GV 103 International Relations 2009-10 Week 3:  World War One and the League of Nations
Lecture Content <ul><li>So today some of the topics I want to consider are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape of the internation...
Why start here? <ul><li>It is really WW1 that shapes the territorial shape of Europe as we know it today.   </li></ul><ul>...
Concert of Europe <ul><li>Large scale multilateral negotiations -  through medium of conferences, method through which int...
Key features <ul><li>The balance of system depended upon fact that no single member was able to outmatch the power of all ...
Elements & understandings <ul><li>Great power assumption for guaranteeing the ‘Peace of Europe’. </li></ul><ul><li>Great p...
Hague Peace Conferences   <ul><li>1899 & 1907 Hague Peace Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Important most notably: </li></ul>...
International Rivalry and Pressures <ul><li>States are industrialising at an extremely rapid rate. Populations and politic...
Start of World War 1 <ul><li>Issuing of demands and ultimatums by various parties </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilisation by all th...
State of Europe 1918 <ul><li>In Russia and the Tsar deposed and violent civil war.  </li></ul><ul><li>France is broke. Mal...
The League of Nations <ul><li>Driven by Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Followed from Versailles Treaty </li></ul><ul><li...
League of Nations -1 <ul><li>Collective security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key feature underpinning whole League </li></ul></u...
League of Nations -2 <ul><li>Crisis management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in case of conflict a 3 month ‘cooling off period’ </...
League of Nations -3 <ul><li>Trusteeship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal of German colonial territories to be administered ...
League of Nations - 4  <ul><li>Justiciable Disputes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covenant required members to peacefully settle d...
Theoretical Interpretations  <ul><li>IR emerged as area of study around WW1 </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected views and opinions...
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1030910wk03.ppt

  1. 1. GV 103 International Relations 2009-10 Week 3: World War One and the League of Nations
  2. 2. Lecture Content <ul><li>So today some of the topics I want to consider are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shape of the international structure leading up to WW1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events that mark the start of the War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Post War settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamentals of the League of Nations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Interpretations </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why start here? <ul><li>It is really WW1 that shapes the territorial shape of Europe as we know it today. </li></ul><ul><li>After WW1 international relations emerges as an area of academic study </li></ul><ul><li>20th Century sees development of international organisations </li></ul>
  4. 4. Concert of Europe <ul><li>Large scale multilateral negotiations - through medium of conferences, method through which interstate co-operation grew. known as the Concert of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement developed to guarantee the sovereignty of the states of Europe underpinned by the Great powers of the time - France, Russia, Britain, Austro-Hungary and Prussia. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Key features <ul><li>The balance of system depended upon fact that no single member was able to outmatch the power of all the other states combined. </li></ul><ul><li>These powers dominated the continent and therefore made the rules for the conduct of relations in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiated away any disputes between themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Where they could not do so then war was of course a possibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Threats of war grew as the system aged. </li></ul><ul><li>Threatening war almost became the way of signifying that a state was seriously concerned about an issue. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Elements & understandings <ul><li>Great power assumption for guaranteeing the ‘Peace of Europe’. </li></ul><ul><li>Great powers adopting some particular norms and attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respect for treaties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-interference in internal affairs of other states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>no unilateral actions on territorial issues (at least in Europe) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in all major decisions - unanimity rule basis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Equal status for all of the great powers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hague Peace Conferences <ul><li>1899 & 1907 Hague Peace Conferences </li></ul><ul><li>Important most notably: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced non-European states (principally South American) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All states were treated with formal equality, in contrast to the ‘Great Powers’ of the Concert. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hague Conference also moved beyond military and state diplomatic matters to address issues such as international migration and movement. </li></ul>
  8. 8. International Rivalry and Pressures <ul><li>States are industrialising at an extremely rapid rate. Populations and politics are generating huge internal pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial competition as the British, French, Austrians, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese compete for territorial control across Africa and the Far East. </li></ul><ul><li>Some empires are in decay - Austro-Hungaria and the Hapsburgs as is Turkish. Russia becoming less able to control its population and territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialised economics increasingly important as tool of power. United States and Japan growing at rapid rate. </li></ul><ul><li>German unification creates a large state at heart of Europe with big large population, rapidly industrialising, colonial desires and ill at ease with its neighbours. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Start of World War 1 <ul><li>Issuing of demands and ultimatums by various parties </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilisation by all the large powers. </li></ul><ul><li>The application of long developed war plans . </li></ul><ul><li>German invasion of France across Belgium (that brings in the British) and war with Russia in the East. </li></ul>
  10. 10. State of Europe 1918 <ul><li>In Russia and the Tsar deposed and violent civil war. </li></ul><ul><li>France is broke. Male population decimated, industrially exhausted and generally humiliated. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain population and society changed for ever, is bankrupt. Dependent on its empire. </li></ul><ul><li>US drawn into the war in 1917. Is economically rich and getting richer. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany’s internal political order is dashed - Kaiser abdicated . Militarily undefeated. Only after signing of Versailles Treaty that defeat is institutionalised. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Ottoman and Hapsburg Empires have collapsed giving light to demands for self-determination. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The League of Nations <ul><li>Driven by Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Followed from Versailles Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>An ‘idealist’ construction </li></ul><ul><li>US non-participation </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise on internationally agreeable and domestically acceptable in US Congress </li></ul>
  12. 12. League of Nations -1 <ul><li>Collective security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key feature underpinning whole League </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renunciation of use of force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rests on notion that all states will mobilise to defeat ANY state that attacks another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 10 League Members..... ‘undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mechanism that is slow to operate, if it can at all, by which time it is to late to reverse aggression </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. League of Nations -2 <ul><li>Crisis management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in case of conflict a 3 month ‘cooling off period’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disarmament </li></ul><ul><ul><li>League was forum for disarmament negotiations - naval forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not be enforced in worsening political atmosphere of 1930’s </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. League of Nations -3 <ul><li>Trusteeship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposal of German colonial territories to be administered on behalf of the League </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain: Iraq, Palestine, Trans-Jordan, Tanganyika </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>France: Lebanon and Syria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britain and France joint control of Cameroons and Togoland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium: Rwanda/Burundi </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>S. Africa: Namibia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. League of Nations - 4 <ul><li>Justiciable Disputes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covenant required members to peacefully settle disputes either by arbitration or judgement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managed by special ad-hoc commissions and bodies created by the Council. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Permanent Court of International Justice was also created. The Court was designed to deal with any disputes referred to it by conflicting parties or the Council for advisory opinions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social and Economic issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article 23 accepts that problems with trafficking of people and narcotics should be addressed by the international community - through the League. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ specialist technical agencies’ included International Labour Organisation, Communications and Transit Organisation, Economic and Financial Organisation and International Health Organisation </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Theoretical Interpretations <ul><li>IR emerged as area of study around WW1 </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected views and opinions of time </li></ul><ul><li>Explanations for WW1 revolved around belief that leaders of autocratic states of the time, unfettered by restraining forces, (Russia, Germany, Austria) bore responsibility for war because they made short-sighted and egotistically informed decisions that forced war. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders from triumphant liberal states pushed for creation of democratic states, believing these were less prone to war. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of international institution would better regulate interstate relations, making them more transparent. An international authority might more effectively promote peaceful relations between than states could. </li></ul><ul><li>The time of ‘utopian liberalism’. </li></ul>

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