara University’s
DERAL_REGISTER&p_id=13482. green power purchase is equivalent to avoiding
U.S. Postal Service. (1999, Feb.). Executive’s and the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of nearly 3,000
manager’s safety compliance guide. Retrieved Sept. 2, passenger vehicles per year.
2009, from http://www.npmhul310.org/manuals/EL This purchase also qualifies the university for
_802.pdf. EPA’s Green Power Leadership Club, a distinction
given to organizations that have significantly
Robert “Bob” Sander is a special government employee in VPP exceeded EPA’s minimum purchase require-
working for the U.S. Postal Service as a district safety specialist in ments. Green Power Leadership Club members
St. Louis, MO. He routinely conducts on-site evaluations with must purchase 10 times the partnership’s mini-
OSHA, and he also mentors others about the program. Sander
was named Special Government Employee of the Year in 2009. He mum requirement organization-wide.
holds advanced safety certificates from National Safety Council Green power is generated from renewable
and U.S. Postal Service, and he has been co-instructor of the spe- resources, such as solar, wind, geothermal, bio-
cial government employee program for the last 3 years. A former mass, biogas and low-impact hydropower. Green-
union leader, firefighter and emergency medical technician, power electricity generates less pollution than
Sander has more than 34 years’ safety experience.
conventional power and produces no net increase
in greenhouse gas emissions.
EMERGENCY CONTACT BY AMY STEWART, CSP
ICE: In Case of Emergency
his article just might save your life. Now that I
have your attention, let me ask you a few ques-
tions. If you were suddenly unconscious, who
would know how to reach your emergency con-
tact person? Do you have this information programmed
into your cellular phone? Would first responders be able
to obtain this information quickly should an emergency
WHAT IS ICE?
In case of emergency (ICE) is designed to provide
emergency personnel with contacts in emergency situa-
tions. Police, fire and other emergency personnel check
cellular telephones if those injured are incapable of provid-
ing necessary medical information. ICE helps emergency
personnel quickly learn medical history by allowing them
to speak to someone who knows you and can tell them
basic information or can give them your doctor’s phone
number. By using ICE, emergency officials can take min-
utes instead of hours to contact next of kin.
On your cell phone, enter the letters I-C-E then type
in your contact’s name, followed by his/her phone num-
ber. For example, to list your brother, John Doe, enter
ICEjohndoe (555) 555-5555. Day and evening numbers
should both be listed, such as ICEjohndoeday (555) 555-
5555 followed by the second entry ICEjohndoenight
(555) 555-6666. If you add more than one ICE contact,
list them in numerical order, such as ICE1 for the pri-
mary contact, ICE2 for the second and so on.
Your ICE contact may be a family member, friend or
neighbor. Provide your ICE contact with an updated list
of your medical conditions, such as allergies, current On your cell phone, enter the letters I-C-E then type in your contact’s name,
followed by his/her phone number.
Quiz medication(s), previous medical procedures, phone num-
bers for family members, primary care physician and
ICE stands for in case of emergency.
main work contact.
K True K False Add ICE to your cellular phone now, then take the
Both day and evening phone numbers for ICE quiz. Be sure to spread the word about ICE to family,
contacts should be listed. friends and coworkers.
K True K False
Cell phones are a good source for ICE information. Amy Stewart, CSP, has more than 20 years’ experience design-
ing, implementing and conducting safety-training programs.
K True K False
Specializing in designing fleet safety training and emergency
By using ICE, we can bring safety home. response, she is a professional member of ASSE. Stewart is a
member of the Society of Ohio Safety Engineers Patterns for
K True K False Progress Committee and currently chairs the Ohio Trucking
Safety Council. She received ASSE’s Public Sector Practice
(All statements are true.) Specialty Safety Professional of the Year Award and an ASSE
NAOSH Champion Award in 2008.
PUBLIC SAFETY BY ROB ROSCOE
Liquor Liability & Special Events
mergency service organizations often conduct An effective department liquor loss control program
social activities, fundraising events, bingo, hall will help you:
rentals and carnivals to raise funds to generate •Identify the problem.
fire department income. These events have been •Take steps to prevent a potential problem.
the driving source of revenue for emergency service •Reduce your liquor liability exposure.
organizations for more than 100 •Identify intoxicated individuals.
•Identify unacceptable forms of ID.
The emergency years.aMany fundraising events gen-
erate liquor exposure in which •Intervene if or when an individual shows signs of
service organization either the emergency service organi- intoxication.
•Prevent drinking and driving.
zation buys alcoholic beverages or
should implement a the leasing/rental party buys its own •Document incidents for future records/legal purpose.
•Promote a safe and happy social event with responsi-
designated driver alcoholic beverages and isother cases,
ble for its distribution. In
ble drinking behavior.
program that pro- a caterer buys and distributes alco- With the organization’s backing of an effective liquor
loss control program, positive influence can be affected
vides alternate holic beverages atthe liability as an
the special event.
on the drinking and the behavior of guests.
transportation to emergency service organization and a ALCOHOL RISK REDUCTION RECOMMENDATIONS
server of alcoholic beverages is
individuals who important. Remember, when you FOR—SOCIAL HALL OR BAR OPERATIONS
The following procedures are recommended to reduce
consume in excess serve alcohol, you can be held your liquor liability exposure at your hall or bar.
liable/responsible for serving alcohol
of the legal limit of to underage and intoxicated individu- •All members or employees serving alcohol should
attend a server training program (i.e. TIPS, TAM, RAMP).
alcoholic beverages. als. The state in which youyou arehas
state liquor laws by which
•Post your policy concerning the serving of alcoholic
beverages (see Figure 1, sample policy, on p. 13).
required to abide.
•All youthful customers should be required to show two
As a server of alcoholic beverages, you may be liable
pieces of identification, with at least one piece having a
for serving individuals already intoxicated and selling
photo ID. When in doubt, do not serve alcohol.
beverages to underage individuals. Specific laws apply •Carefully observe patrons to detect signs of intoxica-
to servers or establishments serving alcohol. Two laws tion, especially customers who may be under the influ-
•Common negligence. Specific state laws that set a
minimum standard for actions by a responsible person to
Liquor Liability & Training
•Dram Shop Liability. A specific state law that out- If you or your employee serve alcohol to a minor or
lines penalties for third-party lawsuits when alcohol is visibly intoxicated patron, the results could be seri-
involved. ous. Not only could you face administrative and
criminal fines and penalties, but you could also be
PUBLIC LEGAL CLIMATE sued in civil court for damages that person might
•All states have a drinking age of 21 years of age. cause after leaving your establishment.
•Blood alcohol content levels at levels of 0.08 or 0.10. Within your alcohol-serving policy, guidelines
Check with your liquor control board. should be in place for how employees are to be
•Under Dram Shop Liability, if an establishment sells trained to serve alcohol. In the U.S., 28 states have
alcohol under a state permit, the law may assess penal- specific requirements for alcohol-server training.
ties for third-party lawsuits when alcohol is involved. Regardless of what state you operate in, having
•The law requires that the emergency service organi- server training in place, along with a formal policy,
zation make a “reasonable effort” to prevent intoxication. shows an affirmative attempt on your part to pre-
vent improper or over serving of alcohol. If you are
PROBLEMS hiring an outside entity to serve alcoholic bever-
The main causes of problems when serving alcohol ages, you should ask about their training policies,
are: serving someone under the legal drinking age; serv- and verify that all individuals working at your event
ing a visibly intoxicated person; and failure to maintain have been trained.
control of the event or premise.
ence of drugs or alcohol when they arrive. Signs of of identification should
intoxication include off-color jokes, slurred speech, poor be provided with at least
coordination, bloodshot eyes and dazed expression. one piece having a
•Do not serve alcoholic beverages to any customers photo ID. When in
who show signs of intoxication upon arrival or after they doubt, do not serve.
have consumed alcohol on the fire department premises. •Separate the area
Intervene if patrons show signs of intoxication from driv- where alcohol is served
ing when they leave. Contact local law enforcement imme- from the rest of the
diately. Alternate transportation should be provided. event.
•Using an incident form designed to collect relevant •Do not allow any
information, write down any actions taken concerning a
customers to take alco-
problem or intoxicated patron.
•The emergency service organization should imple- holic beverages out of
ment a designated driver program that provides alternate the designated area.
transportation to individuals who consume in excess of •Assign one member
the legal limit of alcoholic beverages. to observe the cus-
tomers. This person
ALCOHOL RISK REDUCTION should look for signs of intoxication Carefully observe
RECOMMENDATION FOR and underage drinking.
SPECIAL EVENTS •Do not serve alcoholic beverages patrons to detect
If you sell alcoholic beverages at special events such to customers who appear to be
as fairs, block parties, carnivals, crab feasts and picnics, intoxicated.
signs of intoxica-
the following procedures are recommended to reduce •Do not allow purchasing cus- tion, especially cus-
your liquor liability exposure: tomers to serve alcoholic beverages
•Servers of alcohol should attend an alcohol server to other customers/individuals who tomers who may be
training program (i.e., TIPS, TAM, RAMP). appear to be intoxicated or underage.
•Station a member or extra police
under the influence
•The emergency service organization should obtain
the proper liquor permit/license from the state liquor patrols in the parking area. Your of drugs or alcohol
control board. members should observe the cus-
•Verify the age of all youthful customers. Two forms tomers who intend to drive. when they arrive.
•The members Signs of intoxica-
should intervene and
Figure 1 Alcohol Policy Sample dissuade the individual tion include off-
from driving. In the
event that the individ-
color jokes, slurred
ual gets in the car and speech, poor coor-
drives away, immedi-
ately contact law dination, bloodshot
enforcement. eyes and dazed
Rob Roscoe is an industry
specialist with Glatfelter expression.
Insurance Group, a public
entity specialist providing
risk management services and insurance products
to schools, municipalities, sewer/water authorities
and emergency service organizations. He has more
than 22 years’ experience in consulting with
municipal entities and emergency service organiza-
tions. Roscoe is a certified training for intervention
procedures instructor and an instructor for certi-
fied workplace safety committees in Pennsylvania.
He holds an M.S. in Safety Management from West
Virginia University. He may be reached at
This is a sample guideline furnished to you by
Glatfelter Public Practice. Your organization should
review this guideline and make the necessary modifi-
cations to meet your organization’s needs. The intent
of this guideline is to assist you in reducing exposure
to the risk of injury, harm, or damage to personnel,
property and the general public.