Mental Health Historical Timeline

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2007, the Mental Health Commission reported on mental health in New Zealand over the last decade. The Powerpoint presentation of this information will provide information on the beginnings of Mental Health Nursing.

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Mental Health Historical Timeline

  1. 1. Mental Health Nursing Historical Foundations At the completion of this session students will: Be able to discern the different ways in which mental illness has been constructed in the past Appreciate the different ways that have been used to treat mental disorders in the past Critique the theory that treatment has improved over time Be aware of some of the key historical, social and political developments of mental health services in New Zealand Have critically challenged, through discussion, some of the key points of this session 1
  2. 2. Timeline........... Ancient Civilisation: Ancient Romans, Greeks and Arabs treated people with mental health problems humanely Middle ages (AD 500-1450: The age of Witchcraft, superstition and mysticism. People were locked away with no professionals to take care of them. 1403 The first Mental hospital, Bethlehem Royal Hospital, opened in the UK The Renaissance (14th-17th centuries): centuries) Mental illness thought to be reversible 2
  3. 3. Timeline........... Eighteenth Century: Move towards humane kindness and the emergence of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing William Battie (1703-1776) 1757 - Benjamin Franklin introduced a form of Electroconvulsive therapy 19 – 20th century: Definition of madness shifts from ‘spirit possession theory’ 3
  4. 4. Timeline........... 1845 Lunacy Act Asylums were established in New Zealand as part of the process of colonisation 1846 The first premises were provided for the care of ‘lunatics’ in New Zealand Six provincial asylums were built on the British model between 1854 and 1872 Staffed by ‘attendants who were more akin to warders than nurses’ (O’Brien, 2001) 4
  5. 5. Timeline........... Punishment was replaced by the development of care 1818 – First medical Journal published: ‘The Journal of Psychological Doctors’ (Germany) 1855 – Training for doctors developed ‘Certificate in psychological medicine’ 1870 Education Act - education was provided for all attendants of asylum 5
  6. 6. Timeline........... Nursing rises in status but the status of the asylum worker in New Zealand shared the stigmatised status of their ‘charges’ 1882 First nursing school (USA) for mental health nursing based on Nightingales teaching 1885 Handbook for the instruction of attendants of the insane was published 1902 15000 had been sold and mental health nursing became a written instead of oral tradition 6
  7. 7. Timeline........... 1890: A Training Scheme was developed for nurses 1892: 15 Asylums were participating in the training scheme New Zealand now followed UK in developments 1907 First training programme for psychiatric nurses and registration commenced in Auckland 1923 ‘The handbook for mental Nurses’ was published 7
  8. 8. Timeline........... Following World War II pharmacological treatments emerged Antidepressant’s then Antipsychotic’s So successful that many institutionalised clients were able to leave hospital for the first time in decades 8
  9. 9. Timeline........... 1950 -1954 Hildegarde Peplau initiates, first speciality training and text book : ‘Interpersonal relations in nursing’ Conceptualisation of mental health nursing as a therapeutic relationship was an international trend 9
  10. 10. Timeline........... Nursing Theorists Render, Orlando and Barker developed further on Peplau’s theory 1970 Education from mental institutions to polytechnics and universities 1995 development of postgraduates certificate /program of mental health nursing 2000 Professionalism of speciality of mental health nursing: postgraduate diploma's , masters 10
  11. 11. Timeline........... 1980’s De-institutionalisation 1994 New Zealand Ministry of Health establish a set of five strategic directions ‘Looking Forward: Strategic Directions for the Mental Health Services’. (www.moh.govt.nz) 1996 Mason Report (Mason, Johnston & Crowe, 1996) 1996 The Mental Health Commission established to oversee implementation of the National Mental health Strategy (www.mhc.govt.nz) 1997 ‘Moving Forward: The National Plan for More and Better Mental Health Services (MOH, 1997a) 11
  12. 12. Timeline........... 1998 Blueprint for Mental Health Services (http://www.mhc.govt.nz/publications/1998/Blueprint1998.pdf) Treaty of Waitangi (1840) is accorded a central place in policy development and service provision by both MHC and MOH bodies 1990’s Recovery principles developed and consumers became involved Mental Health Nursing has blossomed into a skilled profession but there are still many challenges facing mental health nurses with ongoing policy developments in the provision of services and the need to balance the caring and controlling functions of mental health nursing practice. (Elder et al, 2005) 12

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