Bio Review For Diabetes

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Bio Review For Diabetes

  1. 1. Review of Bio 3 for Diabetes
  2. 2. Metabolism fuels <ul><li>Carbohydrates (preferred fuel) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose molecule + O2 (metabolism)=36 molecules ATP, CO2, H2O </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose + no O2 (metab)=4-5 molecules of ATP and lactic acid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fats (second choice for fuel) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fat can be changed into glucose and glucose into fat </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipogenesis (making new fats) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipolysis: (breaking down of fats) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Proteins (last choice for fuel) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is inefficient and compromises the body’s protein stores (muscle mass, antibodies etc) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. ↑ Insulin after Meals <ul><li>Stimulates storage of glucose as glycogen in liver & muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits gluconeogenesis (formation of glycogen from fatty acids & proteins rather than carbohydrates) </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances fat deposition in adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Increases protein synthesis </li></ul>
  4. 4. Insulin Effects on Metabolism Figure 24.19
  5. 5. Glucagon effects on Metabolism Figure 24.21
  6. 6. Endocrine Regulation of blood sugar <ul><li>Decreased Blood Glucose Stimulates (Humorally) </li></ul><ul><li>ALPHA Cells secrete Glucagon </li></ul><ul><li>targets: </li></ul><ul><li>LIVER causing glycogenolysis </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Body Cells, making them resistant to glucose </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Fat Cells, causing gluconeogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Results in: </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASED BLOOD GLUCOSE </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Blood Glucose Stimulates (Humorally) </li></ul><ul><li>BETA Cells secrete Insulin </li></ul><ul><li>targets: </li></ul><ul><li>LIVER causing conversion of glucose to glycogen </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Body Cells, making them more permeable to glucose, increases Gl+O2 to ATP </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>Fat Cells, causing them to convert glucose to fat </li></ul><ul><li>Results in: </li></ul><ul><li>DECREASED BLOOD GLUCOSE </li></ul>

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