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  2. 2. Introduction • Along with the rapid progress of the country to pursue Vision 2020, awareness of the importance of educational knowledge is increasing, especially among the present generation. • Thus, society has placed educational institutions as formal institutions that are responsible in providing the best education for their children. • Hence to achieve excellence in a school, school administrators were identified playing a role in ensuring the success of the organization. Efforts to pursue and achieve excellence in education lies in the hands of school administrators ( Hussien,1993)
  3. 3. • Researches and writings in the field of administration, have shown that the leadership of school administrators is very important in ensuring a smooth, efficient, and effective management of organizations, particularly schools (Edmonds 1979 & Sergiovanni 1987). • National schools and Indigenous schools have undergone many changes in curriculum, teaching methods & pedagogy, and cocurricular activities in order to meet the increasingly challenging expectations of the community and the nation. • All this caused school administrators, especially those working in Indigenous schools to face greater challenges and to be sensitive, creative and innovative in dealing with various problems in their daily management due to environmental and cultural difference compared to the environment of other communities.
  4. 4. • In our country, Educational Review Committee at the schools reported that school administrators are responsible for the achievement of their students. According to the Committee, school administrators need to be efficient; ...and spent much time organizing learning activities in schools, maintains the school supervision in an effective manner, acting as a consultant, advisor and coordinator of teaching and learning program in schools, and should spend more time in professional activities of teachers and students, rather than just working solely as an administrator who is confined to a room in giving out instructions and letters. (Ministry of Education Malaysia)
  5. 5. Role of Principal • Research and literature have established a significant link between the leadership style of the principal, school climate and culture, and increased student learning (Glassman, 1984; Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Kelly Thornton, & Daugherty (2005). • Huffman (2003) noted that one of the most crucial steps that administrators must ponder as they lead their schools through the processes of reform is establishing a shared vision that has at its core the shared values of all stakeholders.
  6. 6. • As a leader or manager of the school, particularly in Indigenous schools, school administrators are expected to play a role:- a. providing incentives in disseminating information, b. conducting staff development activities c. build good relationships between schools and communities around d. develop a happy school environment that can receive, nurture and support changes from the outside (Ibrahim, 1988). • The role of school administrators is seen as a determinant of success and failure in the implementation of education programs in schools in particular.
  7. 7. RESEARCH & PROBLEM BACKGROUND • Indigenous students' achievement levels in education should be given more attention. Studies conducted by JAKOA found the lack of involvement of Indigenous students at both secondary schools and also in higher education is due to the low level of schooling (Nicholas, 2006). One hundred Indigenous students entering year one, only six students who will be graduating up to Form 5. 94% of these students cannot be traced either graduated or not. (Nicholas,2007) • This situation is due to the school environment, community, family and teachers, including school administrators that less supportive about excellence in education of Indigenous students and lead to dropout in primary and secondary school levels (Hassan Mat Nor 1997).
  8. 8. • There are indications that show a significant drop out during standard 4 and 5 at the level of primary school (Crooks, Hamilton &Caygill 2000; Wylie, Thompson &Lythe 1999). Among those aged 7 to 12, the number not attending school rose to more than 2,700 in 2010, up from 1,962 in 2007 (Human Rights Commission in Malaysia, 2012) • Among the factors that caused this drop out is the limited educational facilities such as computers, internet and specialized training of teachers in improving education levels of Indigenous students (Hasan Mat Nor 1997) and the quality of teaching and pedagogy of teachers is a very significant influence towards the achievement of students (Bosker&Witziers 1995; Cuttance 1998) is still at the same level. • The study presented by Alangui (1997) and Branchov (1994), found that the curriculum and pedagogy that are not compatible with Indigenous culture is also an important factor causing the Indigenous students’ lack of interest in the process of learning in the classroom.
  9. 9. • The lack of innovation and knowledge of teachers and school administrators about Indigenous culture causes less interaction and discomfort exists between teachers and pupils (Mohd Kamal & Abdul Rahman,2007) • Abdullah Hassan (1969) describes teaching a second language to non-native students need careful consideration, planned and implemented in a natural and not too formal and this aspect should be considered by school administrators of Indigenous students.
  10. 10. Model for Indigenous Students GPILSEO Model (Bishop & O’ Sullivans 2005) focuses on the 7 aspects (Goals, Pedagogy, Institution, Leadership, Spread, Evidence & Ownership) to enhance the education of Indigenous students with emphasis on the role of students, teachers, school administrators , parents and the community (Okagaki, 2001; Bishop & O 'Sullivans 2005) in raising educational achievement of students other than the role of schools and classrooms.
  11. 11. Leadership styles • Empirical studies spanning multiple decades have revealed various models of school leadership behaviors as applied by school principals. Two of the foremost researchers and writers in the field of educational leadership, Leithwood and Duke (1999), listed and defined four styles of leadership as applied in government, business, the military, and in schools: instructional, moral, transactional, and transformational. The following are definitions of these leadership styles: • Instructional leadership centers on the daily practices, methods, and behaviors of teachers as they engage students in efforts to increase student learning. • Moral leadership involves values and ethics of the leader in general as well as in the decision making process.
  12. 12. • The constructs of transactional leadership proposed by Bass (1985), includes 3 constructs: contingent reward, management-by-exception, and laissez-faire leadership. These constructs were part of seven constructs of leadership which were separated into transactional and transformational leadership behaviors. • Transformational leadership raises the level of commitment of members and empowers them to affect positive changes in the organization. Transformational leaders are described as exhibiting charismatic leadership behaviors.
  13. 13. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The conceptual framework adopted from the Model of GPILSEO (Bishop &Sullivans 2005)
  14. 14. With Prof. Russel Bishop (GPILSE0)
  15. 15. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY • This study uses the qualitative method using a case study. Data obtained in this study was gathered through semi-structured interviews, which took 1.5 to 2 hours. • The researcher has selected the school administrators who are the Headmaster (HM1) and Senior Assistant Teacher (SAT1) who are teaching in Indigenous students’ school. The research participants were selected using random purposive sampling method, a technique of recruiting participants by taking into account certain considerations. • Sample selection criterion is based on the criteria that the school administrator who worked at the Indigenous students’ school consist of male and female aged between 35 to 45 years and has worked in lndigenous school for at least three years. Location of this study involves two primary Indigenous schools consisting of a suburban school and a rural school located around the state of Pahang.
  16. 16. FINDINGS & DISCUSSION PERSPECTIVE OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS a. Based on objective • Two Indigenous school administrators, a HM and a SAT who became the samples, did not set a target of high academic achievement for their school. They agreed that school’s performance target is to enable students to master the Reading, Writing, Counting and Thinking skills, as per the school’s Vision. Mission, vision and direction for both the schools is recorded as follows; • School’s Mission: To provide effective education to students through proper teaching methods and encourage students to be interested in attendingthe school’ • School’sVision: Develop the students’ skills so that the students can read, write, count and think' • School’s Direction: 1.To increase the number of students who can read, write and count, and ii. 11.Produce students who are knowledgeable and has good attitude. "
  17. 17. b. Performance target Both the samples target for the achievement of each subject to increase by 10% and HM1 expects two students to get 5As in the upcoming UPSR. SAT1 said that "Since 2007 this school has achieved a good percentage of the UPSR for Indigenous school. In 2010 we received 10% passing rate and is expected in 2011 will have students who may score at least 3A".
  18. 18. School vision
  19. 19. School Mission
  20. 20. Perspectives of school administrators based on pedagogy a. Supportive teaching method • The interview data showed that HM1 and SAT1 viewed that Indigenous students need a fun form of teaching and encouraging nature. • "...with these students, if we are angry, they will not come to school...must always give encouragement and show that we understand them" (SAT1) • 'I have been here for a very long time ready, I understand their behaviour well.I always advise all my teachers here to teach in a way that can excite the students.They quickly get bored ... "(HM1)
  21. 21. Perspectives of school administrators based on institutions a. Facilities available in schools Both school administrators said that the facilities at the school are adequate for the purpose of teaching and learning-tables, chairs, blackboard, small library etc. "these facilities are basics and its important for the Indigenous students" Recorded observations showed that in the headmaster’s office and general office, there are facilities such as computers, LCD, fax machines and internet to "facilitate the relationship, especially with the education office"
  22. 22. Classroom
  23. 23. Perspectives of school administrators regarding leadership a. Periodic monitoring of school administrators • Both respondents said that the monitoring of teaching and learning are conducted by school administrators periodically. However, the frequency will depend on the requirements, because according to Headmaster and Senior Assistant Teacher, it is more important to monitor the students’ attendance to school. • "The school and I are monitoring of students’ attendance. It is different here compared to outside schools. As long as students' attendance is good, we already feel successful because they can learn "(SAT1). • "Here we are more concerned with students' attendance. There were times when teachers have to go to students’ homes. That is what we often monitor "(HM1)
  24. 24. Perspectives of school administrators based on spread a. Activities carried out for students and the local community Various activities were carried out for the Indigenous students to improve their educational development. Additional classes will be held for students who will be sitting for the UPSR examination and to help students improve their proficiency in all subjects. “the classes will start after school hours..start at 2-3pm, rest about half an hour then start again from 3.30-4.30pm”. They are also exposed to the progress taking place in Malaysia by taking them for visits to places as Kuala Lumpur, Kuantan and Tioman Island for a field trip which the indigenous students love to do. This could indirectly open the minds of Indigenous students so that they are not left behind in the modernization cent and brave enough to face the new environment. To foster a culture of reading, the school organized a reading program in the morning.
  25. 25. Hostel and foods for students
  26. 26. b. Assistance received Many Indigenous students receive educational assistance from the government in the forms of pocketmoney, free books and school uniforms. “ Yes. Like books, school begs, uniform” (SAT1) Indigenous communities also receive assistance from JAKOA ,banks, NGO’s. To foster interest in reading, the NST newspaper also provides newspapers on weekly basis reading materials for the Indigenous students :“I would prefer they donate Malay papers instead because my students don’t understand english yet alone to read it” (HM2)
  27. 27. Allocations
  28. 28. Perspectives of school administrators based on evidence • In terms of evidence in education, • “the record for student who scored 5As was broken by an Indigenous student after 15 years” (HM1) • “Actually this school already won a national awards in 2007 as an Excellent Indigenous Primary School under Ministry of Education” (SAT1) • “we conducting exams 4 times a year” (HM2)
  29. 29. Sk. Sg Mas
  30. 30. SK Penderas
  31. 31. Perspectives of school administrators based on ownership a. Contribution to school • Both the school administrator who was interviewed supported that their school teachers show high level of commitment in educating Indigenous students. They are willing to sacrifice their time for the success of Indigenous students. Teachers always try to give assistance and encouragement to the students. • "Some teachers are willing to sleep in the school when we have programs; they are willing to sacrifice their time and energy" (HM1) • "my teacher did not go home since yesterday because we have a program with the students and parents" (SAT1).
  32. 32. Young generations
  33. 33. Conclusions • Based on the role and perspectives of school administrators as discussed indicated that there are some elements that may be associated with the achievements and problems of education of Indigenous students. • Views of different groups of respondents indicated education of Indigenous students have the potential to achieve better progress. Among the school administrators, they have a very positive outlook on education, especially in terms of goals. However, information from the various categories of respondents and the observations also showed that there are some situations that can be improved. • For example, elements related to pedagogy, teachers’ leadership, perfection and functionality of available facilities, willingness of students to stay in hostels, and support of various parties need to take place or be provided in the form that can assist the students so that they will not drop out of school and get more satisfactory results.
  34. 34. Folk dance