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WiFi 101

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November, 2018 North Coast HDI Chapter Meeting. Learn more on our website: www.ncchdi.org

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WiFi 101

  1. 1. Understanding Wi-Fi (so you can find and fix your issues!) Presented by Eric Camulli Customer Success Officer, 7SIGNAL 1
  2. 2. 2
  3. 3. The Spectrum • Licensed vs. Unlicensed 3 800 MHz 900 MHz 2.1 GHz 2.4 GHz 2.5 GHz 2.6 GHz 5.0 GHz
  4. 4. The Unlicensed Available Spectrum • 3 unlicensed bands available for public use • Airtime in the spectrum band is finite and we all share it • As a result, managing the air is very important! 4 900 MHz 2.4 GHz 5.0 GHz Wi-Fi Wi-Fi
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  6. 6. 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Know the differences between low and high radio frequencies P r o p a g a t i o n 6
  7. 7. Signal, Coverage, and Roaming 7 2.4 5.0 5.05.0
  8. 8. 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz Know the Differences 3 non-overlapping channels Very Low Capacity 24 non-overlapping channels Much More Capacity! 1 6 11 2.412 GHz 2.437 GHz 2.462 GHz 5.15 GHz 5.825 GHz • A channel is a slice of air within the band. • Over use causes congestion.
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  10. 10. Channels and Congestion 10 2.4 1 5.0 64 5.0 149 5.0 149 5.0 36
  11. 11. Interference in the Air 11
  12. 12. 132 12 132 64521041201444836 521041321444836 64521204814436 Co-channel Interference and Coverage Issues Caused by RRM (Radio Resource Management)
  13. 13. Let’s “Look” at the Air… InSSIDer 13
  14. 14. Performance Comparison 14 Interference Range Bandwidth 5GHz 2.4GHz
  15. 15. Which Would You Buy? 15 Better Know Your Wi-Fi Standards!
  16. 16. What is This? 16
  17. 17. 17 Client Devices The Wi-Fi NetworkAccess Points It Disconnects Me…I Can’t Connect It’s Really Slow…It’s Just Terrible! Congestion Coverage Sticky Congestion Interference The Complaints The Problem Areas The Root Cause The Remediation Authentication IP Services Other…
  18. 18. 18 Client Devices The Wi-Fi NetworkAccess Points It Disconnects Me…I Can’t Connect It’s Really Slow…It’s Just Terrible! Congestion Coverage Sticky Congestion Interference The Complaints The Problem Areas The Root Cause The Remediation Authentication IP Services Other… Adjust, modify adapter settings. Update software drivers. Adjust channel widths. Decrease Tx power. Remove overlapping channels. Remove or avoid interference. Add access points. Add more channels. Adjust Tx power.
  19. 19. Thank You! www.7signal.com 21
  20. 20. Where to Start… 1. Look at Sapphire Eye™ Alarms (inbox) • Instantly identifies network issues 2. If Mobile Eye™ is on the device, look it up! • Can show you issues with roaming, coverage, congestion, and network 3. Go to Analyzer™ • Shows you congestion and interference 22
  21. 21. Troubleshooting with Mobile Eye™ 23
  22. 22. Mobile Eye™ Device Health Check Indicator 24 • Tells you if the client should have roamed but didn’t. • Indicates poor signal or low data rate • Backend network congestion or disconnect • Wi-Fi experience indicators
  23. 23. Mobile Eye™ Device Health Check Indicator 25 Sticky Client Issue Network Connectivity Issue Poor signal, low data rate Good roaming options available, but not taken! Bad Wi-Fi experience Good signal and data rate On the best available AP Cannot reach targeted servers, end points, or web sites Bad Wi-Fi experience
  24. 24. Mobile Eye™ Device Health Check Indicator 26 Coverage Issue Congestion Issue Poor signal, low data rate No better roaming options available Bad Wi-Fi experience Good signal and data rate On the best available AP Bad Wi-Fi experience
  25. 25. 27 Mobile Eye™ Everything else on the page is supporting detail…
  26. 26. Getting Proactive with Mobile Eye™ 28
  27. 27. Mobile Eye™ Wi-Fi Network Health Across Multiple Locations 29 Go to the ‘Wi-Fi’ tab to view aggregated client signal strength and data rate performance across multiple locations for a single SSID. Click the timeline to explore
  28. 28. 30 Performance for one SSID across 3 locations. Proportion correlates to number of samples. Mobile Eye™ Wi-Fi Network Health Across Multiple Locations Click green to identify the 2 good locations.
  29. 29. 31 Click here to go back Mobile Eye™ Wi-Fi Network Health Across Multiple Locations
  30. 30. 32 Now click red to view the critical location Mobile Eye™ Wi-Fi Network Health Across Multiple Locations
  31. 31. 33 Mouse-over location to reveal severity of signal or data rate performance. Then click location to generate an AP report. Mobile Eye™ Wi-Fi Network Health Across Multiple Locations
  32. 32. 34 West_Akron_250_5 One AP at this location with data rates values out of service level compliance. Mobile Eye™ AP Report for Selected Location
  33. 33. Troubleshooting with Sapphire EyeQ 35
  34. 34. Four Macro KPIs 36 Identifies an AP Issue Identifies a RADIUS or Captive Portal Issue Identifies a DHCP Server Issue Identifies Congestion, RRM Issues
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  40. 40. 42 Wi-Fi Experience Indicators
  41. 41. Troubleshooting with Sapphire Analyzer™ Identify the problem, identify root cause, learn what you can do about it. 43
  42. 42. 44 Client Devices The Air NetworkAccess Points It Disconnects Me…I Can’t Connect It’s Really Slow…It’s Just Terrible! Congestion Coverage Sticky Congestion Interference The Complaints The Problem Areas The Root Cause The Remediation Authentication IP Services Other… Adjust, modify adapter settings. Update drivers. Adjust channel widths. Decrease Tx power. Remove overlapping channels. Remove or avoid interference. Add access points. Add more channels. Adjust Tx power.
  43. 43. Troubleshooting with Analyzer™ 45 No Beacon • Root Cause: access point issue No Attach Success • Root Cause: access point issue No Auth. Success • Root Cause: network issue No DHCP Success • Root Cause: network issue Active Tests • Throughput, packet loss, latency, jitter, MOS • Wi-Fi experience indicators Signal Strength • Can be too low or high • Root Cause: coverage or co-channel interference caused by RRM Channel Changes • Too frequent • Root Cause: disconnects or co-channel interference caused by RRM Narrow the Focus Select proper aggregation
  44. 44. Troubleshooting with Analyzer™ 46 2.4 GHz • Channels 1, 6, and 11 only • Remove adjacent channel interference 5 GHz • Use all the channels you can HT40 • May cause adjacent channel interference • Reduces overall number of available channels • Decreases SNR VHT80 • Rarely a good idea! 2.4 GHz 5.0 GHz
  45. 45. Troubleshooting with Analyzer™ 47 AP Retries •Too high •Caused by: interference or congestion Client Retries •Too high •Caused by: interference or congestion Channel Utilization •Too high •Root Cause: congestion Station Count •Too high •Root Cause: congestion
  46. 46. Troubleshooting with Analyzer™ 48 802.11b • Max data rate of 11 Mbps • 2.4 GHz only 802.11g • Max data rate of 54 Mbps • 2.4 GHz only 802.11n • Max data rate of 600 Mbps • 2.4 or 5 GHz 802.11ac • Max data rate of 1.3 Gbps • 5 GHz only
  47. 47. Troubleshooting with Analyzer™ 49 Narrow Band • Causes adjacent channel interference Wide Band • Cuts across the entire band, very disruptive
  48. 48. The Wi-Fi is Terrible! Network Problem? End to End Tab Authentication Services DHCP and DNS Services Access Point Problem? End to End Tab Beacon Avail or Radio Attach (Too Low) Causes poor coverage or congestion Reboot or replace AP Channel Changes (Too Frequent) Causes disconnects Consider new channel plan w/ lower Tx power Signal Strength Changes (Too High or Low) Causes poor coverage or interference Adjust Tx Power Frames Tab Station Count (Too High) Causes congestion Use more channels Channel Utilization (Too High) Causes congestion Use more channels Decrease Tx Power Retries (Too High) Caused by interference or congestion Use more channels Add more APs Wi-Fi Problem? Channels Tab Overlapping Channels (Any) Causes interference Remove APs on overlapping channels Review channel bonding plan Spectrum Tab Interference (Any) Causes disconnects, congestion Remove or avoid Data Rates Too Low Caused by Interference Remove or avoid Client Problem? Mobile Eye Roaming, Coverage, Congestion Update driver or replace adapter Adjust client adapter settings Adjust Tx Power to increase coverage Troubleshooting with Analyzer™ 50
  49. 49. Getting Proactive with Analyzer™ 51
  50. 50. Build Your Wi-Fi Performance Dashboard Then tell the system to email it to you everyday 52 NetworkAccess Point Congestion or Interference Impact on Wi-Fi Experience
  51. 51. Your Turn! 53

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