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Assessing the role of color cues and people’s

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Assessing the role of color cues and people’s

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Assessing the role of color cues and people’s

  1. 1. Assessing the Role of Color Cues and People’s Beliefs about Color-Flavor Associations on the Discrimination of the Flavor of Sugar-Coated Chocolates Carmel A. Levitan, Massimiliano Zampini, Ryan Li and Charles Spence Chamse.oxfordjournals.org Norihiro Takeda 1Color-Flavor Associations
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Color-Flavor Associations 2
  3. 3. Purpose Flavor Color Olfactory Gustatory 3Color-Flavor Associations
  4. 4. Experiments with Smarties • 8 different colors • 2 flavors (milk chocolates & orange flavored) • Taste 2 Smarties • Judge whether their flavor was the same or different • Sighted and blindfolded Color-Flavor Associations 4
  5. 5. Predictions before Two Experiments 1. Discrimination accuracy (whether same/diff.) should be worse when the participants are blindfolded 2. The perceived distinctiveness of the orange flavor should decrease when the participants are blindfolded 3. The judgment on 2 Smarties should depends on the participants prior beliefs Color-Flavor Associations 5
  6. 6. EXPERIMENT 1 Color-Flavor Associations 6
  7. 7. Methods • Participants – 16 untrained undergraduates from the University of Oxford – 8 men & 8 women – Mean age = 20 years Color-Flavor Associations 7
  8. 8. Methods • Apparatus & Materials – Questionaire 1. How familiar do you consider yourself with Smarties?(1-5) 2. Smarties come in 8 different colors. Do you think you can taste the difference between them? Please give the details. – Smarties produced for the UK market – 3 different colors (orange, red, green) Color-Flavor Associations 8
  9. 9. Procedure • 2 experimental sessions (sighted/blind folded) on separate days • 5 trials with each of 6 possible color pairings Color-Flavor Associations 9 x 5 trials
  10. 10. Procedure eat 1st Smarty rinse the mouth out with the water eat 2nd Smarty answer “same”or”different” rate how confident they were in their judgment (1=least confident, 5=most confident) Color-Flavor Associations 10
  11. 11. Results • Answers for the questionnaire – 13/16 (81%) were fairly familiar with S – 10 were rated as believing that the orange S were distinctive – 6 were rated as believing that certain non-orange S were distinctive Color-Flavor Associations 11
  12. 12. Results • Analysis on the experiment – Less accurate when blindfolded Color-Flavor Associations 12
  13. 13. Results • Prior beliefs (non- orange S might have different flavor) influenced on the flavor discrimination – More accurate in the blindfolded condition Color-Flavor Associations 13
  14. 14. Results • Participants were more confident of their responses when they could see S than when blindfolded Color-Flavor Associations 14
  15. 15. Discussion on Experiment 1 • People’s specific color-flavor associations significantly affected their flavor discrimination responses • A number of the participants incorrectly believed that certain non-orange S had a distinctive flavor • Others were apparently aware that all non- orange S tasted the same Color-Flavor Associations 15
  16. 16. EXPERIMENT 2 Color-Flavor Associations 16
  17. 17. Methods • Participants – 336 untrained students of Oxford Uni. (not necessarily UK nationals) • Apparatus & Materials – Questionnaire 1. How familiar do you consider yourself to be with S (1-5)? 2. S come in 8 different colors. Have you ever noticed any colors tasting different? Color-Flavor Associations 17
  18. 18. Methods • Apparatus & Materials – S produced in the UK – Distinctive orange flavor – S produced in Germany – Same flavor in each color Color-Flavor Associations 18
  19. 19. Methods • Procedure – red & orange tasted different (N=108) – red & orange tasted same (N=108) – 2 oranges tasted different (N=60) – 2oranges tasted same (N=60) • Responds 1. The 2 Smarties definitely tasted the same 2. Probably tasted the same 3. Probably tasted different 4. Definitely tasted different Color-Flavor Associations 19
  20. 20. Results • 200/336 (60%) considered to be fairly familiar with S • 0 = definitely tasting the same • 10 = definitely tasting different Color-Flavor Associations 20
  21. 21. GENERAL DISCUSSION Color-Flavor Associations 21
  22. 22. • Food coloring can exert a powerful influence over people’s flavor discrimination performance Color-Flavor Associations 22

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