2013 - MBAA InternationalCritical Thinking Advances the Theory & Practice of Business Administration   Phyllis R. Anderson...
2013 - MBAA International         A Test           OfCritical Thinking Skills
2013 - MBAA InternationalQuestion 1How do you put a giraffeinto a refrigerator?
2013 - MBAA InternationalAnswer 1You open the door,Put the giraffe into the refrigerator,Then, you close the door!
2013 - MBAA InternationalQuestion 2How do you put a elephantinto the refrigerator?
2013 - MBAA InternationalAnswer 2No,You open the door,You take the giraffe out of therefrigerator,You put the elephant int...
2013 - MBAA InternationalQuestion 3The Lion called a meetingof all the animals.Which one wasn’t there?
2013 - MBAA InternationalAnswer 3.Weren’t you paying attention?The elephant is in the refrigerator!
2013 - MBAA InternationalQuestion 4You come to the riverwhere the Man-eatingcrocodiles live. There is noboat or bridge.How...
2013 - MBAA InternationalAnswer 4.You swim.All the crocodiles are at the meeting.
2013 - MBAA InternationalHow did you do in this test of your critical thinking skills?
2013 - MBAA InternationalWhat do these companies have in common?
2013 - MBAA International                                   Why?Businesses expect that Colleges of BusinessAdministration ...
2013 - MBAA International                       2012 - Woods-Bagot                        66 %                            ...
2013 - MBAA International                                 2012 - Woods-BagotSkills or Attributes Demanded by Business Exec...
2013 - MBAA International                Background                     2009Quasi-Experimental Study55 Graduating Seniors,...
2013 - MBAA International                      The Three Pillars•  Teaching for Critical Thinking, (Halpern, 1998)•  Cogni...
2013 - MBAA International                         CCTST Results                     Control (N=21)         Experimental (N...
2013 - MBAA International            Huge Improvement in Critical Thinking               Knowledge, Skills, & Strategies  ...
2013 - MBAA International              T-Tests of Chapter Pre-Test/Post Test                                              ...
2013 - MBAA International    Critical Thinking ConclusionCritical Thinking was taughtCritical Thinking was learned.Critica...
2013 - MBAA International    Four Years Later
2013 - MBAA International               Summative SurveyPotential:      163 Graduates      86 Mailing Addresses      112 E...
2013 - MBAA International          Summative Survey            Sixteen Questions:2 Screening Questions11 Quantitative (Qua...
2013 - MBAA International         Summative Survey           7-Point Likert ScalesWorst Worse Bad   Neutral Good Better Be...
2013 - MBAA International                                                Question 3                                       ...
2013 - MBAA International                                            Question 4                                           ...
2013 - MBAA International    Proficiency in Critical Thinking Skills“... there are several ways persons can be judgedto be...
2013 - MBAA InternationalQualitative Confirmation of Critical Thinking•  “Everyone needs to learn critical thinking skills...
2013 - MBAA International                                                Education                                        ...
2013 - MBAA InternationalQualitative Confirmation of Critical Thinking•  “I utilized this instruction through my two years...
2013 - MBAA International                                            Workplace                                            ...
2013 - MBAA InternationalQualitative Confirmation of Critical Thinking•  “To my surprise, forecasting and inventory contro...
2013 - MBAA International                                           Daily Life                                            ...
2013 - MBAA International                                 Interactions with Others                                        ...
2013 - MBAA International                                 Perceptions of the World                                        ...
2013 - MBAA International                                   Perceptions of Self                                           ...
2013 - MBAA International                                  Changed You in Any Way                                         ...
2013 - MBAA International                 Logical DilemmaGraduates Strong Agree:   1. Use Critical Thinking in Daily Life ...
2013 - MBAA International                Can both be true?Is there a statistical difference between Questions9-11 and Ques...
2013 - MBAA International  Questions 9-11 vs Questions 12 & 13Question 9: M=5.78                        Question 12: M=4.8...
2013 - MBAA International            Difference between the Means    Question 9 v 12:        M=0.93     Z=4.29, p<.000003 ...
2013 - MBAA International             Cognitive Dissonance?1. Changes in themselves were so slow and gradualthat they have...
2013 - MBAA InternationalQualitative Confirmation of Critical Thinking•  “It helps me look outside the box for other answe...
2013 - MBAA International                                            Aggregate                                           D...
2013 - MBAA International            Summation of Values            Mean   SD          Z-Score          Cohen’s D   Q3    ...
2013 - MBAA International                   Conclusion1.  Graduates report extremely high utilization of    critical think...
2013 - MBAA International     Final Thoughts
2013 - MBAA International1. Critical Thinking isn’t easy.2. No, you are not a good CriticalThinker.3. Learning to be a Cri...
Corporate Development Associates       Critical Thinking for the New Economy1. Critical Thinking can be taught and learned...
2013 - MBAA International                 Ooops!Please, let the elephant outof the refrigerator.It has a meeting to attend.
2013 - MBAA International        The End
Critical Thinking for the New Economy   Corporate Development Associates, Inc.           2201 S. Highland Ave            L...
2013 - MBAA International                                                  Bibliography•  Abbate, S. (2008). Online case s...
2013 - MBAA International                                                        Bibliography•  Bloom, P., & Weisberg, D. ...
2013 - MBAA International                                                       Bibliography•  Dunning, D., Heath, C., & S...
2013 - MBAA International                                                       Bibliography•  Gelder, T. v. (2005). Teach...
2013 - MBAA International                                                         Bibliography•  Halpern, D., & Hakel, M. ...
2013 - MBAA International                                                       Bibliography•  Reid, J., & Anderson, P. (2...
2013 - MBAA International                                                      Bibliography•  Willingham, D. T. (2007). Cr...
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Ct advances theory & practice of business management

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2013 MBAA/NAMS presentation, "Critical Thinking Advances the Theory and Practice of Business Management." Phyllis R. Anderson, Governors State University and Joanne R. Reid, Corporate Development Associates, Inc.

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Ct advances theory & practice of business management

  1. 1. 2013 - MBAA InternationalCritical Thinking Advances the Theory & Practice of Business Administration Phyllis R. Anderson, MetE, MBA, PhD Joanne R. Reid, BS, MSEd, EdD
  2. 2. 2013 - MBAA International A Test OfCritical Thinking Skills
  3. 3. 2013 - MBAA InternationalQuestion 1How do you put a giraffeinto a refrigerator?
  4. 4. 2013 - MBAA InternationalAnswer 1You open the door,Put the giraffe into the refrigerator,Then, you close the door!
  5. 5. 2013 - MBAA InternationalQuestion 2How do you put a elephantinto the refrigerator?
  6. 6. 2013 - MBAA InternationalAnswer 2No,You open the door,You take the giraffe out of therefrigerator,You put the elephant into therefrigerator,Then, you close the door!
  7. 7. 2013 - MBAA InternationalQuestion 3The Lion called a meetingof all the animals.Which one wasn’t there?
  8. 8. 2013 - MBAA InternationalAnswer 3.Weren’t you paying attention?The elephant is in the refrigerator!
  9. 9. 2013 - MBAA InternationalQuestion 4You come to the riverwhere the Man-eatingcrocodiles live. There is noboat or bridge.How do you get across?
  10. 10. 2013 - MBAA InternationalAnswer 4.You swim.All the crocodiles are at the meeting.
  11. 11. 2013 - MBAA InternationalHow did you do in this test of your critical thinking skills?
  12. 12. 2013 - MBAA InternationalWhat do these companies have in common?
  13. 13. 2013 - MBAA International Why?Businesses expect that Colleges of BusinessAdministration have taught their students to solveproblems, make decisions, think creatively, and tobe critical thinkers.87% of graduates of Colleges of BusinessAdministration have had NO training in criticalthinking skills, which includes problem solving,decision making, and creative thinking. DeVore, N. (2008). Critical thinking and better decisions (White Paper): Verge Consulting
  14. 14. 2013 - MBAA International 2012 - Woods-Bagot 66 % 58 % 40 % 30 % 4% 2%Woods-Bagot. (2012). Research study: University graduates dont make the grade. San Francisco,CA: Woods-Bagot.
  15. 15. 2013 - MBAA International 2012 - Woods-BagotSkills or Attributes Demanded by Business Executives Percent of RespondentsProblem Solving 49Collaboration/Ability to Work with Others 43Critical Thinking 36Written Communication Skills 31Open and Responsive to Change 22Leadership Skills 18Ability to Focus 16Independent Thinking 13Responsive to Feedback 13Ability to Innovate 12Social Skills 12Presentation Skills 10Creativity 10Understanding Global Business Issues 8Technology/Social Media Skills 5 Woods-Bagot. (2012). Research study: University graduates dont make the grade. San Francisco,CA: Woods-Bagot.
  16. 16. 2013 - MBAA International Background 2009Quasi-Experimental Study55 Graduating Seniors, College of BusinessAdministration2 Classes of Seniors in Experimental Group1 Class of Seniors in Control Group
  17. 17. 2013 - MBAA International The Three Pillars•  Teaching for Critical Thinking, (Halpern, 1998)•  Cognitive Training Model, (Foshay, Silber and Stelnicki, 2003)•  California Critical Thinking Skills Test, (Facione, Facione, Blohm & Gittens, 2008.)
  18. 18. 2013 - MBAA International CCTST Results Control (N=21) Experimental (N=31) CCTST Pre-Test Post-Test Pre-Test Post-TestPercentile * 36.2 36.3 50.7Total Score * 14.5 14.6 16.9Analysis * 3.8 4.0 4.4Inference * 6.9 6.8 8.3Evaluation * 3.8 3.6 4.3Inductive * 8.2 8.1 9.4Deductive * 6.3 6.1 7.5
  19. 19. 2013 - MBAA International Huge Improvement in Critical Thinking Knowledge, Skills, & Strategies CCTST: T-Tests 5.000 4.500 4.000 3.500 3.000T-Test 2.500 2.000 α=1.697 1.500 1.000 0.500 0.000 Total 4YrPctl Analysis Inference Evaluation Inductive Deductive CCTST Paramter
  20. 20. 2013 - MBAA International T-Tests of Chapter Pre-Test/Post Test Chapter T-Score Analysis t=Critical t=.025 t=.01 t=.005 t<.005 6 5 4t-Score 3 2 1 0 Chapter1 Chapter2 Chapter3 Chapter4 Chapter5 Chapter6 Chapter7 Chapter8 Chapter9 Chapter
  21. 21. 2013 - MBAA International Critical Thinking ConclusionCritical Thinking was taughtCritical Thinking was learned.Critical Thinking skills were transferredfrom one domain to another.
  22. 22. 2013 - MBAA International Four Years Later
  23. 23. 2013 - MBAA International Summative SurveyPotential: 163 Graduates 86 Mailing Addresses 112 E-mail Addresses 36 Telephone NumbersActual: 71 Valid Contacts 29 Responders 41% Returns
  24. 24. 2013 - MBAA International Summative Survey Sixteen Questions:2 Screening Questions11 Quantitative (Qualitative) Questions –Likert Scale3 Qualitative Questions
  25. 25. 2013 - MBAA International Summative Survey 7-Point Likert ScalesWorst Worse Bad Neutral Good Better Best1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  26. 26. 2013 - MBAA International Question 3 Question 5 Distribution of Values Distribution of Values 8 8 Mean=4.93 7 7 Mean=5.41 6 6Number of Respondents Number of Responders 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Reponse Numercial Value of Response Question 3: Opinion of CT Course Question 5: Opinion of CT Course before you took it? now? Mean=4.93+1.47 (Z=3.28,p=.0005) Mean=5.40+1.60. Z=4.36,p<.00001 Moderately Positive Very Positive Note: Significantly Different (Z=1.71, p=.045)
  27. 27. 2013 - MBAA International Question 4 Question 6 Distribution of Values Distribution of Values 10 10 Mean=4.67 Mean=5.63 8 8Number of Responders Number of Responders 6 6 4 4 2 2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Response Numerical Value of Response Question 4: Opinion of need for CT Question 6: Opinion of need for CT before you took it? now? Mean=4.67+1.66. Z=2.08, p=.019 Mean=5.63+1.52. Z=5.56, p<.00001 Moderately Positive Extremely Positive Note: Significantly Different (Z=3.00, p=.0013)
  28. 28. 2013 - MBAA International Proficiency in Critical Thinking Skills“... there are several ways persons can be judgedto be more or less proficient in a given CT skill orat the integrated use of related CT skills.“A third way is to query persons and receive theirdescriptions of the procedures and judgments theyare using as they exercise that skill, would use ifthey were to perform that skill, or did use whenthey performed that skill.” Facione, 1990b, p31
  29. 29. 2013 - MBAA InternationalQualitative Confirmation of Critical Thinking•  “Everyone needs to learn critical thinking skills. Our younger generations haveno clue of how to think for themselves. They don’t know how to communicate.How you respond when you are face to face with someone is critical. I’m currentlygoing into Nursing; this field requires a person to use critical thinking.” “I really needed to change the way I thought about life in general. This coursehelped change my life. I returned to school, finished my degree, and now currentlyworking in the medical field that I tried to go into 20 years ago. My criticalthinking skills have helped develop me into a wiser person.”•  “The critical thinking course required much effort on my part. But, as Iprogress through the material, I realized how useful it was, and would make me asmarter decision maker.”•  “Before I took (the) critical thinking course, I was a firm believer that commonsense was something that just could not be taught. After taking the course, I am afirm believer that it can be taught by using good old fashion logic and criticalthinking.”
  30. 30. 2013 - MBAA International Education Question 7 Distribution of Values 7 Mean=5.32 6 5Number of Responders 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Responses with Additional Classes Question 7: Use CT in other Education Courses? Mean=5.32+1.52. Z=3.78, p=.00007 Transfer Occurred: Extremely Positive
  31. 31. 2013 - MBAA InternationalQualitative Confirmation of Critical Thinking•  “I utilized this instruction through my two years at (university) andgraduated Summa Cum Laude, with a 4.0 GPA.”•  “I wish I could say every class required it, but one class that helped wasEconomics.”•  “One class that used some more thought to solve problems is Statistics.”•  “... any student can benefit from the critical thinking techniques foundin this course. I recommend the instruction of critical thinking to allstudents wishing to become better decision makers.”
  32. 32. 2013 - MBAA International Workplace Question 8 Distribution of Values 12 10 Mean=5.26Number of Respondents 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Response Question 8: Use CT at Work/in Career? Mean=5.26+1.56. Z=4.20, p<.000003 Transfer Occurred: Extremely Positive
  33. 33. 2013 - MBAA InternationalQualitative Confirmation of Critical Thinking•  “To my surprise, forecasting and inventory control and things of thatnature requires a lot of critical thinking skills.”•  “It helps deciding many factors such as staffing needs, budgets,purchasing, and many more aspects of my job.”•  “Yes (I use CT at work), I sometimes have to do projections in our FixedAsset System, and the software lets me do a trial and error approach todifferent ‘what if’ scenarios.”•  “The best part of the critical thinking was being able to go through aprocess to solve problems that required more thought than just assumingthe right answer.”
  34. 34. 2013 - MBAA International Daily Life Question 9 Distribution of Values 10 9 Mean=5.78 8 7Number of Respondents 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Response Question 9: Use CT in Daily Life? Mean=5.78+1.12. Z=8.24, p<<.000001 Transfer Occurred: CT used frequently!
  35. 35. 2013 - MBAA International Interactions with Others Question 10 Distribution of Values 8 Mean=5.26 7 6Number of Responders 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Response Question 10: CT Affected Interactions with Others? Mean=5.26+1.58. Z=4.13, p<.000005 Transfer Occurred: Strong Positive Effect!
  36. 36. 2013 - MBAA International Perceptions of the World Question 11 Distribution of Values 10 9 Mean=5.48 8 7Number of Responses 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Responses Question 11: CT Affected Perception of the World? Mean=5.48+1.55. Z=4.96, p<.000003 Transfer Occurred: Strong Positive Effect!
  37. 37. 2013 - MBAA International Perceptions of Self Question 12 Distribution of Values 7 Mean=4.85 6 5Number of Responders 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Response Question 12: CT Affected Perception of Yourself? Mean=4.85+1.85. Z=2.39, p=.008 Transfer Occurred: Moderately Positive
  38. 38. 2013 - MBAA International Changed You in Any Way Question 13 Distribution of Values 12 Mean=4.93 10Number of Responders 8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Value of Response Question 13: CT Affected Changed You in Any Way? Mean=4.93+1.71. Z=2.82, p=.002 Transfer Occurred: Moderately Positive
  39. 39. 2013 - MBAA International Logical DilemmaGraduates Strong Agree: 1. Use Critical Thinking in Daily Life 2. Use Critical Thinking in Interactions with Others 3. Critical Thinking Has Changed Their Perceptions of the WorldYet, Graduates Moderately Agree: 1. Critical Thinking Changed Their Perception of Self only Slightly 2. Critical Thinking Changed Them only Slightly
  40. 40. 2013 - MBAA International Can both be true?Is there a statistical difference between Questions9-11 and Questions 12 and 13?
  41. 41. 2013 - MBAA International Questions 9-11 vs Questions 12 & 13Question 9: M=5.78 Question 12: M=4.85Question 10: M=5.26 Question 13: M=4.93Question 11: M=5.48 Is there a difference between them or not?
  42. 42. 2013 - MBAA International Difference between the Means Question 9 v 12: M=0.93 Z=4.29, p<.000003 Question 9 v 13: M=0.85 Z=3.94, p=.000005 Question 11 v 12: M=0.63 Z=2.11, p=.017 Question 11 v 13: M=0.55 Z=1.88, p=.034 Yes!Question 9 is significantly different from Questions 12 and 13.Question 11 is significantly different from Questions 12 and 13
  43. 43. 2013 - MBAA International Cognitive Dissonance?1. Changes in themselves were so slow and gradualthat they haven’t noticed?2. Perceive changes, but haven’t analyzed themintrospectively?3. Modesty, false modesty, or reticence to admit tochange?4. Necessary price to pay, but not willing to admit toit?5. Embarrassment?
  44. 44. 2013 - MBAA InternationalQualitative Confirmation of Critical Thinking•  “It helps me look outside the box for other answers/solutions to decisions I need tomake.”•  “I see the world differently. Instead of going for the surface, I tend to go deeper andlook to the core”•  “It usually only takes me a moment to recognize when someone lacks the ability torespond with a logical reply.”•  “I am not saying that I am not naïve anymore, but I know I am a lot less naïve now.”•  “I try to analyze a situation from a different point of view when necessary.”•  “I have always been known as a person who thinks a lot what to do before I do things,but after I took this course it had help me a lot. I not only think before I do things, butnow I think everything in a different perspective.”•  “The best part of the critical thinking treatment was breaking apart ideas that wereheld to be ‘truth’ and finding out there are holes in that belief and possibly no validityto them.”
  45. 45. 2013 - MBAA International Aggregate Distribution of Aggregate Values (243 Responses) 70 Mean=5.22 60 50Number of Responders 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Numerical Responses Aggregate of All Questions Mean=5.22+1.57. Z=12.07, p<<.000001 Transfer Occurred: Very Positive Results!
  46. 46. 2013 - MBAA International Summation of Values Mean SD Z-Score Cohen’s D Q3 4.93 1.47 Z=3.28, p=.0005 .63 (Medium) Q4 4.67 1.66 Z=2.08, p=01.9 .40 (Medium) Q5 5.41 1.52 Z=4.57, p<.00003 .88 (Large) Q6 5.63 1.52 Z=5.56, p<.00003 1.07 (V. Large) Q7 5.32 1.52 Z=3.78, p=.00007 .87 (Large) Q8 5.26 1.56 Z=4.20, p<.00003 .81 (Large) Q9 5.78 1.12 Z=8.24, p<<.00003 1.59 (Huge) Q10 5.26 1.58 Z=4.13, p<.00003 .80 (Large) Q11 5.48 1.55 Z=4.96, p<.00003 .95 (Large) Q12 4.85 1.85 Z=2.38, p=.008 .46 (Medium) Q13 4.93 1.59 Z=2.82, p=.002 .54 (Medium)Aggregate 5.18 1.59 Z=12.81, p<<.00003 .74 (Large)
  47. 47. 2013 - MBAA International Conclusion1.  Graduates report extremely high utilization of critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies in their personal lives, their jobs, and their education.2.  The pedagogical treatment was extremely successful in transferring the knowledge, skills, and strategies of critical thinking from the classroom into the graduates’ lives.3.  Since the goal of education is transfer, then the critical thinking pedagogical treatment is an outstanding success.
  48. 48. 2013 - MBAA International Final Thoughts
  49. 49. 2013 - MBAA International1. Critical Thinking isn’t easy.2. No, you are not a good CriticalThinker.3. Learning to be a Critical Thinker ishard.4. Learning to be a Critical Thinkertakes time and effort on the learner’spart, regardless of one’s terminaldegree.
  50. 50. Corporate Development Associates Critical Thinking for the New Economy1. Critical Thinking can be taught and learned in asingle, stand-alone class.2. Your employees are not trained in criticalthinking skills.3. Corporate Development Associates hasdeveloped a series of courses to teach youremployees to think critically.4. If you or your company are interested in learningto solve problems more easily, make betterdecisions, or to become more innovative, talk withCorporate Development Associates, Inc.
  51. 51. 2013 - MBAA International Ooops!Please, let the elephant outof the refrigerator.It has a meeting to attend.
  52. 52. 2013 - MBAA International The End
  53. 53. Critical Thinking for the New Economy Corporate Development Associates, Inc. 2201 S. Highland Ave Lombard, IL 60148 Tel. 630-261-1884 Fax. 630-261-1886 JRReid@Corpdevelopmentassoc.com
  54. 54. 2013 - MBAA International Bibliography•  Abbate, S. (2008). Online case studies and critical thinking in nursing. Unpublished Doctoral, Northern IllinoisUniversity, DeKalb.•  Anderson, P., & Reid, J. (2010, March). An application of Halperns Teaching for Critical Thinking in the businessschool classroom. In J. Teahan (Ed.), Proceedings of the North American Management Society 2010 Annual Meeting.Chicago, IL: North American Management Society.•  Anderson, P., & Reid, J. (2011, December). Collaboration of research and teaching produces a new course of studyin critical thinking. In N. Callaos, H.-W. Chu, J. Horne & F. Welsch (Eds.), International Symposium on IntegratingResearch, Education, and Problem Solving. Orlando, Fl: International Conference on Education, Informatics, andCybernetics.•  Anderson, P., & Reid, J. (2011, October). Critical thinking: The foundation of excellence in business education.Paper presented at the ABCSP Great Lakes Council of Business Schools and Programs.•  Azevedo, R., & Hadwin, A. (2005). Scaffolding self-regulated learning and metacognition: Implications for thedesign of computer-based scaffolds. Instructional Science, 33(5), 367 - 379. Retrieved November 7, 2007, fromhttp://www.springerlink.com/content/p8877412u104472r/•  Azevedo, R., Moos, D. C., Greene, J. A., Winters, F. I., & Cromley, J. G. (2008). Why is externally-facilitatedregulated learning more effective than self-regulated learning with hypermedia? Educational Technology Researchand Development, 56(1), 45 - 72. Retrieved January 4, 2008, fromhttp://www.springerlink.com/content/g5657v0h3k048450/?p=0dcb486e905a41daafae813ee2b67b0b&pi=3
  55. 55. 2013 - MBAA International Bibliography•  Bloom, P., & Weisberg, D. S. (2007). Childhood origins of adult resistance to science. Science, 316(5827), 996-997.Retrieved October 1, 2007, from http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/316/5827/996.•  Board, N. S. (2004). Science and Engineering Indicators 2004. (NSB Publication No. NSB 02-1). Washington, D.C.: NationalScience Foundation.•  Burns, R. (1897). The complete poetical works of Robert Burns. Cambridge, England: Houghton Mifflin & Company.•  Cao, L., & Nietfeld, J. (2007). College students’ metacognitive awareness of difficulties in learning the class content does notautomatically lead to adjustment of study strategies. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 7, 31 - 46.Retrieved November 7, 2007, from http://www.newcastle.edu.au/group/ajedp/Archive/Volume_7/v7-cao-nietfeld.pdf•  Case, R. (2005). Bringing critical thinking to the main stage. Education Canada, 45(2), 45-46. Retrieved October 1, 2007,fromhttp://partneraccess.oclc.org/wcpa/servlet/OUFrame?url=http%3A%2F%2Ffirstsearch.oclc.org%2FWebZ%2FDARead%3Fsessionid%3D0%3Akey%3D0013-1253%2528*%252945%253A2%253C*%253E*%25260%25263b5cd96dd8192d797d80faab70f718a00bfba6d124a2eecf1c4c5e1a235ccdd5%26isFromResolver%3Dtrue%26resolverLinkApi%3Ddaa&title=%26OpenUrl.FullText%3B&sessionid=CE3AB506671AF87A0354D1FDB653B7B4.one•  Chen, C.-H., & Bradshaw, A. C. (2007). The effect of web-based question prompts on scaffolding knowledge integration andill-structured problem solving. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 39(4), 359-375. Retrieved October 27, 2007,from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspxdirect=true&db=tfh&AN=25612943&site=ehost-live•  Clark, R., Yates, K., Early, S., & Moulton, K. (2006). An analysis of the failure of electronic media and discovery-basedlearning: Evidence for the performance benefits of guided training methods. In K. Silber & A. W. Foshay (Eds.), Handbook ofTraining and Improving Workplace Performance (Vol. 1). Somerset, NJ: Wiley.•  Combs, R. (1992). Developing critical reading skills through whole language strategies. (ERIC Documentation ReproductionService No. ED353556)
  56. 56. 2013 - MBAA International Bibliography•  Dunning, D., Heath, C., & Suls, J. (2004). Flawed self-assessment: Implications for health, education and the workplace.Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(3), 60-106. Retrieved Match 4, 2012, fromhttp://faculty-gsb.stanford.edu/heath/documents/PSPI%20-%20Biased%20Self%20Views.pdf•  Ehrlinger, J., Johnson, K., Banner, M., Dunning, D., & Kruger, J. (2008). Why the unskilled are unaware: Furtherexplorations of (absent) self-insight among the incompetent. Organizational Behavior in Human Decision Processes, 105(2),98-121. Retrieved March 4, 2012, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2702783/pdf/nihms38914.pdf•  Facione, N. C., Facione, P., Blohm, S. W., & Gittens, C. (2008). California Critical Thinking Skills Test: Test manual.Millbrae, CA: Insight Assessement, Inc.•  Facione, P. (1990a). The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and manual. Millbrae, CA: The California Academic Press.•  Facione, P. (1990b). Critical thinking: A statement of expert consensus for purposes of educational assessment andinstruction. Research findings and recommendations. Newark, Delaware: American Philosophical Association.•  Facione, P. (2007). Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts. In Insight Assessment: California Academic Press.•  Facione, P., Facione, N. C., & Giancarlo, C. A. (2000). The disposition toward critical thinking: Its character, measurement,and relationship to critical thinking skill. Informal Logic, 20(1), 61 - 84. Retrieved November 8, 2007, fromhttp://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/J_Infrml_Ppr%20_2000%20-%20Disp%20&%20Skls.PDF•  Flawn, T. (2008). Foundations for success: The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, D.C.:Department of Education.•  Foshay, W., Silber, K., & Stelnicki, M. (2003). Writing training materials that work: How to train anyone to do anything.New York, NY: John Wiley.
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