DEFINITIONThe strong, affectional tie we have with thespecial people in our lives that leads us to feelpleasure and happiness when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness during times of stress. (Berk, 2003)
John Bowlby’s Research• Found that the quality of attachment to the caregiver has profound implications on the child’s feelings of security and the capacity to form trusting relationships.• The infant’s relationship with the parents begins as set of innate signals.• Over time, the relationship will become more affectionate supported by emotional and cognitive development of a child.
PHASE 1 (Birth to 6 weeks)• Stage of built-in signals.• Build relationship through smiling, grasping, crying and gazing at the caregivers.• Response from the caregivers will bring about the feeling of security for the infants.• Infants have recognised their own mother’s smell and voice.• BUT, not yet attached to her as they do not mind being left with any unfamiliar adult.
PHASE II (6 Weeks to 6-8 months)• Respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger.• Learn that their own actions affect the behaviour of those around them.• Begin to develop trust.• Still they do not protest when being separated from the caregiver.
PHASE III (6-8 months to 18 months – 2 years)• The attachment to the familiar caregiver is evident.• Display separation anxiety which depends on the situation.• Protesting the parents’ departure and try hard to maintain their presence.• Use the caregivers as a secure base to explore their surroundings.
PHASE IV(18 months to 2 years and on)• Rapid growth helps to understand some of the factors that influence parents’ coming and going and to predict their return.• Result : separation protest declines.• Start to negotiate with the caregiver.
EFFECT OF THE PHASES• According to John Bowlby : – Children will construct an affectional tie with the caregiver – This relationship will serve as a secure base in the parents’ absence. – Caregiver’s image becomes a model, or guide for all future relationships.
WHY Do We Measure?• Quality of attachment differs from child to child.• Even though children are attached to their caregivers, still have various reactions from the children regarding this relationship.• Some of them appear secure and confident in the presence of caregiver while the others seem anxious and uncertain about the relationship.
HOW Do We Measure?• Through an experiment named as “Strange Situation” by Mary Ainsworth (Berk, 2003). – If the development of attachment going well, children should use their parents as a secure base from which to explore an unfamiliar situation or place. – Feel more ease with their caregivers.
EPISODES EVENTS ATTACHMENT BEHAVIOURS OBSERVED Experimenter introduces parent and baby to 1) playroom and then leaves. Parent is seated while baby plays with toys. Parent as a secure base. 2) Stranger enters, is seated and talks to the parents. Reaction to unfamiliar 3) adult. Parent leaves the room. Stranger responds to baby Separation anxiety. 4) and offers comfort if upset. Parent returns, greets baby and offers comfort if Reaction to reunion. 5) necessary. Stranger leave room. Parents leave room. Separation anxiety. 6) Stranger enters room and offers comfort. Ability to soothed by 7) stranger. Parent returns, greet baby, offers comfort if Reaction to reunion. 8) necessary, and tries to regain baby interest in toys.
FOUR VARIATIONS OF ATTACHMENT• Reflects the greatest • Use parents as a secure insecurity. base.• Have dazed facial expression/frozen postures. DISORIENTED SECURE RESISTANT AVOIDANT• Keep crying and cling after picked up • Seem unresponsive to• Cannot be comforted easily. parents